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This is a list of prepared dishes characteristic of English cuisine. English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration.[1][2]

Ingredients that might be used to prepare these dishes, such as English vegetables, cuts of meat, or cheeses do not themselves form part of this list.

English dishes

Name Image First known Savoury/
Sweet
Region of origin Description
Bedfordshire clanger
1800s (century)[3] Savoury and Sweet Bedfordshire Suet crust dumpling with a savoury filling one end, sweet filling the other. The savoury filling is usually meat with diced potatoes and vegetables. The sweet filling can be jam, cooked apple or other fruit.
Bangers and mash
410 at latest (Roman Britain: sausages)[4][5] Savoury National[6] Mashed potatoes and sausages, sometimes served with onion gravy or fried onions. Note that while sausages may date to the time given, potatoes are from the Americas and were not introduced to Europe until the 16th century.
Beans on toast
Savoury National Tinned baked beans, heated, on toasted sliced bread.
Chicken tikka masala
1900s (century)[7] Savoury British Asian dish. Pieces of chicken tikka in a spiced creamy sauce
Cobbler
1800s (century), perhaps earlier[8] Savoury or Sweet National, from British American colonies Fruit or savoury (e.g. beef) filling, covered with a scone mixture and baked
Beef Wellington
1939[9][10] Savoury National Beef cooked in a pastry crust
Black peas Savoury Lancashire Purple podded peas soaked overnight and simmered until mushy
Black (Blood) pudding
800BC (in The Odyssey)[11] Savoury National[a] Blood sausage
Bubble and squeak
Savoury National[6] Fried mashed potato with cabbage; often made from leftovers
Cauliflower cheese
Savoury National Cauliflower in a thick cheese sauce
Cottage pie,
Shepherd's pie
1791[12] Savoury National Meat, minced or in pieces, with mashed potato crust
Cumberland sausage
Savoury Cumberland Long sausage
Devilled kidneys
Savoury National [13][14]
Faggots
1851[15] Savoury Midlands Meatballs made from minced off-cuts and offal, especially pork (traditionally pig's heart, liver, and fatty belly meat or bacon) together with herbs for flavouring and sometimes added bread crumbs.
Fish and chips
1870 approx.[16] Savoury National[6][17] White fish fillets in batter (or egg-and-breadcrumbs), deep fried with potato chips
Full English breakfast
1861[b][18] Savoury National A selection of fried foods such as sausages, bacon, eggs, mushrooms, bread, tomatoes; options include kippers, baked beans
Game pie
Savoury National
Hog's pudding Savoury Devon, Cornwall
Jellied eels
Savoury East End of London
Kippers
Savoury National Smoked split herrings
Lancashire hotpot
Savoury Lancashire Meat stew with carrots, potatoes, onions
Lincolnshire sausage
Savoury Lincolnshire
Liver and onion/Liver and bacon
Savoury National Pictured is liver and onions
Pasty
1200s (century)[19] Savoury Cornwall, National Pastry shell filled with meat and potatoes
Pease pudding
Savoury North East Split peas or lentils cooked until soft and thick
Pie and mash
Savoury National
Ploughman's lunch
1950s Savoury National Typical British lunch consisting of bread (normally buttered), cheese, onion, and sometimes pickle.
Pork pie
1780s[20][21] Savoury Melton Mowbray, National Cylindrical pie filled with pork and meat jelly
Potted shrimps
1800s (century) or earlier[22] Savoury Lancashire (Morecambe Bay) Shrimps preserved under melted butter
Rag pudding
Savoury Lancashire (Oldham) Minced meat with onions in a suet pastry, which is then boiled or steamed.
Stargazy pie
1900s (century) Savoury Cornwall Fish pie with sardines poking out of the piecrust, looking at the stars
Steak pie
1303[23] Savoury National Beef and gravy in a pastry shell. Can also include ingredients such as ale, kidney, oysters, potato and root vegetables
Steak and kidney pie
Savoury National[6] Beef, kidneys and gravy in a pastry shell.
Steak and kidney pudding
1861[24] Savoury National Suet pudding filled with pieces of beef and kidney in thick gravy
Steak and oyster pie, See Steak pies
Stottie cake
Savoury North East England Heavy flat bread
Suet pudding 1714[25][26] Savoury or sweet National Steamed pudding made with flour and suet, with meat or fruit mixed in
Sunday roast
1700s (century) Savoury National Roast beef 1700s,[27] Yorkshire pudding (1747),[28] roast potatoes, vegetables. Roast beef with Yorkshire pudding is a national dish of the United Kingdom.[6]
Roast lamb with mint sauce Savoury National
Roast pork with apple sauce Savoury National
Shepherd's pie, see Cottage pie
Toad-in-the-hole
1747;[29] 1788[30] 1891[31] Savoury National[6] Sausages cooked in a tray of batter
Welsh rarebit
Savoury National Melted cheese on toast
Yorkshire pudding
1747[28] Savoury Yorkshire, National Souffle batter baked in very hot oven.
Game pie Savoury National
Panackelty Savoury Sunderland Slow-baked meat and root vegetables
Parmo Savoury Middlesbrough Chicken or other cutlet in breadcrumbs
Scouse
1706[32] Savoury Liverpool and other seaports, from Northern Europe Lamb or beef stew with potatoes, carrots and onions, cf Norwegian lapskaus
Apple pie
1390[33] Sweet National[c] A pie crust, whether all round or only on top, with a filling of sweetened apple
Bakewell tart
1900s (century)[34] Sweet Derbyshire Pastry shell filled with almond-flavoured sponge cake on a thin layer of jam. Developed from 1826 Bakewell pudding[35]
Banoffee pie
Sweet Hungry Monk Restaurant, East Sussex Pastry shell filled with bananas, cream and toffee
Battenberg Cake
Sweet National
Bread and butter pudding
Sweet National
Christmas pudding
Sweet National
Eccles cake
1793[36] Sweet Greater Manchester Flaky pastry with butter and currants
Eton Mess
1800s (century)[37] Sweet Berkshire (Eton College)
Eve's pudding
Sweet National
Fool
Sweet National
Gypsy tart
Sweet Kent[38]
Cornish Hevva Cake Sweet Cornwall
Jam Roly-Poly Sweet National
Knickerbocker glory 1920s[39] Sweet National; possibly from New York[39] Ice cream sundae in a tall glass, often with nuts, fruits, meringue, and chocolate sauce; served with whipped cream and a glace cherry
Lardy cake
Sweet
Madeira cake
Sweet National
Mince pie
1624 Sweet National Usually small pastry shells filled with sweet mincemeat; since Early Modern times actual meat omitted
Parkin
Sweet Yorkshire
Pound cake
Sweet National
Queen of Puddings
Sweet National
Saffron cake
Sweet Cornwall
Scones
Sweet National Small bread-like cakes often with raisins
Spotted dick
1800s (century)[40] Sweet National Pudding with suet pastry and dried vine fruits, usually served with custard
Sticky toffee pudding
Sweet National
Summer pudding
Sweet National
Sussex pond pudding
Sweet
Syllabub
Sweet National Cold dessert made with cream, alcohol and sugar, often with citrus flavouring
Trifle
Sweet National Cold dessert with varied ingredients, often sponge fingers and fortified wine, jelly, custard, and whipped cream, usually in layers
Treacle tart
Sweet National Pastry shell filled with thick sweet treacle mixture
Victoria Sponge Cake
Sweet National

See also

Notes

  1. ^ But also traditional across Europe in both Latin and Germanic countries from Portugal in west to Lithuania in east, and from Italy in south to Sweden in north.
  2. ^ Date is for Mrs Beeton's book, but not exactly the breakfast eaten today.
  3. ^ Apple pies are also found in North America, Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia.

References

  1. ^ Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-658-2
  2. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  3. ^ "How do you cook a proper Bedfordshire Clanger?". Bedfordshire on Sunday. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  4. ^ Hickman, Martin (30 October 2006). "The secret life of the sausage: A great British institution". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Sausage Varieties". Northampton NN3 3AJ, United Kingdom: Sausage Links. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. It is estimated that there are around 400 sausage varieties available in the UK.CS1 maint: location (link)
  6. ^ a b c d e f Minahan, J.B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 563. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8.
  7. ^ Grove, Peter; Grove, Colleen (2008). "Is It or Isn't It? (The Chicken Tikka Masala Story)". Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Cobbler". ifood.tv. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  9. ^ Hyslop, Leah (21 August 2013). "Potted histories: Beef Wellington". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 February 2016. The Oxford English Dictionary pinpoints a 1939 guide to eating out in New York as the first reliable reference: “Tenderloin of Beef Wellington. Larded tenderloin of beef. Roast very rare. Allow to cool and roll into pie crust. Slice in portions and serve with sauce Madire."
  10. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa, and Scott, Johnny "Sunday Roast" Kyle Cathie Limited, 2006, p26. Speculates name is from the city in New Zealand.
  11. ^ "Traditional Black Pudding". English Breakfast Society. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Cottage pie". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  13. ^ Meyer, E. (2010). 1200 Traditional English Recipes. Bod Third Party Titles. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-86195-289-3. Book first published in 1898.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  14. ^ O'Connor, K. (2013). The English Breakfast: The Biography of a National Meal, with Recipes. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-85785-491-9.
  15. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, citing Henry Mayhew.
  16. ^ Panayi, 2010. Pages 16–17
  17. ^ Jurafsky, D. (2014). The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu. W. W. Norton. p. pt5. ISBN 978-0-393-24587-5.
  18. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 284
  19. ^ Nuttall, P. Austin (1840). A classical and archæological dictionary of the manners, customs, laws, institutions, arts, etc. of the celebrated nations of antiquity, and of the middle ages. Whittaker and Co, and others. p. 555.
  20. ^ "History of Melton Mowbray Pork Pie". Melton Mowbray Pork Pie Association. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  21. ^ Wilson, C. Anne (June 2003). Food and Drink in Britain: From the Stone Age to the 19th Century. Academy Chicago Publishers. p. 273.
  22. ^ Cloake, Felicity (20 July 2011). "How to cook perfect potted shrimps". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  23. ^ Olver, Lynne. "FAQs: pie & pastry". The Food Timeline. Retrieved 2 February 2016. citing Oxford English Dictionary
  24. ^ Cloake, Felicity (1 March 2012). "How to cook the perfect steak and kidney pudding". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  25. ^ Lehmann, Gilly (2003). The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books. pp. 83, 198–199.
  26. ^ Kettilby, Mary (1714). A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery; For the Use of all Good Wives, Tender Mothers, and Careful Nurses. Richard Wilkin.
  27. ^ "Why do the French call the British 'the roast beefs'?". BBC. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  28. ^ a b Glasse, Hannah (1998) [1747]. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1-55709-462-9.
  29. ^ Glasse, Hannah (1747) The Art of Cookery has "pigeons in a hole".
  30. ^ Richard Briggs (1788) The English Art of Cookery has "Toad in a Hole", page 175
  31. ^ (Artusi, Pellegrino (1891) La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene has "toad in the hole".
  32. ^ lobscouse in Merriam-Webster
  33. ^ The Forme of Cury, XXIII. "For to Make Tartys in Applis". England, c. 1390
  34. ^ "The History of the Bakewell Pudding". Bakewellonline.co.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  35. ^ Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0199677337.
  36. ^ "The history behind (and recipe for) Eccles Cakes". Salford City Council. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  37. ^ Arthur Henry Beavan (1896). "Marlborough House and Its Occupants: Present and Past": 162. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  38. ^ Taylor, Genevieve (2014). Pie!: 100 Gorgeously Glorious Recipes. A&C Black. p. 136. ISBN 9781472912008. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  39. ^ a b "Knickerbocker Glory". The Foods of England Project. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  40. ^ Ayto, John (2012). The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-19-964024-9.

Sources