Nasi campur
Nasi campur served at Mandarin Oriental Hotel Majapahit, Surabaya, East Java
Alternative namesNasi rames
CourseMain course
Place of originIndonesia
Region or stateMaritime Southeast Asia
Associated cuisineIndonesia
Serving temperatureHot or room temperature
Main ingredientsRice with various side dishes
VariationsNasi campur Bali, nasi rames (Indo)
Other informationAlso popular in the Netherlands

Nasi campur (Indonesian for 'mixed rice'), also known as nasi rames (Javanese: ꦤꦱꦶꦫꦩꦼꦱ꧀, romanized: nasi raměs, lit.'mixed rice') or sega campur (Javanese: ꦱꦼꦒ​ꦕꦩ꧀ꦥꦸꦂ, romanized: sěgå campur; [sə'gɔ ˈtʃampur]) in Java, refers to an Indonesian dish of a scoop of nasi putih (white rice) accompanied by small portions of several other dishes, which includes meats, vegetables, peanuts, eggs, and fried-shrimp krupuk.[1] Depending on the origin, a nasi campur vendor might serve several side dishes, including vegetables, fish, and meats.[2] It is a staple meal from Indonesia and popular in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and southern Thailand, and also the Netherlands through its colonial ties with Indonesia. A similar form called chanpurū exists in Okinawa.

Origin and variations

Nasi campur is a ubiquitous dish around Indonesia and as diverse as the Indonesian archipelago itself, with regional variations.[1] There is no exact rule, recipe, or definition of what makes a nasi campur, since Indonesians and by large Southeast Asians commonly consume steamed rice surrounded with side dishes consisting of vegetables and meat. As a result, the question of origin or recipe is obscure. Yet nasi campur is commonly perceived as steamed rice surrounded with dishes that might consist of vegetables and meats, served in personal portions, in contrast to tumpeng that is served in larger collective portions or rijsttafel that was presented in lavish colonial banquets.

There are several local variations throughout Southeast Asia: from Java, Bali, Malaysia, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Indo-colonial to Chinese Indonesian versions of nasi campur.

Balinese

Nasi campur Balinese version with two types of sate lilit, egg and vegetables

In Bali, the mixed rice called nasi campur Bali or simply nasi Bali is a favorite among tourists.[3] This Balinese version of nasi campur probably is the most internationally well-known version, mostly due to the "Bali factor", the Balinese popularity as the island resort among international visitors.[4] The tastes are often distinctly local, punctuated by basa genep (lit. complete spices), the typical Balinese spice mix used as the base for many curry and vegetable dishes.[1] The Balinese version of mixed rice may have grilled tuna, fried tofu, cucumber, spinach, tempe, beef cubes, vegetable curry, corn, and chili sauce on the bed of rice. Mixed rice is often sold by street vendors, wrapped in a banana leaf.

As a Hindu-majority island, the Balinese version might add lawar and babi guling in their nasi campur fares. Nevertheless, the halal version is available, with ayam betutu, sate lilit, and eggs to accompany the rice.

Javanese

In Java, nasi campur is often called nasi rames (Javanese: ꦤꦱꦶꦫꦩꦼꦱ꧀, lit.'mixed rice'), and wide variations are available across the island. One dish that is usually found in a Javanese nasi campur is fried noodles. The combination known as nasi rames is a dish created in West Java during World War II by the Indo (Eurasian) cook Truus van der Capellen, who ran the Bandung soup kitchens during (and after) the Japanese occupation. Later she opened a restaurant in the Netherlands and made the dish equally popular there.

In Yogyakarta a Javanese version of nasi campur is called nasi ingkung, which consist of a whole cooked chicken dish called ayam ingkung, urapan kasultan, perkedel, empal gapit, sate tusuk jiwo, and tumpeng rice.[5]

Indonesian Chinese

Nasi campur, Chinese Indonesian version

Some people who reside in Jakarta and other major cities with a significant Chinese population area use the term nasi campur loosely to refer to Chinese Indonesian's nasi campur Tionghoa[6] (i.e., Chinese-styled nasi campur), a dish of rice with an assortment of barbecued meats, such as char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage, and pork satay. This dish is usually served with simple Chinese chicken soup or sayur asin, an Indonesian clear broth of pork bones with fermented mustard greens. However, a name for a similar dish does not exist in mainland China, Singapore, Malaysia, or even most other areas of Indonesia outside of Jakarta.

Malaysia

Nasi campur – white rice with ayam masak merah and sayur tumis.

In Malaysia, the buyer chooses small portions of Malay dishes (lauk) from a buffet of around 20 dishes to go with the rice. The lauk portions are normally placed with the rice on the same plate. Nasi campur of Malaysia is operationally akin to warung tegal (warteg) of Indonesia. Alternatively and rarely, the nasi campur lauk are placed on individual plates akin to Nasi Padang. This is true for both restaurants and stalls in Malaysia.

The Malaysian Chinese version is called economy rice. The Malaysian Indian version is the pork-free banana leaf rice (Hindu Indians) and nasi kandar (Muslim Indians). Unlike warteg which is associated with middle and labour social classes, Malaysian Malay nasi campur and non-Malay versions are enjoyed by all social classes. A similar Minangkabau counterpart is called nasi Padang and is prominent, especially in Sumatra region. The lauk in Nasi Padang in restaurants is normally placed on individual plates. Small nasi padang stalls normally put the chosen lauk and rice on the same plate.

Nasi campur today

The name nasi campur Tionghoa is only a shortened version of "nasi dengan daging campur cara Tionghoa" (i.e. "rice with an assortment of Chinese-styled meats"). Furthermore, most Chinese vendors and food-court stalls in the region serve only one kind of meat with rice and a bowl of broth; patrons have to order different meats as separate dishes or add-ons. Hence, in most cases, those Chinese vendors' menu refers to the specific meat accompanying plain rice, for example, char siew rice or roast pork rice. The nasi campur Tionghoa in this respect, is the combo set menu of various Chinese barbecued meats.

In most cases, nasi campur refers specifically to the Indonesian and Malaysian versions of rice with assortments of side dishes. In Indonesia, it refers to any kind of rice surrounded by various dishes. In Malaysia, it refers more specifically to Malay mixed rice.[2] In Japan, the United States, and most foreign countries, nasi campur often refers to the Balinese version, while in the Netherlands it most often refers to Indo-colonial nasi rames. The side dishes themselves might vary widely among regions and eating establishments.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Ashlee Betteridge (2 April 2010). "Nasi Campur: Rice With a Side of Serendipity". JakartaGlobe. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Nasi Campur (Malay Mixed Rice)". Backpacking Malaysia. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  3. ^ Sobat Jalan (18 March 2013). "'Nasi campur' Kedewatan, a tourist favorite". Sobat Jalan. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  4. ^ Kosaku Yoshino. "Malaysian Cuisine: A Case of Neglected Culinary Globalization" (PDF). Sophia University Institute of Comparative Culture, Tokyo. p. 9. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  5. ^ "Royal Ambarrukmo Patenkan Nasi Campur Ambarrukmo" (in Indonesian). Harian Jogja. 8 January 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  6. ^ "Nasi Campur Konghu (Chinese Mix Rice)". Jakarta the City. 6 January 2009. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.