Hassanal Bolkiah
  • حسن البلقية
Hassanal Bolkiah in 2023
Sultan of Brunei
Reign5 October 1967 – present
Coronation1 August 1968
PredecessorOmar Ali Saifuddien III
Heir apparentAl-Muhtadee Billah
Other positions
Prime Minister of Brunei
Assumed office
1 January 1984
DeputyAl-Muhtadee Billah
Preceded byOffice established
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Assumed office
22 October 2015
Preceded byMohamed Bolkiah
Minister of Finance and Economy
Assumed office
23 February 1997
Preceded byJefri Bolkiah
In office
1 January 1984 – 20 October 1986
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byJefri Bolkiah
Minister of Defence
Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces
Assumed office
7 September 1986
Preceded byOmar Ali Saifuddien III
BornHassanal Bolkiah Muiz'zaddin Wad'daulah
(1946-07-15) 15 July 1946 (age 77)
Istana Darussalam, Brunei Town, British Protectorate of Brunei
(now Brunei)
(m. 1965)
(m. 1981; div. 2003)
(m. 2005; div. 2010)
Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar 'Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien
FatherSultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III
MotherPengiran Anak Damit
ReligionSunni Islam
EducationSultan Omar Ali Saifuddien College
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
Military career
Allegiance Brunei
Service/branch Royal Brunei Armed Forces
Years of active service1965–present
Rank Field Marshal

Hassanal Bolkiah ibni Omar Ali Saifuddien III[1] (Jawi: حسن البلقية; born 15 July 1946) is Sultan of Brunei since 1967 and the prime minister of Brunei since independence from the United Kingdom in 1984.

He is one of the few absolute monarchs in the world. The eldest son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Damit, he is the 29th sultan to ascend to the Bruneian throne, following the abdication of his father in 1967. The sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world. As of 2023, Hassanal Bolkiah is said to have a net worth of $30 billion.[2] He is the world's longest-reigning current monarch[3] and the longest-serving current head of state. On 5 October 2017, Bolkiah celebrated his Golden Jubilee to mark the 50th year of his reign.[4]

Early life and education

The sultan was born during the reign of his uncle Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin on 15 July 1946, in Istana Darussalam, Brunei Town (now called Bandar Seri Begawan) as Pengiran Muda Mahkota (Crown Prince) Hassanal Bolkiah. His father, the Bendahara at that time, was the heir presumptive of Brunei which put Hassanal Bolkiah second in line to the throne at the time of his birth. The sultan received high school education at Victoria Institution in Kuala Lumpur, after which he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom, graduating in 1967.[5]

Notably, the 2nd Gurkha Rifles were dispatched to Brunei in 1962, the year the Brunei Revolt began. Digby Willoughby and a small squad of Gurkha troops helped to rescue his father and him from their palace, and his father was eternally grateful for Willoughby's actions on that day.[6]


Hassanal Bolkiah with President Barack Obama in 2015
Hassanal Bolkiah with Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte and Indonesian President Joko Widodo in 2017

Crown Prince Hassanal Bolkiah became the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam on 5 October 1967, after his father abdicated. His coronation was held on 1 August 1968, and made him the Yang di-Pertuan (Head of State) of Brunei. Like his father, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, of which Brunei was a protectorate until 1984.[7][8] Under his reign, Brunei made several diplomatic milestones such as being a part of both ASEAN and United Nations (UN) in 1984.[9]

National Development Plans

See also: Wawasan Brunei 2035

A budget of B$500 million was allotted for the Third National Development Plan (RKN3), which was enacted between 1975 and 1979. The following objectives were given priority in the formulation and design of the plan to maintain a high level of employment and diversify the economy through accelerated development of agriculture and industry. With a budget of B$2.2 billion, the RKN4 (1980–1984) placed a strong emphasis on advancing the economic, social, and cultural well-being of the populace. With a budget of $B3.7 billion, the RKN5 (1986–1990) aimed to offer the numerous services and infrastructure necessary to raise peoples' standards of living while advancing the nation's economic and social growth.[10]

With a budget of B$5.5 billion, the RKN6 (1991–1995) intended to address the demands of the country, particularly in enhancing the standard of living and quality of life of its citizens as well as further bolstering the national economy. The RKN7 (1996–2000) of a 20-year long-term development plan that began in 1985 and has a total budget of B$7.2 billion is the seventh national development plan. The plan aimed to raise the nation's economic achievement while continuing to significantly improve the quality of life for the populace.[10]

The RKN theme of "Knowledge and Innovation, Increase Productivity, Accelerated Economic Growth" centered the RKN10 (2012–2017) on developmental initiatives to achieve faster and higher economic growth. The RKN11 (2018–2023), whose theme is "Increased Non-Oil and Gas Sector Output as Catalysts for Economic Growth," further integrated development efforts in the production of the non-oil and gas sector.[10]

Independence of Brunei

Main article: National Day (Brunei)

Brunei became independent from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984, following nearly 20 years of being a protectorate. He assumed control of Brunei as an independent country under a "democratic" monarch,[11] as their Prime Minister.[12] Hassanal Bolkiah recited the Declaration of Independence at midnight.[13][14]

The time has now arrived when Brunei Darussalam will resume full international responsibility as a sovereign and independent nation in the community of nations.

— Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, The Scoop 1 January 1984

Roles in Government

Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the sultan is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers since 1962. On 9 March 2006, the Sultan was reported to have amended Brunei's constitution to make himself infallible under Bruneian law.[15] Bolkiah, as Prime Minister, is also the head of government. In addition, he currently holds the portfolios of Minister of Defence, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance.[16] As Minister of Defence, he is therefore the Supreme Commander of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, as well as an Honorary General in the British and Indonesian armed forces, and also an Honorary Admiral in the Royal Navy. He is also the appointed Inspector General of Police (IGP) of the Royal Brunei Police Force.[17] He has recently favoured Brunei government democratisation and declared himself Prime Minister and President. In 2004, the Legislative Council, which had been dissolved since 1962, was reopened.[18]

On 22 October 2015, Hassanal Bolkiah appointed himself as the country's Minister of Foreign Affairs,[19] thus replacing his younger brother Prince Mohamed Bolkiah.[20] He was chairman of Summit APEC Leaders in 2000 when Brunei Darussalam hosted the summit.[21] Hassanal Bolkiah was also the chairman of ASEAN Summit in 2013 and 2021, when Brunei Darussalam became the Chair of ASEAN Summits and its Related Meetings.[22][23] Additionally, he is also the current Minister of Finance since 23 February 1997.[19] He had previously held the post from 1984 to 1986 before it was taken over by his brother Prince Jefri Bolkiah.[24][25]

Hassanal Bolkiah said in front of world leaders on 30 September 2015 that the UN has no equivalent and that its 70-year existence is proof of its significance, despite what some may say about its efficacy. In order to eradicate poverty, combat inequality, and combat climate change over the following 15 years, all 193 UN Member States endorsed the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, to which he was alluding. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states in his area, he said, share the values of territorial integrity, non-interference, the rule of law, and good governance, which serve as a framework for attempts to increase cooperation for peace. He said that one method to do this is through cultural exchanges to promote more empathy and understanding among people, which may also help avert future conflicts.[26]

Melayu Islam Beraja

Hassanal Bolkiah declared Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB) as the national concept. It serves as a pillar of life for the citizens of the nation, regardless of religion, culture, or social background; the monarchy system, Malay cultural values, and Islamic religious teachings have all contributed to the nation's historical heritage that is still upheld today. They have also served as a fortress to protect Brunei from outside influences.[27] Bolkiah addressed the United Nations General Assembly on Brunei Darussalam's admission to the United Nations in September 1984. In 1991, he introduced a conservative ideology to Brunei called Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy, MIB), which presents the monarchy as the defender of the faith.[28]

Laws of Brunei

In 2014, Hassanal Bolkiah declared the implementation of strict Islamic criminal penalties, moving forward with proposals that prompted both rare domestic opposition to the opulently wealthy ruler and also worldwide outrage. The small sultanate's plans for the sharia penalties, which would eventually include flogging, amputation of limbs, and death by stoning, sparked outrage on social networking sites. Following the unexplained delay of the penalties' anticipated implementation on 22 April 2014, which prompted speculation that he was hesitant, uncertainty surrounded their execution. However, he stated in his proclamation that the action was "a must" in light of Islam, dismissing the "never-ending theories" that the sharia's penalties were harsh in remarks that were obviously directed at critics.[29][30]

Hassanal Bolkiah also banned public celebrations of Christmas in 2015, including wearing hats or clothes that resemble Santa Claus. The ban only affects local Muslims.[31] Christians are still allowed to celebrate Christmas. According to Bruneian Bishop and Cardinal Cornelius Sim, on 25 December 2015, there was an estimated 4,000 out of 18,000 Bruneian Catholics, mainly Chinese and expats living in the country, who attended mass on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. While there was no absolute ban on celebrations, there was a ban affecting Christmas decorations in public places, especially shopping malls; the ban did not affect small stores or private residences including churches.[clarification needed][32]

Other works

Hassanal Bolkiah gave a contribution of B$210,000 to the United Nations International School (UNIS). Pengiran Bahrin, his special envoy, presented the gift to Refauddin Ahmad, chairman of the board of UNIS, on the occasion of the United Nations' 40th anniversary and the first anniversary of Brunei's membership.[33] He ordered the creation of a foundation called as the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation in connection with the Silver Jubilee Celebration of Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah assuming the throne on 5 October 1992.[34][35]


Further information: Human rights in Brunei

Shannon Marketic Incident

In 1997, Shannon Marketic sued Jefri Bolkiah, Prince of Brunei and younger brother of Hassanal Bolkiah, claiming that she and other women were hired for promotional work but instead held as a "virtual prisoner", drugged and sexually abused.[36][37][38][39] The sultan denied the claims.[38] Marketic's lawsuit named Miss USA 1997 Brandi Sherwood as also being a victim, however Sherwood declined to file her own lawsuit.[40] After 18 months of litigation, a judge at the US court dismissed the suit on the grounds that the sultan had sovereign immunity as head of state.[41][42]

AMEDEO crisis

Hassanal had open disagreements with his brother, Jefri Bolkiah, who owned a network of companies and investment vehicles under the name "Amedeo" run by his son, Prince Hakim, which was used to buy the luxury goods company Asprey and build an amusement park and other projects in Brunei.[43] In July 1998 the Amedeo group collapsed under US$10 billion in debt.[44] Between 1983 and mid-1998 some US$40 billion of what were called "special transfers" were made from the accounts of the Brunei Investment Agency (BIA).[45] An independent investigation was undertaken into the circumstances of these special transfers, concluding that in round figures, US$14.8 billion were paid to the accounts of Prince Jefri apart from the US$8 billion to accounts of the sultan and US$3.8 billion for Government purposes. The destination, purpose and recipients of the remaining transfers were not established.[45] Due to the secretive nature of the state and the blurred lines as to where the royal family's finances and the state finances began and ended, establishing the true course of events is very difficult.[43]

Prince Jefri was accused of misappropriating state funds to pay for his own personal investments, bought through BIA and Amedeo companies and removed from his position as head of BIA.[46][47] In February 2000, the Bruneian government attempted to obtain a freezing order on Prince Jefri's overseas assets, which led to him countersuing in New York.[46] Following protracted negotiations a settlement agreement was signed by the Prince in May 2000,[45] the terms of which were never made public.[44] However, Prince Jefri claimed assurances were made to him by the sultan with regards to keeping certain properties to maintain his lifestyle, which BIA denied.[44][45] In accordance with the settlement agreement signed in 2000, the prince began to return his assets to the state, including more than 500 properties, both in Brunei and abroad, about 2500 cars, 100 paintings, five boats, and nine aircraft.[44] In 2001 ten thousand lots of Prince Jefri's possessions went to auction.[48]

However, the BIA alleged that the Prince failed to uphold the agreement by failing to disclose all his accounts, and allowing money to be taken from frozen accounts,[49] and restarted legal proceedings to gain full control of the Prince's assets. After a number of appeals,[50] this finally reached the Privy Council in London, which can serve as Brunei's highest court of appeal as a result of Brunei's former protectorate status.[51] The Privy Council rejected Prince Jefri's evidence, describing his contention that the agreement allowed for him to retain a number of properties as "simply incredible",[52] and ruled in favour of the Government of Brunei and the BIA; consequently the Prince's appeal was dismissed and he was ordered to return the rest of his assets to Brunei.[45] The decision of the Privy Council did not end the litigation between Prince Jefri and the BIA. The BIA re-opened proceedings in Malaysia and the Cayman Islands, resulting in the BIA gaining control over the Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles and The New York Palace Hotel in Manhattan.[53]

The BIA also re-opened collateral litigation in the High Court of England and Wales. After winning before the Privy Council, the BIA asked the court to determine whether Prince Jefri should be held in contempt of court for allegedly making misstatements in his listing of assets. The contempt proceeding was scheduled for a hearing in June 2008, but the Prince did not attend, instead going to Paris.[49][54] Judge Peter Smith did not rule on whether Prince Jefri was in contempt, but did issue a warrant for his arrest.[55] As of November 2010, the warrant still appears to be in place, meaning the Prince will be arrested if he enters the UK.[56]

As of October, 2009, Prince Jefri appears to have been allowed back to Brunei. He is not back in any official government role but retains all his royal titles and decorations and remains in the royal protocol order. He is seen at major national functions like the national teachers day celebrations, the sultan's birthday and at the National Day Celebrations. His most recent appearance was at The Legco (Legislative Council) opening ceremony in March 2012.[57]

Anti-LGBT and death by stoning legislation

Main article: LGBT rights in Brunei

As Prime Minister, Bolkiah has spearheaded legislation that would introduce capital punishment for homosexuality and adultery, by stoning, effective from 3 April 2019. This sparked international protests.[58] The policy resulted in calls for boycotts of numerous companies owned by the Brunei Royal Family, notably the Dorchester Collection, a group of well-known hotels owned by the sultan in the US and Europe.[59]

The sultan, via his Brunei Investment Agency (BIA) that owns the Dorchester Collection hotels, also raised concerns abroad in April 2014 after he implemented a Sharia law penal code. The code included death by stoning, the severing of limbs, and flogging for crimes in Brunei that included abortion, adultery, and same-sex sexual acts. None of these were exempted from Sharia law, regardless of a person's social class, although the law was applied only to acts committed in Brunei itself. When the sultan made his announcement, entertainers such as George Clooney, Elton John, and Ellen DeGeneres called for a boycott of all hotels associated with him.[60][61][62]

In protest, a United States national LGBT advocacy organization, the Gill Action Fund, canceled its reservation to hold a conference of major donors at the Beverly Hills Hotel and demanded a refund of its deposit. The hotel management responded by issuing a statement asserting that it does not discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation.[63] Fashion designers Brian Atwood and Peter Som subsequently called for wider protests, urging the fashion industry to boycott all of the hotels owned by the Dorchester Collection.[64]

In January 2013, the Royal College of General Practitioners designated the sultan the first Companion of the college for services to healthcare in Brunei and abroad.[65] In April 2019, the RCGP withdrew this honour in light of new anti-LGBT laws supported by the sultan which are not in concert with the organisation's values.[66]

Due to the international condemnation of the legislation, Bolkiah announced that he would extend a moratorium on capital punishment for homosexuality and ratify the United Nations Convention Against Torture.[67][68][69]

Car collection controversy

The sultan once owned one of the largest private car collections in the world with about 2,500 cars[70] which his brother Jefri Bolkiah bought for himself, the sultan, and other members of the royal family to entertain their car passion. The car collection and Prince Jefri's other indulgences cost billions of US dollars, and ultimately landed him in trouble and the royal family in financial crisis. The car collection was left abandoned; most of the non-garaged cars were beyond saving, the rest were auctioned.[71]

Personal life


The sultan married his first cousin and first wife, Princess Pengiran Anak Saleha, who later became the Raja Isteri (Queen) at Istana Darul Hana on 29 July 1965.[72] His former second wife, Mariam Abdul Aziz (the former Pengiran Isteri), was a former flight attendant for the national carrier, Royal Brunei Airlines. He divorced her in 2003, stripping her of all her royal titles. In August 2005, her place was taken by a former Malaysian TV3 presenter, Azrinaz Mazhar Hakim, who is 33 years younger than the sultan. They divorced in 2010, and as with Mariam Abdul Aziz, the sultan stripped her of all titles, honours, and monthly allowance.[73] It was also known that he has an adopted daughter with Mariam, named Afifa Abdullah.[74]


The sultan played polo competitively when he was younger, at one point even representing the Indian Army's 61st Cavalry team. He has a history of attending polo matches frequently in recent years, especially since two of his children started playing competitive polo. A friendly polo match between the Brunei team and the 61st Cavalry Indian Army team was also held a few years ago as part of the sultan's 70th birthday celebrations as a tribute to his long friendship with the latter.[75]

On 9 February 2015, the Sultan led his team to victory in the Richard Mille Exhibition Polo Match. The black team of the monarch defeated the white team 7–5 on the eighth day of the four-team charity competition at the Royal Brunei Polo and Riding Club in Jerudong to advance to the final.[76]

Hassanal Bolkiah likes to play badminton and squash.[77]


Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah is the current Pengiran Muda Mahkota ("crown prince") and the sultan's heir, as the eldest son of the sultan and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha. As of 2012, Hassanal Bolkiah has five sons and seven daughters with his three wives. As of 2020, he also has 18 grandchildren.[78]

Name Birth / Death Marriage Their Children
Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak (Queen Consort) Hajah Saleha (m. 1965–present)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah 26 July 1969 Y.A.M Pengiran Maharaja Setia Laila Di-Raja Sahibul Irshad Pengiran Anak Haji ‘Abdul Rahim bin Pengiran Indera Mahkota Pengiran Anak Dr. Kemaluddin Al-Haj Pengiran Anak Raheemah Sanaul Bolkiah
(b. 28 December 1997)
Pengiran Anak Hariisah Widadul Bolqiah
Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Raqiib
(b. 14 May 2002)
Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Haseeb
(b. 14 January 2006)
Pengiran Anak Raqeeqah Raayatul Bolqiah
(b. 16 December 2009)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Muta-Wakkilah Hayatul Bolkiah 12 October 1971
Pengiran Muda Mahkota Pengiran Muda Haji (Crown Prince) Al-Muhtadee Billah 17 February 1974 Y.T.M Paduka Seri Pengiran Anak Isteri Pengiran Anak Sarah binti Pengiran Haji Salleh Ab-Rahaman Pengiran Muda Abdul Muntaqim
(b. 17 March 2007)
Pengiran Anak Muneerah Madhul Bolkiah
(b. 2 January 2011)
Pengiran Muda Muhammad Aiman
(b. 7 June 2015)
Pengiran Anak Faathimah Az-Zahraa Raihaanul Bolkiah
(b. 1 December 2017)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Majeedah Nuurul Bolkiah 16 March 1976 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Khairul Khalil bin Pengiran Syed Haji Jaafari Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Hafeez
(b. 18 March 2008)
Pengiran Anak Raihaanah Hanaa-Ul Bolqiah
(b. 6 January 2010)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Hajah Hafizah Sururul Bolkiah 12 March 1980 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Haji Muhammad Ruzaini bin Pengiran Dr. Haji Mohammad Yakub Pengiran Anak Muhammad Za'eem
(b. 3 August 2013)
Pengiran Anak Muhammad 'Aamir
(b. 13 February 2015)
Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Hakeem
(b. 19 February 2018)
Pengiran Anak 'Abdul Aleem
(b. 16 June 2020)
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Malik 30 June 1983 Y.A.M Pengiran Anak Isteri Pengiran Raabi'atul Adawiyyah binti Pengiran Haji Bolkiah Pengiran Anak Muthee'ah Raayatul Bolqiah
(b. 2 March 2016)
Pengiran Anak Fathiyyah Rafaahul Bolqiah
(b. 10 March 2018)
Pengiran Anak Khaalishah Mishbaahul Bolqiah
(b. 5 January 2020)
Hajah Mariam (m. 1981–2003; divorced)
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Haji Abdul Azim 29 July 1982 – 24 October 2020 (aged 38)
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Azemah Ni'matul Bolkiah 26 September 1984 Y.A.M Pengiran Muda Bahar bin D.Y.T.M Paduka Seri Pengiran Digadong Sahibul Mal Pengiran Muda Haji Jefri Bolkiah
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Fadzilah Lubabul Bolkiah 23 August 1985 Y.A.M Pengiran Suami Abdullah Nabil Mahmoud Al-Hashimi
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Mateen 10 August 1991 Y.A.M. Pengiran Anak Isteri Anisha Rosnah binti Adam
Azrinaz Mazhar (m. 2005–2010; divorced)[73]
Pengiran Muda (Prince) Abdul Wakeel 1 June 2006
Pengiran Anak Puteri (Princess) Ameerah Wardatul Bolkiah 28 January 2008

Titles, styles and honours

Styles of
The Sultan of Brunei
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleKebawah Duli Tuan Patik

Full title

"His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar ‘Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien, Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam."[79]

(Rumi): "Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar ‘Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien, Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam."[80]
(Jawi): "کباوه دولي يڠ مها موليا ڤادوک سري بݢندا سلطان حاج حسن البلقية معز الدين والدولة ابن المرحوم سلطان حاج عمر علي سيف الدين سعد الخير والدين، سلطان دان يڠ دڤرتوان نݢارا بروني دارالسلام."

Princes Hassanal Bolkiah and Mohamed Bolkiah at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1966

Academic honours

The sultan received an honorary doctorate at the Moscow State University for International Relations (MGIMO), 2005.[81] He previously held an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of Oxford, England, which was returned on 6 May 2019 following a letter from the university (but not revoked),[82] and an Honorary Doctor of Letters degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, which was revoked on 17 April 2019.[83] He received an Honorary Doctorate from the Chulalongkorn University of Thailand. In 2003, he received an Honorary Doctorate Degree in Humanities and Culture from Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia.[84] On 27 January 2005, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws by the National University of Singapore.[85] On 14 April 2011, he was conferred the Honorary Doctorate of Law by King's College London.[86] The scroll for the honorary doctorate was presented by Lord Douro, the chairman of the Council of King's College London. This honorary doctorate was rescinded in 2019 by the Fellowships and Hororary Degrees Committee at King's College London upon recommendation of the Chairman of King's College Council, The Rt Hon the Lord Geidt, in light of the sultan's willingness to inflict death by stoning and other penalties upon homosexuals in Brunei. He was awarded with an honorary doctorate in philosophy and humanities on 21 April 2011 from Universitas Indonesia.[87] On 23 March 2019, he was conferred the Honorary Doctorate Islamic Leadership from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia.[88]

Military honours

The sultan holds an honorary commission in the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom as an Air Chief Marshal.[89] He is also an Honorary Admiral of the Royal Navy and Honorary General of the British Army,[90] a title given to him by Queen Elizabeth II when he took the salute at the passing out parade of the 2001 summer term at Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, the Royal Navy's officer-training school in the United Kingdom. He has an English residence at Binfield Manor in Berkshire.

In April 2008, he was made an honorary member of the Indonesian Satgas Atbara Special Operations Unit. He holds the rank of Honorary Colonel Commandant of Pakistan's Special Service Group (SSG), awarded to him during his visit to the Pakistan Army's SSG headquarters at Cherat with effect from 3 Apr 2005.[91] He possesses red beret and paratrooper wings of the Black Hawk paratroopers, presented to him by the Indian Army during his state visit to India. On 30 January 2009, he was awarded the Order of Lakandula Grand Collar from President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo of Philippines during his state visit to the country.[92]

See also


  1. ^ Full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar 'Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien (Jawi: سلطان حاج حسن البلقية معز الدين والدولة ابن المرحوم سلطان حاج عمر علي سيف الدين سعد الخير والدين)
  2. ^ India Times
  3. ^ "World's second-longest reigning monarch, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, marks golden jubilee in style". Times Now. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Sultan of Brunei's Golden Jubilee celebrated with chariot parade". CNN. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  5. ^ Leifer, Michael (13 May 2013). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Routledge. p. 76. ISBN 9781135129453.
  6. ^ "Negara Brunei Darussalam: obituary 2008. – Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  7. ^ Severino, Rodolfo C.; Thomson, Elspeth; Hong, Mark (2010). Southeast Asia in a New Era: Ten Countries, One Region in ASEAN. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-957-0.
  8. ^ Macmillan, Palgrave (28 February 2017). The Statesman's Yearbook 2017: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. Springer. ISBN 978-1-349-68398-7.
  9. ^ US DOS (30 March 2010). "MOFAT, UN". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei Darussalam. Archived from the original on 18 February 2008.
  10. ^ a b c "RKN JOURNEY". Department of Economic Planning and Statistics.
  11. ^ Bowman, John Stewart (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 413. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.
  12. ^ East, Roger; Thomas, Richard J. (3 June 2014). Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-317-63940-4.
  13. ^ "Brunei Darussalam National Day". aipasecretariat.org. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  14. ^ Scoop, The (23 February 2018). "A look back at Brunei's first National Day". The Scoop. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  15. ^ "Sultan of Brunei Declares Himself Infallible". Hello!. 9 March 2006.
  16. ^ "Ministry of Finance". The Government of Brunei Darussalam Official Website. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  17. ^ "38th ASEANAPOL CONFERENCE, NEGARA BRUNEI DARUSSALAM". www.aseanapol.org. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  18. ^ "Sultan of Brunei reopens parliament". BBC News. 25 September 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  19. ^ a b Mulliner, K. (1985). "Brunei in 1984: Business as Usual after the Gala". Asian Survey. 25 (2): 214–219. doi:10.2307/2644305. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2644305.
  20. ^ "New Cabinet unveiled » Borneo Bulletin Online". New Cabinet unveiled. 8 June 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  21. ^ Brunei Darussalam Newsletter. Department of Information, Prime Minister's Office. 2001. p. 4.
  22. ^ Pero, Siti Darwinda Mohamed (18 June 2019). Leadership in Regional Community-Building: Comparing ASEAN and the European Union. Springer. p. 256. ISBN 978-981-13-7976-5.
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Hassanal BolkiahHouse of BolkiahBorn: 15 July 1946 Bruneian royalty Preceded byAhmad Tajuddin Crown Prince of Brunei 1965–1967 Succeeded byAl-Muhtadee Billah Regnal titles Preceded byOmar Ali Saifuddien III Sultan of Brunei 1967–present IncumbentHeir apparent:Al-Muhtadee Billah Diplomatic posts Preceded byJenny Shipley Chairperson of APEC 2000 Succeeded byJiang Zemin Preceded byTrần Đức Lương Chairperson of ASEAN 2001 Succeeded byHun Sen Preceded byHun Sen Chairperson of ASEAN 2013 Succeeded byThein Sein Preceded byNguyễn Xuân Phúc Chairperson of ASEAN 2021 Next:Hun Sen Records Preceded byBill Gates Richest Person in the World 1997 Succeeded byBill Gates