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Paschim Medinipur
Clockwise from top-left: Nabaratna Temple in Pathra, Takshashila building at IIT Kharagpur, Kurumbera Fort, Vidyasagar University in Midnapore, Gongoni Danga, Kangsabati River
Location of Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal
Location of Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal
Country India
State West Bengal
DivisionMidnapore
HeadquartersMidnapore
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesMedinipur, Ghatal, Jhargram (ST) – all have assembly segments in adjoining districts, Arambagh – with one assembly segment in the district
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesDantan, Keshiary, Kharagpur Sadar, Narayangarh, Sabang, Pingla, Kharagpur, Debra, Daspur, Ghatal, Chandrakona, Garbeta, Salboni, Keshpur, Medinipur
Area
 • Total6,308 km2 (2,436 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total4,776,909
 • Density760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
11.9 per cent
Demographics
 • Literacy79.04 per cent
 • Sex ratio960
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Major highwaysNH 16, NH 60
HDI (2004)Increase 0.620[1] (medium)
Average annual precipitation2,111 mm
Websitewww.paschimmedinipur.gov.in

Paschim Medinipur (English: West Medinipur, alternative spelling Midnapore) district is one of the districts of the state of West Bengal, India. It was formed on 1 January 2002 after the partition of Midnapore into Paschim Medinipur and Purba Medinipur. On 4 April 2017, the Jhargram subdivision was converted into a district. GDP of West Midnapore district is 12 billion USD.

Geography

Paschim Medinipur, located in the south-western part of West Bengal, was created with the partition of the erstwhile Midnapore district, then the largest district of India, on 1 January 2002. It ranks second in terms of geographical area (9,295.28  km2) amongst the districts of the state, next to South 24-Parganas (9,960  km2). It ranks third in terms of rural population (4.58 million) following South 24-Parganas (5.82 million) and Murshidabad (5.13 million). It ranked fourth in terms of percentage of tribal population (14.87) following Jalpaiguri (18.87), Purulia (18.27) and Dakshin Dinajpur (16.12) in 2011.[2]

Broadly speaking, there are two natural divisions of the district. NH 14 and NH 16 (old numbering NH 60) from Bankura to Balasore, cuts across the district and roughly is the dividing line between the two natural divisions. To the east of this road, the soil is fertile alluvial and the area is flat. To the west, the Chota Nagpur Plateau gradually slopes down, creating an undulating area with infertile laterite rocks and soil. The landscape changes from dense dry deciduous forests in the west to marshy wetlands in the east.[2]

The alluvial portion may be further subdivided into two divisions. First, it is a strip of purely deltaic country nearer to the Hooghly and the Rupnarayan, intersected by numerous rivers and watercourses subject to tidal influences. Second, it is rest of the eastern half of the district. It is a monotonous rice plain with numerous waterways and tidal creeks intersecting it. The tidal creeks are lined with embankments to prevent flooding of the fields. Much of the area is water-logged.[2]

Floods and drought

Paschim Medinipur district is subject to both floods and drought. Ghatal and parts of Kharagpur subdivision covering an area of 142,647 hectares (1,426.47 km2) are flood prone. Water logging during the rainy season affects Ghatal and the southern parts of Kharagpur subdivision and results in loss of crops in such areas as Sabang, Pingla and Narayangarh CD Blocks.335,248 hectares (3,352.48 km2) Medinipur Sadar subdivision is drought prone. Although the district is away from the sea, cyclones hit it frequently in October–November.[2]

Major cities and towns

Midnapore is the district headquarters. Kharagpur is the largest city in the district. Other important towns and cities in the district include: Salboni, Ghatal, Belda, Chandrakona, Ramjibanpur, Garbeta, Balichak, Dantan, Mohanpur, Keshiari, Keshpur, Narayangarh, Sabang, Daspur, Goaltore andDebra.

Villages

Paschim Medinipur district is home to the most villages of any district in India. The 2011 census lists Paschim Medinipur as having 8,694 villages, of which 7,600 are populated, and 1,094 uninhabited. The district with the next highest number of villages, Mayurbhanj, in the state of Odisha, has 3,950 villages, 3,751 of which are inhabited.

Economy and politics

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Paschim Medinipur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[3] It is one of the eleven districts in West Bengal currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[3]

106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being part of Left Wing Extremism activities, constitute the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Paschim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there has been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.[4] In the period 2009–2011 LWE violence resulted in more than 500 deaths and a similar number missing in Paschim Medinipur district.[5]

Divisions

Paschim Medinipur district is divided into the following administrative subdivisions:[6]

Subdivision Headquarters
Area
km2
Population
(2011)
Rural
population %
(2011)
Urban
population %
(2011)
Medinipur Sadar Midnapore 2,441.50 1,435,321 86.05 13.95
Kharagpur Kharagpur 2,913.17 2,293,909 85.67 14.33
Ghatal Ghatal 953.09 1,047,679 87.94 12.06

Administrative subdivisions

The district comprises three subdivisions: Kharagpur, Medinipur Sadar and Ghatal. Kharagpur subdivision consists of Kharagpur municipality and ten community development blocks: Dantan–I, Dantan–II, Pingla, Kharagpur–I, Kharagpur–II, Sabang, Mohanpur, Narayangarh, Keshiari and Debra. Medinipur Sadar subdivision consists of Midnapore municipality and six community development blocks: Medinipur Sadar, Garhbeta–I, Garhbeta–II, Garhbeta–III, Keshpur and Shalboni. Ghatal subdivision consists of five municipalities (Ramjibanpur, Chandrakona, Khirpai, Kharar and Ghatal) and five community development blocks: Chandrakona–I, Chandrakona–II, Daspur–I, Daspur–II and Ghatal.[7]

Midnapore is the district headquarters. There are 28 police stations, 21 development blocks, 7 municipalities and 290 gram panchayats in this district.[7][8]

Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 11 urban units: 7 municipalities and 4 census towns.

Kharagpur subdivision

Medinipur Sadar subdivision

Ghatal subdivision

Assembly Constituencies

There are 15 assembly constituencies in Paschim Medinipur district. They belong to four Lok Sabha constituencies. Medinipur and Ghatal constituencies both comprise six constituencies of Paschim Medinipur district and one from Purba Medinipur district. Jhargram constituency contains two constituencies of Paschim Medinipur district, while Arambagh contains one constituency.

No. Name Lok Sabha constituency MLA Party
219 Dantan Medinipur Bikram Chandra Pradhan All India Trinamool Congress
223 Keshiary (ST) Paresh Murmu All India Trinamool Congress
224 Kharagpur Sadar Hiran Chatterjee Bharatiya Janata Party
225 Narayangarh Surja Kanta Atta All India Trinamool Congress
226 Sabang Ghatal Manas Bhunia All India Trinamool Congress
227 Pingla Ajit Maity All India Trinamool Congress
228 Kharagpur Medinipur Dinen Roy All India Trinamool Congress
229 Debra Ghatal Humayun Kabir All India Trinamool Congress
230 Daspur Mamata Bhunia All India Trinamool Congress
231 Ghatal (SC) Sital Kapat Bharatiya Janata Party
232 Chandrakona (SC) Arambagh Arup Dhara All India Trinamool Congress
233 Garbeta Jhargram Uttara Singha All India Trinamool Congress
234 Salboni Srikanta Mahata All India Trinamool Congress
235 Keshpur (SC) Ghatal Seuli Saha All India Trinamool Congress
236 Medinipur Medinipur June Malia All India Trinamool Congress

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
19011,520,130—    
19111,537,618+1.2%
19211,453,390−5.5%
19311,525,569+5.0%
19411,738,975+14.0%
19511,830,743+5.3%
19612,380,446+30.0%
19713,035,385+27.5%
19813,697,899+21.8%
19914,486,279+21.3%
20015,193,411+15.8%
20115,913,457+13.9%
Source: censusindia.gov.in

According to the 2011 census Paschim Medinipur district has a population of 5,913,457,[9] roughly equal to the nation of Eritrea[10] or the US state of Missouri.[11] This gives it a ranking of 14th in India (out of a total of 640).[9] The district has a population density of 636 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,650/sq mi).[9] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 14.44%.[9] Paschim Medinipur has a sex ratio of 960 females for every 1000 males,[9] and a literacy rate of 79.04%.[9]

After bifurcation, the district had a population of 4,776,909, of which 655,250 (13.72%) live in urban areas. The divided district has a sex ratio of 963 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 892,763 (18.69%) and 546,167 (11.43%) of the population, respectively.[9][failed verification] The undivided Paschim Medinipur district is inhabited by 880,015 Scheduled Tribes, primary by 12 tribes i.e., Santal (535,441), Bhumij (97,453), Munda (67,069), Lodha/Kheria (51,772),[a] Kora (29,115), Savar (18,169),[a] Ho (14,656), Baiga (12,845), Mahali (12,487), Oraon (2,670), Kharwar (1,579), Bedia (1,038).[12] Similarly, among the 1,128,269 Schedule Castes, the prominent castes are Bagdi (370,604), Lohar (78,505), Namasudra (76,953), Jalia Kaibartta (60,589), Dhoba (49,175), Hari (47,928), Bauri (45,201), Mal (35,382), Dom (33,140), Chamar/Mochi/Ruidas (31,589), Bhuiya (31,260), Rajbanshi (25,275), Pan (22,442), Sunri (19,842), Keot (19,721), Kandra (18,473), Rajwar (15,569), Mahar (13,916), Kadar (13,524), Khaira (11,899), Pod/Poundra (11,116), Bhogta (9,300), Karenga/Koranga (7,954), Tiyar (7,590), Patni (4,701), Kotal (3,347), Kaora (2,718), Mallah (2,443), Khatik (2,332) and the remaining are minor tribes and castes share less than 1000 population in the district.[13]

Religion

Religion in Paschim Medinipur district (2011)[14]
Hinduism
85.26%
Islam
12.41%
Other (tribal religion)
1.52%
Other or not stated
0.81%
Religion in present-day Paschim Medinipur district
Religion Population (1941)[15]: 75  Percentage (1941) Population (2011)[14] Percentage (2011)
Hinduism 1,021,908 81.87% 4,072,759 85.26%
Tribal religion[b] 123,895 9.93% 72,511 1.52%
Islam 101,645 8.14% 592,587 12.41%
Others [c] 717 0.06% 39,052 0.81%
Total Population 1,248,165 100% 4,776,909 100%

Hindus are the majority population.[16]

Language

Languages of Paschim Medinipur district (2011)[17]

  Bengali (87.15%)
  Santali (6.29%)
  Hindi (2.49%)
  Telugu (0.93%)
  Others (3.14%)

At the 2011 census, 87.15% spoke Bengali, 6.29% Santali, 2.49% Hindi and 0.93% Telugu as their first language. Other languages spoken in the district include Odia, Urdu, Kudmali/Kurmali, Mundari and Koda.[17]

See also: List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate

Culture

Tourism

Aatchala Khargesvara Temple at Kshirpai of Paschim Medinipur district

There are many tourist attractions in the district:

Education

Universities and colleges

Main Building, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Gate No. 1, Vidyasagar University, Medinipur-2

Healthcare

The table below (all data in numbers) presents an overview of the subdivision-wise medical facilities available and patients treated, after the separation of Jhargram, in the hospitals, health centres and sub-centres in 2014 in Paschim Medinipur district.[19]

Subdivision Health & Family Welfare Dept, WB Other
state
govt
depts
Local
bodies
Central
govt
depts /
PSUs
NGO /
private
nursing
homes
Total Total
number
of
beds
Total
number
of
doctors
Indoor
patients
Outdoor
patients
Hospitals
Rural
hospitals
Block
primary
health
centres
Primary
health
centres
Medinipur Sadar 2 5 1 15 3 - 1 26 53 2,117 323 121,486 1,375,817
Kharagpur 2 8 2 27 2 1 2 54 98 1841 197 93,110 1,814,309
Ghatal 1 4 1 15 - - - 46 67 988 66 46,006 742,984
Paschim Medinipur district 5 17 24 77 5 1 3 126 208 4,946 586* 260,602 3,933,110

Notable people

Notes

  1. ^ a b Although the Kharia and Lodha are two distinct tribes, they interchangeably utilize their respective names and commonly use the honorific name of Sabar/Savar, which is also a name of another tribe.
  2. ^ All tribals were counted under 'Tribal' in the 1941 census irrespective of actual religion practiced.
  3. ^ Including Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated

References

  1. ^ "West Bengal Human Development Report 2004" (PDF).
  2. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter I Introduction and Human Development Indices for Paschim Mednipur. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  4. ^ Singh, Vijayita (24 July 2016). "Red Corridor to be redrawn". The Hindu. The Hindu, 25 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  5. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  6. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Table 2.2, 2.4(a). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  8. ^ "Administration Setup". Official website of Purba Medinipur district. Archived from the original on 25 April 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census Handbook: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  10. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Eritrea 5,939,484 July 2011 est.
  11. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Missouri 5,988,927
  12. ^ "A-11 Appendix: District wise scheduled tribe population (Appendix) [2011]". censusindia.gov.in.
  13. ^ "A-10 Appendix: District wise scheduled caste population (Appendix), West Bengal - 2011". censusindia.gov.in.
  14. ^ a b "Table C-01 Population by Religion: West Bengal". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  15. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI BENGAL PROVINCE" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  16. ^ "C-1 Population By Religious Community". Census. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  17. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: West Bengal". www.censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  18. ^ "Shah Rukh Khan inaugurates the Prayag Film City in Chandrakona | NG". Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  19. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Table 3.1, 3.3. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2016.