Arepa
Arepas 2.jpg
Arepas on a street stall.
CourseAny course
Place of originColombia, Venezuela
Region or stateNorthern South America
Associated national cuisineColombia, Venezuela
Main ingredientsCorn flour (maize meal or flour)

Arepa (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈɾepa]) is a type of food made of ground maize dough, eaten in the northern region of South America since pre-Columbian times, and notable primarily in the cuisine of Colombia and Venezuela, but also present in the cuisines of Bolivia,[1] Panama and other countries.[2]

It is commonly eaten in those countries and can be served with accompaniments such as cheese,[3] cuajada (fresh cheese), various meats, chicken, avocado, or diablito (deviled ham spread). It can also be split to make sandwiches. Sizes, maize types, and added ingredients vary its preparation. It is similar to the Mexican gordita, the Salvadoran pupusa, the Ecuadorian tortilla de maíz[4] and the Panamanian tortilla or changa.[5]

Origins

The arepa is a pre-Columbian dish from the area that is now Colombia, Panama and Venezuela.[2] Instruments used to make flour for the arepas, and the clay slabs on which they were cooked, were often found at archaeological sites in the area[citation needed]. Although it has not been specified in which country an arepa was cooked for the first time, it has been possible to define the oldest dates of the presence of maize in Colombia and in Venezuela. For example, in Colombia, the first record of the existence of corn dates from about 3,000 years ago, while in Venezuela the estimate is about 2,800 years ago.[citation needed]

Throughout its history, the arepa has stayed mainly unchanged from the arepas that pre-Columbian native peoples would have consumed, making the arepa one of the few pre-contact traditions that have remained popular in the years since colonization.[2] The name arepa is said to be derived from erepa, the word for cornbread in the Cumanagoto language.[6]

Characteristics

Arepas being prepared.
Arepas being prepared.

The arepa is a flat, round, unleavened patty of soaked, ground kernels of maize, or—more frequently nowadays—maize meal or maize flour. It can be grilled, baked, fried, boiled or steamed. The characteristics vary by color, flavor, size, and the food with which it may be stuffed, depending on the region. Simple arepas are filled with butter or cheese and baked. More filling varieties can be added with combinations of ingredients like beans, meat, avocados, eggs, tomatoes, salad, shrimp, or fish depending on the meal. Fried arepas are often consumed in northern South America, filled with white cheese on top and served in conjunction with fried eggs. Sweet fried arepas are another variety that is often prepared with sugarloaf (papelón) and anise (anís). Venezuelan white cheese is another topping for fried arepas that can be combined with feta cheese.[7]

Production

Initially arepa flour was made by grinding maize at home. In the 1950s the precooked arepa flour was invented by Dr. Luis Caballero Mejías [es], a Venezuelan engineer, and became an instant success. The flour is mixed with water and salt, and occasionally oil, butter, eggs, and/or milk. Because the flour is already cooked, the blend forms into patties easily. After being kneaded and formed, the patties are fried, grilled, or baked. Some varieties of arepas are made with "peeled" corn using the nixtamalization process; they are known as arepa pelada.[8]

Arepa flour is specially prepared (cooked in water, then dried) for making arepas and other maize dough-based dishes, such as hallacas, bollos, tamales, empanadas, atole and chicha. The flour may be called masarepa, masa de arepa, masa al instante, or harina precocida. The most popular brand names of maize flour are Harina PAN and Harina Juana in Venezuela, Areparina in Colombia, and Goya elsewhere.[9]

Regional varieties

Bolivia

Bolivian arepas are made from corn. There are different ways to prepare arepas, but one of the most traditional is the Cotoca recipe. Several varieties of arepa can be found in the country, such as the Cruceña and Andina ones.

Colombia

Street vendor selling grilled arepas on bijao leaves in Barranquilla.
Street vendor selling grilled arepas on bijao leaves in Barranquilla.
Colombian arepa with cheese.
Colombian arepa with cheese.

The arepa is an iconic food in Colombia, with some 75 distinct forms of preparation. According to a study conducted by the Colombian Academy of Gastronomy, the arepa is part of the Colombian cultural heritage and can be considered a symbol of national gastronomic unity."[10]

In 2006, the arepa was named the cultural symbol of Colombia in a competition organized by Semana magazine with support from Caracol Televisión, the Ministry of Culture and 'Colombia is Passion'.[10]

In the Paisa region, the arepa is especially important to the local people and sometimes accompanies all meals of the day. In addition, arepas are strung into necklaces and placed around the necks of honored dignitaries as a sign of praise.[10]

In Colombia, the arepa is sold on a commercial level in neighborhood stores, chain supermarkets and market plazas and packaged with preservatives as a pre-molded white or yellow corn dough that is ready to grill or fry at home.[11] It is also sold in the form of industrialized corn flour that requires hydration before preparation.[12] In addition, arepas are sold by street vendors, in cafeterias, and in neighborhood stores. Restaurants of the Paisa Region offer a wide variety of arepas, including a unique style of stuffed arepa that can be filled with eggs, meat, or cheese.[13] Colombians in the Caribbean region commonly eat a breakfast variation called arepa con huevo, which consists of a cooked arepa which has been split open, stuffed with a raw egg, and fried.[14]

The Colombian Arepa Festival is celebrated in the following five major cities: Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali and Medellín. According to the program calendar, each city takes turns organizing the festival between the months of August and December.[15]

Variations by region

According to the Santa Marta city newspaper, El Informador, there are about 75 types of arepas around Colombia.[16] Among them is the Arepa Ocañera, consumed in the department of Norte de Santander, characterized by the addition of Queso Costeño (lit.'Coastal Cheese') and other types of meat,[17] some recipes for this type of arepa can contain Doble Crema and chicken,[18] one of its characteristics is that it is relatively thin unlike other arepas and also has a toasted and golden colored shell.[19]

Another variation would be the Arepa Boyacense, which the municipality of Ventequemada is characterized by its production of it,[20] this type of food may contain butter, eggs and cheese,[21] it has a certain sweetness in addition to some recipes for this arepa can have cuajada.[22] There is also the Arepa Paisa, which is consumed in the department of Antioquía, prepared with Maíz Trillado (lit.'Threshed Corn'), this recipe is the one that most closely resembles how the indigenous communities prepare the arepa..[23] In addition, another arepa consumed in the Andean region of the country is the Arepa Santandereana, which has cooked yuca and chicharrón.[24]

Puerto Rico

In Puerto Rico, mostly in the San Juan area and beach sides, arepas are popular. They can also be found in some restaurants as almost always arepas de coco. The Puerto Rican arepa is made with corn flour, coconut milk, coconut oil, baking powder, and sugar. They can be fried, baked or cooked on a grill. Once done the arepa is cut open and stuffed. There are countless filling. Crab, shrimp, and octopus stewed in sofrito, lemon, coconut milk, and ginger among other ingredients is the most popular.

Spain

Arepa Gomera in La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Arepa Gomera in La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands.

Arepas are present in the Canary Islands due to population flow between the islands and Venezuela. They are found in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, being rare in the eastern islands of the archipelago. Many of the arepas consumed in the bars and restaurants of the islands are fried. Some incorporate ingredients from the local gastronomy such as soft cheese or Canary plantain.[25]

Venezuela

A Venezuelan arepa de pabellón stuffed with shredded cheese, fried plantains, black beans and braised beef.
A Venezuelan arepa de pabellón stuffed with shredded cheese, fried plantains, black beans and braised beef.

The arepa is a symbol of Venezuelan gastronomy and one of the most common pre-Hispanic foods still popular in Venezuela.[2]

According to a 2015 survey of the Venezuelan people, nearly 70 percent of the nation ate arepas on a regular basis.[26] It is common for Venezuelans to eat arepas throughout the day, both as snacks and as sides to meals, creating a culture where these corn products can be found almost everywhere and in specific restaurants called "areperas".[27] The arepa is seen as a cornerstone of a Venezuelan diet; previous to the 2015 food shortages, it was estimated that each year the average Venezuelan consumed about 30 kilos of the corn flour used to make arepas.[26] Venezuelan arepas are commonly filled with a great variety of different fillings, from beef and avocado to cheese, varying widely by the location of where they are sold and the ingredients that can be obtained.[2]

In the Andes region of Venezuela, arepas de trigo are made with wheatflour rather than cornmeal. These lighter arepas are generally eaten as a snack or an accompaniment to heavier meals.[28]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Recetas, Cocina y Comida". recetas com.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  2. ^ a b c d e Puyana, Alejandro (26 July 2017). "Arepas Are Conquering The World — But Dying At Home In Venezuela". NPR.org. Retrieved 2021-07-17.
  3. ^ "Arepas de Queso (Cheese Arepas) | My Colombian Recipes". 25 July 2016. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  4. ^ "C H I Ú - Una breve historia de las tortillas ecuatorianas". C H I Ú (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  5. ^ "AREPA , receta basica // PAN de Maiz | Food, Recipes, Eat". Pinterest. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  6. ^ Rivera, Marcela. "The DNA Of: Arepas". Retrieved 2021-07-17.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ Janer, Zilkia (2008-03-30). Latino Food Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-313-08790-5.
  8. ^ canalrcn.com
  9. ^ Blazes, Marian. "Masarepa - Precooked Corn Flour for Making Arepas". About Food. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  10. ^ a b c Revista Semana (24 June 2006). "La arepa". Retrieved 11 January 2011. (in Spanish)
  11. ^ Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; Caro, Carlos Andrés; Martínez, Olga Lucía; Moretti, Ana Florencia; Giannuzzi, Leda; De Antoni, Graciela Liliana; Peláez, Angela León (17 October 2016). "Antifungal effect of kefir fermented milk and shelf life improvement of corn arepas". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 235: 85–92. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.06.038. hdl:11336/57193. PMID 27447094.
  12. ^ Hernandez, Blanca; Guerra, Marisa; Rivers, Francisco (1999). "Obtención y caracterización de harinas compuestas de endospermo–germen de maíz y su uso en la preparación de arepas". Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos = Food Science and Technology (Campinas). 19 (2): 194–198. doi:10.1590/S0101-20611999000200007. ISSN 0101-2061.
  13. ^ Winchester, Elizabeth (2014-09-26). "What's Cooking?". Time for Kids (Grades 5-6). Vol. 5, no. 3. p. 7.
  14. ^ Janer, Zilkia (2008-03-30). Latino Food Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-313-08790-5.
  15. ^ "El festival de la arepa colombiana". ELESPECTADOR.COM. December 18, 2008.
  16. ^ "¡Feliz Día Mundial de la Arepa!". El Informador (in Spanish). 2020-09-12. Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  17. ^ "Tortilla, Arepa y Pupusa: ¿La Guerra de la Harina de Maíz?". Univision (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  18. ^ Sarabia, Javier (2021-10-08). "Arepa ocañera conquista los paladares colombianos". La Opinión (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  19. ^ Pérez, Carlo Fernando D´vera (2014-12-30). "Caracterización de unidades productoras de arepas ocañeras en la ciudad de Ocaña". Revista Científica Profundidad Construyendo Futuro (in Spanish). 1 (1): 58–63. doi:10.22463/24221783.2220 (inactive 2022-10-28). ISSN 2422-2518.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2022 (link)
  20. ^ "La Puerta de Oro de Boyacá invita al IX Festival de la Arepa". Boyacá Radio (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  21. ^ Acuña, Isaías Tobasura (2003). Boyacenses en Caldas: una colonización silenciosa (in Spanish). Universidad de Caldas. ISBN 978-958-8041-87-2.
  22. ^ "Arepa boyacense: prepara esta receta colombiana en pocos pasos". El Espectador (in Spanish). 2022-04-27. Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  23. ^ Romero, Sandra (2018-06-14). "¿Cómo se prepara una verdadera arepa paisa?". Periódico El Campesino (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  24. ^ Barrero, Óscar (2022-09-23). "¿Cuántas variedades de arepas hay en Colombia?". RCN Radio (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  25. ^ Dorta Vargas, Miguel Felipe (2016). ¡Viva la arepa! Sabor, memoria e imaginario social en Venezuela. Colección Trópicos (in Spanish). Editorial Alfa. ISBN 978-980-354-370-9. En el caso de las islas Canarias, Francisco Javier Pérez dice: «La costumbre de comer arepas llegó a Canarias de la mano de inmigrantes venezolanos [...]» [In the case of the Canary Islands, Francisco Javier Pérez says: «The custom of eating arepas arrived in the Canary Islands thanks to Venezuelan immigrants [...]»]
  26. ^ a b Agropecuaria, Vision (2016-11-22). "Venezolanos consumen 12,5 kilos menos de harina de maíz precocida al año". Visión Agropecuaria (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  27. ^ "How Venezuelan Traditions Work". Traditional Venezuelan Food - How Venezuelan Traditions Work | HowStuffWorks. 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  28. ^ Gackstetter Nichols, Elizabeth; Morse, Kimberly J. (2010-10-14). Venezuela. ABC-CLIO. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-59884-570-9.

Further reading