Youtiao
Youtiao.jpg
Pieces of youtiao
Alternative namesChinese cruller
TypeDoughnut
CourseBreakfast
Place of originChina
Region or stateEast and Southeast Asia
Associated national cuisineChina, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei, Myanmar, Thailand and Taiwan
Serving temperatureFried
Main ingredientsDough
Youtiao
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese油條
Simplified Chinese油条
Literal meaningoil strip
Yu Char Kway
Traditional Chinese油炸粿/餜/鬼
Simplified Chinese油炸粿/馃/鬼
Literal meaningoil-fried pastry (or devil)
Guozi
Traditional Chinese餜子
Simplified Chinese馃子
Literal meaningpastry
Burmese name
Burmeseအီကြာ‌ကွေး
Ee Kyar Kway
Thai name
Thaiปาท่องโก๋
RTGSpathongko
Malay name
MalayCakoi
چاکوي
Indonesian name
Indonesiancakwe
Filipino name
Tagalogbicho-bicho/shakoy
Khmer name
Khmerឆាខ្វៃ / យ៉ាវឆាខ្វៃ
Chha Khwai / Yav Chha Khwai

Youtiao (simplified Chinese: 油条; traditional Chinese: 油條; pinyin: Yóutiáo), known in Southern China as Yu Char Kway is a long golden-brown deep-fried strip of dough made from wheat flour, first eaten in China and (by a variety of other names) also popular in other East and Southeast Asian cuisines.

Conventionally, youtiao are lightly salted and made so they can be torn lengthwise in two.[1] Youtiao are normally eaten at breakfast[2][3] as an accompaniment for rice congee, soy milk or regular milk blended with sugar. Youtiao may be known elsewhere as Chinese cruller,[4] Chinese fried churro, Chinese oil stick,[5] Chinese doughnut, Chinese breadstick, and fried breadstick.

In other Asian countries, they may also be called bicho, you char kway, cakwe, cakoi, kueh, kuay, shakoy or pathongko, among others.

Culinary applications and variants

At breakfast, youtiao can be stuffed inside shāobǐng (simplified Chinese: 烧饼; traditional Chinese: 燒餅; lit. 'roasted flatbread') to make a sandwich known as shāobǐng yóutiáo (simplified Chinese: 烧饼油条; traditional Chinese: 燒餅油條). Youtiao wrapped in a rice noodle roll is known as zháliǎng. In Yunnan, a roasted riceflour pancake usually wrapped around a youtiao is known as erkuai (simplified Chinese: 烧饵块; traditional Chinese: 燒餌塊). Yet another name for a sandwich variant is jianbingguǒzi (simplified Chinese: 煎饼果子; traditional Chinese: 煎餅果子; lit. 'youtiao and fried bread').

Youtiao is occasionally dipped into various liquids, for example the soup xidoufen, soymilk (sweet or salty), and soy sauce.

Youtiao is also an important ingredient of the food Cífàn tuán in Shanghai cuisine.

Tánggāo (Chinese: 糖糕), or "sugar cake", is a sweet, fried food item similar in appearance to youtiao but shorter in length.

In Thailand, youtiao or pathongko (ปาท่องโก๋) in Thai are eaten for breakfast with soymilk or porridge.

Names

China

Although generally known as yóutiáo in Standard Mandarin throughout China, the dish is also known as guǒzi (餜子) in northern China. In Min Nan-speaking areas, such as Taiwan, it is known as iû-chiā-kóe (油炸粿),[6] where kóe (粿/餜) means cake or pastry, hence "oil-fried cake/pastry". In Cantonese-speaking areas this is rendered as yàuhjagwái (油炸鬼), where gwái literally means "devil" or "ghost".[a]

Folk etymology

The Cantonese name yàuhjagwái literally means "oil-fried devil" and, according to folklore,[7][unreliable source?] is an act of protest against Song Dynasty official Qin Hui, who is said to have orchestrated the plot to frame the general Yue Fei, an icon of patriotism in Chinese culture. It is said that the food, originally in the shape of two human-shaped pieces of dough but later evolved into two pieces joined in the middle, represents Qin Hui and his wife, both having a hand in collaborating with the enemy to bring about the great general's demise.[8][unreliable source?] Thus the youtiao is deep fried and eaten as if done to the traitorous couple. In keeping with the legend, youtiao are often made as two foot-long rolls of dough joined along the middle, with one roll representing the husband and the other the wife.[9] The Cantonese name may derive from Guangzhou being the last resistance front before the Song dynasty collapsed.

Cambodia

In Cambodia, it is called cha kway (Khmer: ឆាខ្វៃ) and usually dipped in kuy teav, congee or coffee. Some Chinese Cambodian immigrants in Australia sometimes call it chopstick cake because of its resemblance to a pair of chopsticks.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, the fried dough is known as cakwe and is commonly chopped or thinly sliced and then eaten for breakfast.
In Indonesia, the fried dough is known as cakwe and is commonly chopped or thinly sliced and then eaten for breakfast.

In Indonesia, the fried dough is known as cakwe (pronounced [tʃakwe]). It is commonly chopped or thinly sliced and then eaten for breakfast with bubur ayam (chicken porridge) or eaten as snacks with dipping of local version of chilli vinaigrette or peanut / satay sauce.

In Java, cakwe is usually sold as a street snack at kaki lima, usually at the same stalls that sell bolang-baling or roti goreng (sweet fried dough) and untir-untir (Javanese version of mahua). This snack is sometime served with spicy sweet salty sauce (optional). Savoury cakwe, sweet bolang-baling and crunchy untir-untir are to be considered to compliment each other in a snack mix.

Laos

In Laos, youtiao is generally called kao nom kou or patongko (cf. Thai patongko) or "chao quay", and is commonly eaten with coffee at breakfast in place of a baguette (khao jee falang).[10] It is also eaten as an accompaniment to "khao piek sen" (chicken noodle soup) or "jok" (congee).[citation needed]

Malaysia

It is rendered in Malay language as cakoi, an alteration of the Minnan term, char kway. The name pathongko (see Thailand) is more common in the northern states of Kedah, Perlis and Penang.[11] Cakoi is usually sold in morning street markets or pasar malam night markets and commonly eaten with coffee or soy milk for breakfast or at tea time.

Singapore

In Singapore, it is known as yu char kway, which is the transliteration of its Hokkien (Minnan) name (油炸粿 iû-tsiā-kué). Apart from the plain version, the Singaporean take on Yuotiao also comes with various fillings which are either sweet, such as red bean paste (as ham chim peng, 咸煎饼) or savoury, such as sardines in tomato sauce. The plain version is often eaten with sweet chili sauce or coconut and egg jam called kaya, or served with bak kut teh (肉骨茶), porridge or rice congee, sliced thinly to be dipped into the broth or congee and eaten.[12]

Myanmar

The youtiao is a popular breakfast food in Myanmar, where it is called e kya kway.
The youtiao is a popular breakfast food in Myanmar, where it is called e kya kway.

The youtiao is also a popular breakfast food in Myanmar (Burma) where it is called e kya kway (အီကြာကွေး [ì tʒà ku̯éː]) . It is usually eaten with steamed yellow beans (with salt and oil). It is also usually dipped into coffee or tea. E kya kway is also eaten with rice porridge, or cut into small rings and used as a condiment for mohinga. Tea culture is very prevalent in Myanmar, and every shop will serve e kya kway for breakfast.

Some shops stuff meat into the youtiao and deep fry it over again. It is called e kya kway asar thoot – stuffed e kya kway.

Shakoy/Bicho from the Philippines
Bicho-Bicho from the Philippines

Philippines

Main article: Shakoy

In the Philippines, it is either known as Bicho / Bicho-Bicho (Hokkien: 米棗 Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bí-tsó) or Shakoy / Siyakoy (Hokkien: 炸粿 Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tsia̍h-kué) / Pinisi / lubid-lubid. They are usually deep-fried, in the case of Bicho-Bicho, or deep-fried and twisted as twisted doughnuts, in the case of Shakoy. Dry, smaller and crunchy versions are called pilipit.

Thailand

Thai youtiao
Thai youtiao

In Thailand, youtiao is generally called pathongko (Thai: ปาท่องโก๋, pronounced [paːtʰɔ̂ŋkǒː]) due to a confusion with a different kind of dessert. Pathongko is a loanword adapted from either Teochew Minnan beh teung guai (白糖粿; Mandarin: bái tángguǒ) or Cantonese of baahktònggòu (白糖糕; Mandarin: bái tánggāo). However, both possible original names are different desserts, not to be confused with the real white sugar sponge cake (白糖糕). It was previously sold together with youtiao by street vendors who normally walked around and shouted both names out loud. However, Thai customers often mistakenly thought that the more popular youtiao was "pathongko". Eventually, the real pathongko disappeared from the market because of its unpopularity. Ironically, the disappearance of real "pathongko" leaves youtiao being called under the former's name, but the latter's real name is generally unknown amongst the Thais. But the original white sugar sponge cake can still be easily found in Trang Province in Southern Thailand under its original name while youtiao is still called "chakoi" or "chiakoi" by some Southerners.

In Thailand, pathongko is also dipped into condensed milk or, in the South, eaten with kaya.

Vietnam

Quẩy
Quẩy

In Vietnamese cuisine, it is known by a name that is a pronunciation similar to the Cantonese pronunciation, as dầu cháo quẩy, giò cháo quẩy or simply quẩy. 油 ("Dầu/giò"), 鬼 ("quỷ/quẩy") coming from the approximate Cantonese pronunciation. In Vietnam, "giò cháo quẩy" is eaten typically with congee, pho in Hanoi and sometimes with wonton noodle (mi hoanh thanh).

See also

Other Chinese fried dough dishes

Other similar foods

Notes

  1. ^ Similarly, the dish known as chhá-koé-tiâu (炒粿條) in Minnan, kóe-tiâu being the Minnan name for flat rice noodles (literally "(rice) cake strips"), is on Cantonese menus rendered as 炒貴刁 (ja gwaidìu) where the characters 貴刁 (gwaidìu, literally expensive (Surname)) are equally meaningless. See Char koay teow: Etymology for more information.

References

  1. ^ Youtiao (Chinese Oil Stick)-Chinese Cruller – China Sichuan Food
  2. ^ Youtiao Chinese Deep Fried Donuts) Recipe - Food.com
  3. ^ Chinese Doughnut Recipe (Crisp Fried Fritters/Breadstick) | 油條 Yóutiáo - Angel Wong's Kitchen
  4. ^ "Chinese Breakfast" at About.com. Accessed 1 May 2008.
  5. ^ Healthier 'youtiao'? Chengdu vendor finds breakthrough recipe | South China Morning Post
  6. ^ 許極燉. 《常用漢字台語詞典》. 台北市: 自立晚報社文化出版部, 1992. (A Taiwanese dictionary with frequently used Chinese characters. Taipei: Independence Evening Post, 1992.) (in Chinese)
  7. ^ Yew Char Kway the Easy Way by Denise Fletcher on July 7, 2011
  8. ^ Youtiao (Chinese Crullers) - Ang Sarap
  9. ^ West Lake, a Collection of Folktales (ISBN 9620400542) page 181.
  10. ^ "Laos: Food and Drink." Archived June 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine at CPAMedia. Accessed 30 May 2008.
  11. ^ 15 Local Types Of Food That Have Totally Different Names Across Malaysia
  12. ^ Lee, Penelope (19 August 2020). "Food Picks Podcast: Red-and-white youtiao and lychee sorbet as tribute to Singapore | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. Retrieved 3 February 2022.