Various chopsticks, from top to bottom: • 12-inch (30.5 cm) ruler (for scale) • Taiwanese melamine chopsticks • Chinese porcelain chopsticks • Tibetan bamboo chopsticks • Vietnamese palmwood chopsticks • Korean stainless steel flat chopsticks • Korean matching spoon in a sujeo • Japanese palmwood couple's set (two pairs) • Japanese child's chopsticks • Disposable bamboo chopsticks from Hong Kong Garden, Crookwell, NSW (in paper wrapper)
Various chopsticks, from top to bottom:
• 12-inch (30.5 cm) ruler (for scale)
• Taiwanese melamine chopsticks
• Chinese porcelain chopsticks
• Tibetan bamboo chopsticks
• Vietnamese palmwood chopsticks
• Korean stainless steel flat chopsticks
• Korean matching spoon in a sujeo
• Japanese palmwood couple's set (two pairs)
• Japanese child's chopsticks
• Disposable bamboo chopsticks from Hong Kong Garden, Crookwell, NSW (in paper wrapper)
Chopsticks
Chopsticks 2 (Chinese characters).svg
The original Chinese character for "chopsticks"[A]
Chinese name
Chinese筷子
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetđũa
Chữ Hán
Chữ Nôm𥮊
Korean name
Hangul젓가락
Hanja
Japanese name
Kanji
Kanaはし

Chopsticks (Chinese: 筷子 or Chinese: ) are shaped pairs of equal-length sticks of Chinese origin that have been used as kitchen and eating utensils in most of East and Southeast Asia for over three millennia. They are held in the dominant hand, secured by fingers, and wielded as extensions of the hand, to pick up food.

First used by the Chinese, chopsticks later spread throughout China's peripheral cultural sphere as well as in Southeast Asian countries including Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Singapore. In Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Nepal, chopsticks are generally used to consume noodles. Similarly, chopsticks have become more accepted in connection with Asian food in the West, especially in cities with significant Asian diaspora communities.

Chopsticks are smoothed, and frequently tapered. They are traditionally made of wood, bamboo, metal, ivory, and ceramics, and in modern days, increasingly available in non-traditional materials such as plastic, stainless steel, and even titanium. Chopsticks are often seen as requiring practice and skill to master to be used as an eating utensil.

Origin and history

See also: List of Chinese inventions

Chopsticks has been around and used since at least the Shang dynasty (1766–1122 BCE). However, the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that it is likely that chopsticks were also used in the preceding Xia dynasty and even the earlier Erlitou culture, although finding archeological evidence from this era is incredibly difficult.[1]

The earliest evidence of chopsticks uncovered so far consists of six chopsticks, made of bronze, 26 centimeters (10 in) long, and 1.1 to 1.3 centimeters (0.43 to 0.51 in) wide, excavated from the Ruins of Yin near Anyang (Henan). These are dated roughly to 1200 BCE, during the Shang dynasty. They were supposed to have been used for cooking.[2][3][4] The earliest known textual reference to the use of chopsticks comes from the Han Feizi, a philosophical text written by Han Fei (c. 280–233 BCE) in the 3rd century BCE.[5]

As cooking utensils

Silver chopsticks, spoon, and bowl from the Song dynasty
Silver chopsticks, spoon, and bowl from the Song dynasty

The first chopsticks were used for cooking, stirring the fire, serving or seizing bits of food, and not as eating utensils. One reason was that before the Han dynasty, millet was predominant in North China, Korea and parts of Japan. While chopsticks were used for cooking, millet porridge was eaten with spoons at that time.[6]: 29-35  The use of chopsticks in the kitchen continues to this day.

Ryōribashi (料理箸) are Japanese kitchen chopsticks used in Japanese cuisine. They are used in the preparation of Japanese food, and are not designed for eating. These chopsticks allow handling of hot food with one hand, and are used like regular chopsticks. These chopsticks have a length of 30 centimeters (12 in) or more, and may be looped together with a string at the top. They are usually made from bamboo. For deep frying, however, metal chopsticks with bamboo handles are preferred, as tips of regular bamboo chopsticks become discolored and greasy after repeated use in hot oil. The bamboo handles protect against heat.

Similarly, Vietnamese cooks use đũa cả (𥮊奇) or "grand chopsticks" in cooking, and for serving rice from the pot.[7]

As eating utensils

A painting of a Japanese woman using chopsticks, by Utagawa Kuniyoshi
A painting of a Japanese woman using chopsticks, by Utagawa Kuniyoshi

Chopsticks began to be used as eating utensils during the Han dynasty, as rice consumption increased. During this period, spoons continued to be used alongside chopsticks as eating utensils at meals. It was not until the Ming dynasty that chopsticks came into exclusive use for both serving and eating. They then acquired the name kuaizi and the present shape.[8][6]: 6-8 

Propagation throughout the world

The use of chopsticks as both cooking and eating utensils spread throughout East Asia over time. Scholars such as Isshiki Hachiro and Lynn White have noted how the world was split among three dining customs, or food cultural spheres. There are those eating with fingers, and those with forks and knives. Then there is the "chopsticks cultural sphere", consisting of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam.[6]: 1-3, 67-92 

As ethnic Chinese emigrated, the use of chopsticks as eating utensils for certain ethnic food took hold in South and Southeast Asian countries such as Cambodia, Laos, Nepal, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore and Thailand. In Singapore and Malaysia, the ethnic Chinese traditionally consume all food with chopsticks, while ethnic Indians and Malays (especially in Singapore) use chopsticks only to consume noodle dishes. Overall, the use of a spoon or fork is more common in these regions.[9][10] In Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Nepal chopsticks are generally used only to consume noodles.[6]: 1–8 

Similarly, chopsticks have become more accepted in connection with Asian food in Hawaii, the West Coast of North America,[11][12] and cities with Overseas Asian communities all around the globe.

The earliest European reference to chopsticks comes in the Portuguese Suma Oriental by Tomé Pires, who wrote in 1515 in Malacca: "They [the Chinese] eat with two sticks and the earthenware or china bowl in their left hand close to the mouth, with the two sticks to suck in. This is the Chinese way."[13]

Naming in different countries

In ancient written Chinese, the character for chopsticks was zhu (箸; Middle Chinese reconstruction: d̪jwo-). Although it may have been widely used in ancient spoken Chinese, its use was eventually replaced by the pronunciation for the character kuài (快), meaning "quick". The original character, though still used in writing, is rarely used in modern spoken Chinese. It, however, is preserved in Chinese dialects such as Hokkien and Teochew as the Min Chinese languages are directly descended from Old Chinese rather than Middle Chinese.

The Standard Chinese term for chopsticks is kuàizi (Chinese: 筷子). The first character (筷) is a semantic-phonetic compound created with a phonetic part meaning "quick" (快), and a semantic part meaning "bamboo" (竹), using the radical (⺮).[14][15]

The English word "chopstick" may have derived from Chinese Pidgin English, in which chop chop meant "quickly".[16][17][18] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest published use of the word is in the 1699 book Voyages and Descriptions by William Dampier: "they are called by the English seamen Chopsticks".[19] Another possibility, is that the term is derived from chow (or chow chow) which is also a pidgin word stemming from Southeast Asia meaning "food". Thus chopsticks would simply mean "food sticks".

In Japanese, chopsticks are called hashi (). They are also known as otemoto (おてもと), a phrase commonly printed on the wrappers of disposable chopsticks. Te means hand and moto means the area under or around something. The preceding o is used for politeness.

In Okinawan, chopsticks are called mēshi めーし as a vulgar word,[20] umēshi うめーし as a polite word,[21] or 'nmēshi ぅんめーし(御箸[citation needed],ʔNmeesi).[22] A special type of chopsticks made from the himehagi (a Japanese word referring to Polygala japonica) stem is called sōrō 'nmēshi そーろーぅんめーし (sooroo ʔNmeesi精霊御箸[citation needed]). These are used at altars of offerings in Kyū Bon (old Bon Festival).[23]

In Korean, 저 (箸, jeo) is used in the compound jeotgarak (Hangul: 젓가락), which is composed of jeo ("chopsticks") and garak ("stick"). Jeo cannot be used alone, but can be found in other compounds such as sujeo (Hangul: 수저) ("spoon and chopsticks").

In Taiwanese Hokkien, which is derived from Hokkien, chopsticks are called , written as 箸.[24]

In Vietnamese, chopsticks are called đũa, which is written as 𥮊 with 竹 trúc ("bamboo") as the semantic, and 杜 đỗ as the phonetic part.

In Cambodian (Khmer), chopsticks are called chang keuh (ចង្កឹះ).

Styles of chopsticks

Common characteristics

Chopsticks on a store rack
Chopsticks on a store rack

Chopsticks come in a wide variety of styles, with differences in geometry and material. Depending on the country and the region some chopstick styles are more common than others.

China

Chinese chopsticks tend to be longer than other styles, at about 27 centimeters (11 in). They are thicker, with squared or rounded cross-sections. They end in either wide, blunt, flat tips or tapered pointed tips. Blunt tips are more common with plastic or melamine varieties, whereas pointed tips are more common in wood and bamboo varieties. Chinese restaurants more commonly offer melamine chopsticks for its durability and ease of sanitation. Within individual household, bamboo chopsticks are more commonly found.

Japan

Japanese-style wooden and plastic chopsticks
Chopsticks made of Japanese yew wood, on a chopstick rest
Hashi (for eating) and saibashi (for cooking, shown below)
Hashi (for eating) and saibashi (for cooking, shown below)

It is common for Japanese sticks to be of shorter length for women, and children's chopsticks in smaller sizes are common. Many Japanese chopsticks have circumferential grooves at the eating end, which helps prevent food from slipping. Japanese chopsticks are typically sharp and pointed, in order to dissect fish and seafood. They are traditionally made of wood or bamboo, and are lacquered.

Lacquered chopsticks are known in Japanese as nuribashi, in several varieties, depending on where they are made and what types of lacquers are used in glossing them.[6]: 80–87  Japan is the only place where they are decorated with natural lacquer, making them not just functional but highly attractive. Japanese traditional lacquered chopsticks are produced in the city of Obama in Fukui Prefecture, and come in many colors coated in natural lacquer. They are decorated with mother-of-pearl from abalone, and with eggshell to impart a waterproof coating to the chopsticks, extending their life.[26]

Edo Kibashi chopsticks have been made by Tokyo craftspeople since the beginning of the Taishō Period (1912-1926) roughly 100 years ago. These chopsticks use high-grade wood (ebony, red sandalwood, ironwood, Japanese box-trees, or maple), which craftspeople plane by hand.[27] Edo Kibashi chopsticks may be pentagonal, hexagonal or octagonal in cross-section. The tips of these chopsticks are rounded to prevent to damage the dish or the bowl.[28]

In Japan, chopsticks for cooking are known as ryoribashi (料理箸 | りょうりばし),[29] and as saibashi (菜箸 | さいばし) when used to transfer cooked food to the dishes it will be served in.[30]

Korea

Sujeo, a set of chopsticks and a spoon
Bronze chopsticks (Goryeo dynasty, 918~1392)

The earliest uses of chopsticks in Korea seem to date back to the Three Kingdoms of Korea with the oldest chopsticks excavated from the royal tomb of Baekje.[31] Chopsticks used by Koreans are often made of metal. It is believed that the uses of metallic chopsticks evolved from the royal practice of using silver chopsticks to detect poison in food, but the exact reason is debated.[32] Depending on the historical era, the metallic composition of Korean chopsticks varied. In the past, such as during the Goryeo era, chopsticks were made of bronze. During the Joseon era, chopsticks used by royalty were made of silver, as its oxidizing properties could often be used to detect whether or not food intended for royals had been tampered with. In the present day, the majority of Korean metal chopsticks are made of stainless steel. Due to metal's slippery nature, the chopsticks are stamped flat for better gripping.[32] High-end sets, such as those intended as gifts, are often made of sterling silver. Chopsticks made of varying woods (typically bamboo) are also common in Korea. Many Korean chopsticks are ornately decorated at the grip.

In North and South Korea, chopsticks of medium-length with a small, flat rectangular shape are paired with a spoon, made of the same material. The set is called sujeo, a portmanteau of the Korean words for spoon and chopsticks. This (the historical extensive use of a spoon in addition to chopsticks) is also a feature unique to Korea; most chopstick-using countries have either eliminated the use of spoons, or have limited their use as eating utensils. It is traditional to rest sujeo on spoon and chopstick rest, so chopsticks and the spoon do not touch the table surface.

In the past, materials for sujeo varied with social class: Sujeo used in the court were made with gold, silver, or cloisonné, while commoners used brass or wooden sujeo. Today, sujeo is usually made with stainless steel, although bangjja is also popular in more traditional settings.

Vietnam

Natural wooden chopsticks
Natural wooden chopsticks
The tip of the chopsticks is big and thick, usually not used to pick up food
The tip of the chopsticks is big and thick, usually not used to pick up food

Vietnamese chopsticks are long sticks that taper to a blunt point. They are usually big and thick at one end and thinner at the other, thin ends are often used to pick up food. They are traditionally made of bamboo or lacquered wood. Đũa cả (Chữ Nôm: 𥮊奇) are large, flat chopsticks used to serve rice from a pot. Plastic chopsticks are also used due to their durability. However, bamboo or wooden chopsticks are often more popular, especially in the village countryside (quê).

Thailand

Native cuisine uses a fork and spoon, adopted from the West. Ethnic Chinese immigrants introduced the use of chopsticks for foods that require them. Restaurants serving other Asian cuisines that utilize chopsticks use the style of chopstick, if any, appropriate for that cuisine.

Brunei & East Malaysia

Bamboo chopsticks called candas are used to eat ambuyat (Brunei) or linut (Malaysia), a native staple food of glutinous porridge made from sago. A pair of candas is typically adjoined at the back.

Using chopsticks

A sample of alternative grips
Vulcan
Chicken claws
Dangling stick
Scissorhand

Chopstick grips

Lifelong users and adult learners alike, around the world, hold chopsticks in more than one way. But there is a general consensus on a standard grip being the most efficient way to grip and wield chopsticks.[33]

Regardless of whether users wield the standard grip, or one of many alternative grips, their goals are the same. They hold the two sticks in the dominant hand, secured by various fingers and parts of the hand, such that the sticks become an extension of the hand. Tsung-Dao Lee, a Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics, summarized it thus: "Although simple, the two sticks perfectly use the physics of leverage. Chopsticks are an extension of human fingers. Whatever fingers can do, chopsticks can do, too."[6]: 14 

Alternative grips differ in their effectiveness in picking up food. They differ in the amount of pinching (compression) power they can generate. Some grips can generate substantial, outward extension force, while others are unable to do so.

Standard grip

Standard grip
Parts of fingers and hand

The standard grip calls for the top chopstick to be held by the tip of the thumb, the tip of the index finger, and the middle finger knuckle. These three fingers surround the top stick from three sides, and firmly secure the stick as if they were holding a pen. The three fingers, using this tripod-like hold, can wiggle and twirl the top stick, as if it were an extension of them. The rear end of the top stick rests on the base of the index finger.

The bottom chopstick, on the other hand, generally remains immobile. It is secured by the base of the thumb, which presses the stick against the knuckle of the ring finger, and against the purlicue. The thumb therefore does double duty. It holds the bottom stick immobile, and at the same time, it also moves the top stick. The thumb must be flattened, in order to perform this double duty.[34]

Learning to use chopsticks

Chopstick wrapper with how-to-use instructions
Chopstick wrapper with how-to-use instructions

In chopstick-using cultures, learning to use chopsticks is part of a child's development process. The right way to use chopsticks is usually taught within the family.[B] But many young children find their own ways of wielding chopsticks in the process.[33] There exists a variety of learning aids that parents purchase to help their children learn to use chopsticks properly.

Adult learners, on the other hand, may acquire the skill through personal help from friends, or from instructions printed on wrapper sleeves of some disposable chopsticks. Various video hosting platforms also provide plethora of how-to videos on learning to use chopsticks. All the same, adult learners too., often find their own alternative grips to using chopsticks.

In general, learning aids attempt to steer learners towards the established standard grip. These aids attempt to illustrate or enforce the right standard grip mechanical leverage.

Full range of chopstick motion

Range of motion of the standard grip
Closed posture
Open posture
Side view showing flattened thumb

The learning process usually starts with a proper initial placement of fingers, per standard grip. It is crucial for learners to understand how to hold both sticks firmly in the hand, as extensions of fingers.

The next step involves learning the right motion of fingers, in order to move the top stick from the closed posture where tips of chopsticks touch, to the open posture where tips are extended wide apart for embracing food items. The open posture and the closed posture define the two ends of maximum standard grip motion. In most eating situations, tips of chopsticks need not be extended this wide apart.

Both finger placement and standard grip motion rely on the thumb being flattened. With this flat thumb pose, the base of the thumb can exert enough force to pin the bottom stick against the knuckle of the ring finger, and against the purlicue. At the same time, the tip of the thumb pushes back against the index finger and the knuckle of the middle finger, as all three wield the top stick in concert.[35]

The shape of the flat thumb is such that the bottom stick is prevented from shaking loose, and from inching closer to the top stick, during repeated standard grip motion. Keeping the two chopsticks separated far enough, at the place they intersect with the thumb, is important for the standard grip. At the open posture, it allows tips to extend wide apart, without rear ends of chopsticks colliding. At the closed posture, it enables better control over tips of chopsticks.[B]

Learning aids

Tweezer-like learning aids
Tweezer-like learning aids

The most popular chopstick learning aid is arguably the wrapper-sleeve-and-rubber-band model, which is used in ethnic restaurants around the world. These are mostly operated like tweezers, or tongs. While they are useful for picking up food, they do not help learners acquire the standard grip. Many similar chopstick inventions can be found on the market, such as Kwik Stix. Some inventions combine other utensils with chopsticks. These include The Chork, the Fork and Knife Chopsticks, etc.

Finger placement learning aid
Finger placement learning aid

Some learning aids help learners with the initial placement of fingers, per standard grip. This can be done by making "index finger", "thumb tip", or equivalent labels at the right places on chopsticks. Often these chopsticks will have finger-shaped grooves carved out of sticks, to further help learners find the right placement. Other finger placement chopsticks instead carve circumferential grooves into sticks, in place of finger-shaped ones.

Exoskeleton learning aids
Exoskeleton learning aids

Some learning aids allow users to wield two sticks as extensions of their fingers, without the exact finger dynamics required by the standard grip. Some models provide hoops through which fingers can move the top chopstick as an exoskeleton of these fingers. Other models use finger-shaped tabs instead to achieve the same, for both top and bottom sticks. Yet other models combine finger placement features with the above. Usually these models connect the two chopsticks with a bridge and a hinge, holding the two sticks in the right configuration on behalf of users.

Chopstick customs, manners and etiquette

Westerners using chopsticks in a tourist restaurant in mainland China
Westerners using chopsticks in a tourist restaurant in mainland China

Chopsticks are used in many parts of the world. While principles of etiquette are similar, finer points can differ from region to region. Chopstick manners were gradually shaped to work with a culture's particular dietary varieties and habit. Etiquette developed for primarily individual servings eaten on the floor (or tatami in the case of Japan) could be different from communal meals eaten around a table while seated on chairs. The need for serving or communal chopsticks similarly differ. In some cultures it is customary to lift a bowl to the mouth, when the only eating utensil used is chopsticks. In other cultures, lifting a bowl closer to the mouth is frowned upon as equivalent to begging, as the local custom is to use chopsticks for chunky food, and a spoon for liquid food.[6]: 102-119 

In chopstick-using countries, holding chopsticks incorrectly reflects negatively on a child's parents and home environment. There are frequent news articles on the alarming decline of children's abilities to use chopsticks correctly. Similarly, stabbing food due to one's inability to wield chopsticks with dexterity is also frowned upon. [36]: 73-75[37][38]

In general, chopsticks should not be left vertically stuck into a bowl of rice because it resembles the ritual of incense-burning that symbolizes "feeding" the dead.[39][40][41]

China

Further information: Customs and etiquette in Chinese dining

Japan

Various chopstick rests
Various chopstick rests

Further information: Customs and etiquette in Japanese dining

Korea

Simple Korean table (chopsticks and a spoon placed palewise, on the right side of rice and soup)
Simple Korean table (chopsticks and a spoon placed palewise, on the right side of rice and soup)

Vietnam

A popular tray of rice in Vietnam
A popular tray of rice in Vietnam

Vietnam is one of the countries in the original "chopsticks cultural sphere". Its customs are heavily influenced by its Chinese counterparts, including using chopsticks exclusively as eating utensils. Consequently Vietnamese chopstick etiquette is very similar to the Chinese version.[6]: 69, 73  For instance, it is deemed proper to hold the bowl close to the mouth, just like is the case in China. Holding chopsticks vertically up like incense sticks is taboo. Tapping bowls with chopsticks is frowned upon.[51]

Although there are some similarities with China, they still have some differences, some other common Vietnamese taboos are:

Placing chopsticks unevenly on the dining table
Before and during a meal, do not place long or short chopsticks on the table, because this is considered a bad omen. Influenced by the concept of China, the ancients also believed that this is similar to the coffin of the dead, made from 2 short wooden boards and 3 long wooden boards, representing bad luck. You should pay attention to equalize chopsticks when eating, not only to avoid possible bad luck but in fact it makes it easier to pick up food.
Knocking chopsticks into the bowl
The act of tapping chopsticks on the side of a bowl is considered similar to a beggar. because, in the past, only beggars used chopsticks to knock on pots to make the sound of begging for food. This is considered rude and unlucky and should absolutely be avoided, especially when dining with outsiders.
Index finger pointing out when holding chopsticks
In this usage, the thumb, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger hold the chopsticks, while the index finger sticks out. It's like constantly pointing fingers at others, meaning to criticize and scold others. In addition, when talking during meals, pointing at others with chopsticks is also extremely disrespectful.
Crossing chopsticks
This behavior usually goes unnoticed. When eating, many people arbitrarily put their chopsticks on the table. The ancients considered this behavior to be counterproductive, denying all people sitting at the same table.
Using chopsticks to plug the rice bowl
This is taboo because it is similar to sticking incense in an incense bowl, implying an invitation to the deceased, bringing bad spirits to the meal.
Using chopsticks to skewer food
If during a meal, chopsticks are inserted into the food, this is a kind of rude behavior, very impolite and taboo for the people sitting at the table.
Sucking or biting chopsticks
When eating, holding chopsticks in your mouth, biting back and forth with your mouth, and sometimes making noises is considered an act of lack of upbringing, meanness and disrespect. In addition, this behavior and the sound it makes also make others feel uncomfortable and offensive. Therefore, this is not advisable behavior.
Using a chopstick to stir the food
When eating rice but only using a chopstick to stir the plate of food, this must also be avoided, because it is considered to be insulting to those at the table.
Connecting chopsticks together
When serving food for others, in addition to having to turn the chopsticks to keep the recipient's hygiene, you also have to pay attention to pick up the food and put it in their bowl and avoid "joining chopsticks", that is, passing food from chopsticks to chopsticks of others. this brings bad luck because in some places, when cremating the dead, the ashes will be passed with chopsticks. You should avoid bringing bad luck to you.
Picking up and putting down without picking
In the past, well-educated girls were often taught to absolutely avoid using chopsticks to swing in the rice tray, choose food, and do not know where to lower the chopsticks to pick up the appropriate place.[clarification needed] This type of behavior is a typical manifestation of lack of cultivation, moreover, not treating anyone well enough to make others feel offensive. In modern society, this behavior also does not make good sense.
Searching through food
When eating rice but holding chopsticks in hand and constantly picking at food, in order to find a preferred food item, is likened to the act of "grave theft". This behavior also belongs to the behavior of lack of upbringing, causing offense.
Picking up spilled food
Using chopsticks to pick up food that is not neat or pick up one dish and spill it on another or on the table is considered extremely rude.

Cambodia

In Cambodia, chopsticks, spoon and fork, and hands are the primary eating utensils. Although chopsticks are commonly used for noodle dishes, most Cambodians use chopsticks for any meal.[52] And because Cambodia adopted the spoon and fork later than their neighboring countries such as Thailand, it is common to see Cambodians use chopsticks for any meals.[53] Forks are only used to help guide food onto the spoon. Forks are not used to shovel food into the mouth. For noodle dishes such as kuy teav and num banh chok, chopsticks are used. Cambodians do not use forks at all to put food in their mouth because they are seen as dangerous near the mouth area. And the soup spoon is used for the broth.[54][55]

Thailand

Global impacts

Disposable chopsticks
Disposable chopsticks
Disposable chopsticks in a recycle bin
Disposable chopsticks in a recycle bin

Environmental impacts

The most widespread use of disposable chopsticks is in Japan, where around a total of 24 billion pairs are used each year,[59][60][61] which is equivalent to almost 200 pairs per person yearly.[62] In China, an estimated 45 billion pairs of disposable chopsticks are produced yearly.[62] This adds up to 1.66 million cubic meters (59×10^6 cu ft) of timber[63] or 25 million fully grown trees every year.[62]

In April 2006, China imposed a 5% tax on disposable chopsticks to reduce waste of natural resources by overconsumption.[64][65] This measure had the most effect in Japan as many of its disposable chopsticks are imported from China,[62] which account for over 90% of the Japanese market.[61][66]

American manufacturers have begun exporting American-made chopsticks to China, using sweet gum and poplar wood as these materials do not need to be artificially lightened with chemicals or bleach, and have been seen as appealing to Chinese and other East Asian consumers.[67]

The American-born Taiwanese singer Wang Leehom has publicly advocated the use of reusable chopsticks made from sustainable materials.[68][69] In Japan, reusable chopsticks are known as maihashi or maibashi (マイ箸, meaning "my chopsticks").[70][71]

Effects on health

A 2006 Hong Kong Department of Health survey found that, since 2003, the proportion of people using distinctly separate serving chopsticks, spoons, or other utensils for serving food from a common dish has increased from 46% to 65%.[72]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Still widely used across East Asia, but in China has become archaic in most Chinese dialects except Min Chinese.
  2. ^ a b There is a lack of written literature on the variety of chopstick grips, naming of these, classifications of these, factors used to determine grip differences, etc. There is also a lack of literature on the presumed standard grip, its physics, and its mechanical leverage. Detailed written literature on how to learn the standard grip has yet to be discovered. For the time being, summaries written in this article on the use of chopsticks can be substantiated by direct observations of a person using chopsticks, and by watching online videos.[6]: 166-167 

References

  1. ^ H.T. Huang (Huang Xingzong). Fermentations and Food Science. Part 5 of Biology and Biological Technology, Volume 6 of Joseph Needham, ed., Science and Civilisation in China, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000 ISBN 0-521-65270-7), p. 104
  2. ^ 卢茂村 (Lu, Maocun). "筷子古今谈 (An Introduction to Chopsticks)", 农业考古 (Agricultural Archaeology), 2004, No. 1:209–216. ISSN 1006-2335.
  3. ^ "Le due leggende sulle bacchette cinesi". Italian.cri.cn. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  4. ^ (in Chinese) 嚴志斌 洪梅编著殷墟青銅器︰青銅時代的中國文明』 上海大学出版社, 2008-08, p. 48 "第二章 殷墟青銅器的類別與器型 殷墟青銅食器 十、銅箸 这三双箸长26、粗细在1.1-1.3厘米之间,出土于西北岗1005号大墓。陈梦家认为这种箸原案有长形木柄,应该是烹调用具。" ISBN 7811180979 OCLC 309392963.
  5. ^ Needham, Joseph. (2000). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 5, Fermentations and Food Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. footnote 161.
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