Barbari bread
Place of originIran
Region or stateRazavi Khorasan
Main ingredientsFlour
Baker baking Barbari bread in a traditional oven

Barbari bread (Persian: نان بربری, romanizednân-e barbari) is a type of yeast leavened flatbread. It is one of the thickest flat breads and is commonly topped with sesame or black caraway seeds. A notable characteristic of the bread is its top skin that is similar to pretzels or lye roll's skin due to the Maillard reaction that occurs during baking. Before baking it is glazed with a mixture of baking soda, flour and water. It is widely known as Persian flatbread in United States and Canada.[1][2]


Barbari bread traces back to the Qajar era when a nomadic Persian tribe known as "Barbari"[3]

During the Qajar dynasty, a large number of Hazaras immigrated to Khorasan. The Hazaras of Khorasan were known by the name Barbar until the first Pahlavi king period. While the term "Barbari" for this tribe was replaced by "Khavari" by royal edict of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,[4][5][6] the bread itself kept its title and is now commonly known as "nān-e barbari" in Iran.

The bread is still referred to as nān-e barbari in Iran while Hazaras refer to it as nān-e tanūri ("tandoor [tandir] bread").[7][8] It is popular among Iranian Azerbaijanis.[citation needed]

Manufacture and style

The bread is usually 70 cm to 80 cm long, and 25 cm to 30 cm wide.[9] It is the most common style baked in Iran. It is served in many restaurants with Lighvan cheese, a ewe's milk cheese similar to feta cheese.[10]

See also


  1. ^ Ram, Sewa (2009). Cereals: Processing and Nutritional Quality. New India Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 978-9-380-23507-3.
  2. ^ "Nan-e Barbari". Reform Judaism. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  3. ^ Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, Dehkhoda Lexicon, Origins of the term "Barbari" in Iran, The "barbar" were a nameless nomadic Persian tribe living in desert regions of North-East Iran
  4. ^ Shobhas Food Mazaa, Change of title "Barbari" to "Khavari", The Barbars hated being referred by such a name and Reza Shah granted them the name Khavari (Easterners)
  5. ^ "Home Page | خبرگزاری فارس". Retrieved 2024-02-04.
  6. ^ میزان, خبرگزاری (2020-02-26). "نان «بربری» از کجا آمد؟". fa (in Persian). Retrieved 2024-02-04.
  7. ^ "Khoeimini Anniversary Controversy in Kabul". Retrieved 2024-02-04.
  8. ^ میزان, خبرگزاری (2020-02-26). "نان «بربری» از کجا آمد؟". fa (in Persian). Retrieved 2024-02-04.
  9. ^ Qarooni, Jalal (2012). Flat Bread Technology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-461-31175-1.
  10. ^ "Persian Nan o Paneer (Bread with Cheese)". Reform Judaism. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.