Chapatis served with various side dishes
Alternative namesRoti, roshi, safati, shabaati, phulka, lavash
Place of originIndian subcontinent
Region or stateIndian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, East Africa, United Kingdom, Arabian Peninsula, Caribbean, Armenia
Main ingredientsWheat flour, water

Chapati (alternatively spelled chapathi; pronounced as IAST: capātī, capāṭī, cāpāṭi), also known as roti, rooti, rotee rotli, rotta, safati, shabaati, phulka (in Marathi), chapo (in East Africa), sada roti (in the Caribbean), poli, and roshi (in the Maldives),[1] is an unleavened flatbread originating from the Indian subcontinent and is a staple in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Sri Lanka, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, and the Caribbean.[2] Chapatis are made of whole-wheat flour known as atta, mixed into dough with water, oil (optional), and salt (optional) in a mixing utensil called a parat, and are cooked on a tava (flat skillet).[3][4]

It is a common staple in the Indian subcontinent as well as amongst expatriates from the Indian subcontinent throughout the world. Chapatis were also introduced to other parts of the world by immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, particularly by Indian merchants to Central Asia, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Caribbean.[5]


The word chapati is derived from the Sanskrit word चर्पटी[6] (charpaṭī). From a derivative of Sanskrit *चर्प (charpa, “flat”).


See also: Roti, Paratha, Kulcha, Puri (food), Bhatoora, Bhakri, Khakhra, and Naan

Chapati is a form of roti or rotta (bread). The words are often used interchangeably. The word chapat (Marathi: चापट) means "slap" or "flat," describing the traditional method of forming round pieces of thin dough by slapping the dough between the wetted palms of the hands. With each slap, the piece of dough is rotated.

The word chapati is noted in the 16th-century document Ain-i-Akbari by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, vizier of Mughal Emperor Akbar.[2]

Chapatis are one of the most common forms of wheat bread, a staple food in the Indian subcontinent. The carbonized wheat grains discovered at the excavations at Mohenjo-daro are of a similar variety to an endemic species of wheat still found in India. The Indus Valley is known to be one of the ancestral lands of cultivated wheat.

Chapatis, along with rotis, were introduced to other parts of the world by immigrants from the Indian subcontinent, particularly by Indian merchants who settled in Southeast Asia and the Caribbean islands.[5]


Bread (chapati/roti), plain, commercially prepared
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,247 kJ (298 kcal)
46.36 g
Dietary fiber4.9 g
7.45 g
11.25 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.55 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.2 mg
Niacin (B3)
6.78 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0 mg
Vitamin B6
0.270 mg
Folate (B9)
0 μg
Vitamin E
0.88 mg
Vitamin K
0 μg
93 mg
3 mg
62 mg
0 mg
184 mg
266 mg
409 mg
1.57 mg

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[7] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[8]

Chapatis are made using a soft dough comprising wheat flour and water.[9] It is more finely ground than most Western-style whole wheat flours.

Chapati dough is typically prepared with flour and water, kneaded with the knuckles of the hand made into a fist and left to rest for at least 10 or 15 minutes to an hour for the gluten in the dough to relax. After proofing, the dough becomes softer and more pliable. Small portions of the dough are pinched off and formed into round balls that are pressed between the two palms to form discs which are then dipped into flour and rolled out on a circular rolling board (a chakla), using a rolling pin known as a velan or belan, into a flat disc.[10] There are also automatic roti makers which automate the whole process.[11]

The rolled-out dough is then thrown on the preheated dry tava and cooked on both sides. In some regions of the Indian subcontinent chapatis are only partially cooked on the skillet, and then cooked directly over a flame, which makes them puff up. The hot steam cooks the chapati rapidly from the inside. In some parts of northern India and eastern Pakistan, this is called a phulka. In southern parts of India, it is called a pulka. It is also possible to puff up the roti directly on the tava.[12] Once cooked, chapatis are often topped with butter or ghee.[13] In western regions of Maharashtra, some oil is added inside the rolled-out dough and then put on the tava; this is distinct from paratha.

Chapati diameter and thickness vary from region to region. Chapatis made in domestic kitchens are usually not larger than 15 centimetres (6 in) to 18 centimetres (7 in) in diameter since the tava on which they are made comes in sizes that fit comfortably on a domestic stovetop. Tavas were traditionally made of unglazed earthenware, but are now typically made from metal. The shape of the rolling pin also varies from region to region. Some households simply use a kitchen worktop as a sort of pastry board, but round flat-topped "boards" made of wood, stone, or stainless steel are available specifically for rolling out chapatis.[5]

In most parts of the Indian subcontinent, there is a distinction made between chapati and other related flatbreads eaten in the region like roti, paratha, kulcha, puri and naan based on cooking technique, texture and use of different types of flours. For example, parathas are either made layered by spreading them with ghee, folding and rolling out again into a disc which turns out flakey once cooked, or are filled with spinach, dal or cooked radish or potato. Parathas are mostly made using all-purpose flour instead of whole wheat flour.[14]

There are many regional varieties of chapati in India:

In the Maldives, chapatis are traditionally eaten for breakfast along with a dish known as mas huni.[15]

Flatbreads are staples of Indian food. Chapatis go well with curries, dry sabzis or sabjis (vegetables cooked in gravy), chutneys or dal.[16]


See also


  1. ^ Oliver, Jamie. "Roshi ( maldivian roti)". Jamie Oliver. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017. (recipe)
  2. ^ a b Of Bread Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine Ain-i-Akbari, by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak. English tr. by Heinrich Blochmann and Colonel Henry Sullivan Jarrett, 1873–1907. The Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, Volume I, Chap. 26, page 61.
  3. ^ Nandita Godbole, 2016, Roti: Easy Indian Breads & Sides Archived 8 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Chitra Agrawal, 2017, Vibrant India: Fresh Vegetarian Recipes from Bangalore to Brooklyn Archived 8 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine, page 35.
  5. ^ a b c Kraig, Bruce; Sen, Colleen Taylor (2013). Street Food Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-59884-954-7.
  6. ^ Narendra, Dr (1996). Functional Sanskrit, its communicative aspect (in Sanskrit). Saṃskr̥takāryālayaḥ, Śrīaravindāśramaḥ. ISBN 978-81-7058-448-3.
  7. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 27 March 2024. Retrieved 28 March 2024.
  8. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 9 May 2024. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  9. ^ "India About Wheat". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  10. ^ Caballero, Benjamin; Finglas, Paul M.; Toldra, Fidel, eds. (2015). Encyclopedia of Food and Health. Vol. 1. Elsevier. p. 731. ISBN 978-0-12-803511-5.
  11. ^ "Roti-makers for quick and efficient preparation of rotis & pooris - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  12. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Soft Roti/Fulka/Chapati Recipe With And Without Gas Flame | Puff Roti in a skillet/tawa CookingShooking". YouTube.
  13. ^ Achaya, K. T. (1994). Indian Food: A Historical Companion. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-19-562845-6.
  14. ^ Chapman, Pat (2007). India: Food and Cooking: The Ultimate Book on Indian Cuisine. New Holland. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-84537-619-2.
  15. ^ Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders: A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom, Barcelona 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
  16. ^ Vanamali (January 1993). The Taste Divine: Indian Vegetarian Cooking the Natural Way. State University of New York Press. p. 60. ISBN 0-7914-1188-5.