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This is a list of prepared dishes characteristic of English cuisine. English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America, China, and the Indian subcontinent during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration.[1][2]

Ingredients that might be used to prepare these dishes, such as English vegetables, cuts of meat, or cheeses do not themselves form part of this list.

English dishes

Name Image First known Savoury/
Sweet
Region of origin Description
Bedfordshire clanger 19th century[3] Savoury and Sweet Bedfordshire Suet crust dumpling with a savoury filling one end, sweet filling the other. The savoury filling is usually meat with diced potatoes and vegetables. The sweet filling can be jam, cooked apple or other fruit.
Bangers and mash 410 at latest (Roman Britain: sausages)[4][5] Savoury National[6] Mashed potatoes and sausages, sometimes served with onion gravy or fried onions. Note that while sausages may date to the time given, potatoes are from the Americas and were not introduced to Europe until the 16th century.
Beans on toast Savoury National Tinned baked beans, heated, on toasted sliced bread.
Chicken tikka masala 20th century[7] Savoury British Asian dish. Pieces of chicken tikka in a spiced creamy sauce
Cobbler 19th century, perhaps earlier[8] Savoury or Sweet National, from British American colonies Fruit or savoury (e.g. beef) filling, covered with a scone mixture and baked
Beef Wellington 1939[9][10] Savoury National Beef cooked in a pastry crust
Black peas Savoury Lancashire Purple podded peas soaked overnight and simmered until mushy
Black (Blood) pudding 800BC (in The Odyssey)[11] Savoury National[a] Blood sausage
Bubble and squeak Savoury National[6] Fried mashed potato with cabbage; often made from leftovers
Cauliflower cheese Savoury National Cauliflower in a thick cheese sauce
Cottage pie,
Shepherd's pie
1791[12] Savoury National Meat, minced or in pieces, with mashed potato crust
Cumberland sausage Savoury Cumberland Long sausage
Devilled kidneys Savoury National [13][14]
Faggots 1851[15] Savoury Midlands Meatballs made from minced off-cuts and offal, especially pork (traditionally pig's heart, liver, and fatty belly meat or bacon) together with herbs for flavouring and sometimes added bread crumbs.
Fish and chips 1870 approx.[16] Savoury National[6][17] White fish fillets in batter (or egg-and-breadcrumbs), deep fried with potato chips
Full English breakfast 1861[b][18] Savoury National A selection of fried foods such as sausages, bacon, eggs, mushrooms, bread, tomatoes; options include kippers, baked beans
Game pie Savoury National
Groaty pudding 1805[19] Savoury Black Country Soaked groats, beef, leeks, onion and beef stock which are baked together at a moderate temperature for up to 16 hours.
Hog's pudding Savoury Devon, Cornwall
Hot cross bun 1361 Sweet Hertfordshire
Jellied eels Savoury East End of London
Kippers Savoury National Smoked split herrings
Lancashire hotpot Savoury Lancashire Meat stew with carrots, potatoes, onions
Lincolnshire sausage Savoury Lincolnshire
Liver and onion/Liver and bacon Savoury National Pictured is liver and onions
Pasty 13th century[20] Savoury Cornwall, National Pastry shell filled with meat and potatoes
Pease pudding Savoury North East Split peas or lentils cooked until soft and thick
Pie and mash Savoury National
Ploughman's lunch 1950s Savoury National Typical British lunch consisting of bread (normally buttered), cheese, onion, and sometimes pickle.
Pork pie 1780s[21][22] Savoury Melton Mowbray, National Cylindrical pie filled with pork and meat jelly
Potted shrimps 19th century or earlier[23] Savoury Lancashire (Morecambe Bay) Shrimps preserved under melted butter
Rag pudding Savoury Lancashire (Oldham) Minced meat with onions in a suet pastry, which is then boiled or steamed.
Scotch Egg Savoury National A boiled egg which is wrapped in sausage, then breadcrumbs and deep fried
Stargazy pie 20th century Savoury Cornwall Fish pie with sardines poking out of the piecrust, looking at the stars
Steak pie 1303[24] Savoury National Beef and gravy in a pastry shell. Can also include ingredients such as ale, kidney, oysters, potato and root vegetables
Steak and kidney pie Savoury National[6] Beef, kidneys and gravy in a pastry shell.
Steak and kidney pudding 1861[25] Savoury National Suet pudding filled with pieces of beef and kidney in thick gravy
Steak and oyster pie, See Steak pies
Stottie cake Savoury North East England Heavy flat bread
Suet pudding 1714[26][27] Savoury or sweet National Steamed pudding made with flour and suet, with meat or fruit mixed in
Sunday roast 18th century Savoury National Roast beef 1700s,[28] Yorkshire pudding (1747),[29] roast potatoes, vegetables. Roast beef with Yorkshire pudding is a national dish of the United Kingdom.[6]
Roast lamb with mint sauce Savoury National
Roast pork with apple sauce Savoury National
Shepherd's pie, see Cottage pie
Toad-in-the-hole 1747;[30] 1788[31] 1891[32] Savoury National[6] Sausages cooked in a tray of batter
Welsh rarebit Savoury National Melted cheese on toast
Yorkshire pudding 1747[29] Savoury Yorkshire, National Souffle batter baked in very hot oven.
Game pie Savoury National
Panackelty Savoury Sunderland Slow-baked meat and root vegetables
Parmo Savoury Middlesbrough Chicken or other cutlet in breadcrumbs
Scouse 1706[33] Savoury Liverpool and other seaports, from Northern Europe Lamb or beef stew with potatoes, carrots and onions, cf Norwegian lobscouse
Apple pie 1390[34] Sweet National[c] A pie crust, whether all round or only on top, with a filling of sweetened apple
Arctic Roll Sweet National
Bakewell tart 20th century[35] Sweet Derbyshire Pastry shell filled with almond-flavoured sponge cake on a thin layer of jam. Developed from 1826 Bakewell pudding[36]
Banoffee pie Sweet Hungry Monk Restaurant, East Sussex Pastry shell filled with bananas, cream and toffee
Battenberg Cake Sweet National
Bread and butter pudding Sweet National
Butterscotch Tart Sweet National
Christmas pudding Sweet National
Eccles cake 1793[37] Sweet Greater Manchester Flaky pastry with butter and currants
Eton Mess 19th century[38] Sweet Berkshire (Eton College)
Eve's pudding Sweet National
Fool Sweet National
Gypsy tart Sweet Kent[39]
Cornish Hevva Cake Sweet Cornwall
Jam Roly-Poly Sweet National
Jam Tart Sweet National
Knickerbocker glory 1920s[40] Sweet National; possibly from New York[40] Ice cream sundae in a tall glass, often with nuts, fruits, meringue, and chocolate sauce; served with whipped cream and a glacé cherry
Lardy cake Sweet
Madeira cake Sweet National
Mince pie 1624 Sweet National Usually small pastry shells filled with sweet mincemeat; since Early Modern times actual meat omitted
Parkin Sweet Yorkshire
Pound cake Sweet National
Queen of Puddings Sweet National
Saffron cake Sweet Cornwall
Scones Sweet National Small bread-like cakes often with raisins
Spotted dick 19th century[41] Sweet National Pudding with suet pastry and dried vine fruits, usually served with custard
Sticky toffee pudding Sweet National
Summer pudding Sweet National
Sussex pond pudding Sweet
Syllabub Sweet National Cold dessert made with cream, alcohol and sugar, often with citrus flavouring
Trifle Sweet National Cold dessert with varied ingredients, often sponge fingers and fortified wine, jelly, custard, and whipped cream, usually in layers
Treacle tart Sweet National Pastry shell filled with thick sweet treacle mixture
Victoria Sponge Cake Sweet National

See also

Notes

  1. ^ But also traditional across Europe in both Latin and Germanic countries from Portugal in west to Lithuania in east, and from Italy in south to Sweden in north.
  2. ^ Date is for Mrs Beeton's book, but not exactly the breakfast eaten today.
  3. ^ Apple pies are also found in North America, Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia.

References

  1. ^ Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-658-2
  2. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  3. ^ "How do you cook a proper Bedfordshire Clanger?". Bedfordshire on Sunday. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  4. ^ Hickman, Martin (30 October 2006). "The secret life of the sausage: A great British institution". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Sausage Varieties". Northampton NN3 3AJ, United Kingdom: Sausage Links. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. It is estimated that there are around 400 sausage varieties available in the UK.((cite web)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  6. ^ a b c d e f Minahan, J.B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 563. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8.
  7. ^ Grove, Peter; Grove, Colleen (2008). "Is It or Isn't It? (The Chicken Tikka Masala Story)". Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Cobbler". ifood.tv. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  9. ^ Hyslop, Leah (21 August 2013). "Potted histories: Beef Wellington". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 February 2016. The Oxford English Dictionary pinpoints a 1939 guide to eating out in New York as the first reliable reference: "Tenderloin of Beef Wellington. Larded tenderloin of beef. Roast very rare. Allow to cool and roll into pie crust. Slice in portions and serve with sauce Madire."
  10. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa, and Scott, Johnny "Sunday Roast" Kyle Cathie Limited, 2006, p26. Speculates name is from the city in New Zealand.
  11. ^ "Traditional Black Pudding". English Breakfast Society. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Cottage pie". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  13. ^ Meyer, E. (2010). 1200 Traditional English Recipes. Bod Third Party Titles. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-86195-289-3. Book first published in 1898.((cite book)): CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  14. ^ O'Connor, K. (2013). The English Breakfast: The Biography of a National Meal, with Recipes. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-85785-491-9.
  15. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, citing Henry Mayhew.
  16. ^ Panayi, 2010. Pages 16–17
  17. ^ Jurafsky, D. (2014). The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu. W. W. Norton. p. pt5. ISBN 978-0-393-24587-5.
  18. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 284
  19. ^ Pratt, Samuel Jackson (1805). Harvest-home: Consisting of Supplementary Learnings, Original Dramas and Poems, Contributions of Literary Friends, and Select Re-publications, Including Sympathy, a Poem, Revised, Corrected and Enlarged/ Mr. Pratt, Volume 1. R. Phillips. p. 276.
  20. ^ Nuttall, P. Austin (1840). A classical and archæological dictionary of the manners, customs, laws, institutions, arts, etc. of the celebrated nations of antiquity, and of the middle ages. Whittaker and Co, and others. p. 555.
  21. ^ "History of Melton Mowbray Pork Pie". Melton Mowbray Pork Pie Association. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  22. ^ Wilson, C. Anne (June 2003). Food and Drink in Britain: From the Stone Age to the 19th Century. Academy Chicago Publishers. p. 273. ISBN 9780897334877.
  23. ^ Cloake, Felicity (20 July 2011). "How to cook perfect potted shrimps". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  24. ^ Olver, Lynne. "FAQs: pie & pastry". The Food Timeline. Retrieved 2 February 2016. citing Oxford English Dictionary
  25. ^ Cloake, Felicity (1 March 2012). "How to cook the perfect steak and kidney pudding". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  26. ^ Lehmann, Gilly (2003). The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books. pp. 83, 198–199.
  27. ^ Kettilby, Mary (1714). A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery; For the Use of all Good Wives, Tender Mothers, and Careful Nurses. Richard Wilkin.
  28. ^ "Why do the French call the British 'the roast beefs'?". BBC. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  29. ^ a b Glasse, Hannah (1998) [1747]. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1-55709-462-9.
  30. ^ Glasse, Hannah (1747) The Art of Cookery has "pigeons in a hole".
  31. ^ Richard Briggs (1788) The English Art of Cookery has "Toad in a Hole", page 175
  32. ^ (Artusi, Pellegrino (1891) La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene has "toad in the hole".
  33. ^ lobscouse in Merriam-Webster
  34. ^ The Forme of Cury, XXIII. "For to Make Tartys in Applis". England, c. 1390
  35. ^ "The History of the Bakewell Pudding". Bakewellonline.co.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  36. ^ Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0199677337.
  37. ^ "The history behind (and recipe for) Eccles Cakes". Salford City Council. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  38. ^ Arthur Henry Beavan (1896). "Marlborough House and Its Occupants: Present and Past": 162. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ Taylor, Genevieve (2014). Pie!: 100 Gorgeously Glorious Recipes. A&C Black. p. 136. ISBN 9781472912008. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  40. ^ a b "Knickerbocker Glory". The Foods of England Project. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  41. ^ Ayto, John (2012). The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-19-964024-9.

Sources