Apam balik
Giant Apam Balik.jpg
A giant apam balik variation
Alternative namesBan Jian Kuih (Tâi-lô: bàn-tsian-kué), Chin Loong Pau, Min Chiang Kueh, Martabak Manis, Peanut Pancake, Terang Bulan, Martabak Bangka, Kue Bandung, Apam Pulau Pinang, Kuih Haji, Kuih Malaya
Place of originChina (Fujian)[1][2]
Region or stateEast and Southeast Asia
Associated national cuisineChina, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore
Main ingredientsFlour, hot water, baking powder, bicarbonate soda, sugar, eggs, peanut, margarine, butter

Apam balik (lit.'turnover pancake'),[3] also known as terang bulan (lit.'moonlight'), martabak manis (lit.'sweet martabak'), peanut pancake or mànjiānguǒ (Chinese: 曼煎粿), is a dessert originating in Chinese cuisine which now consists of many varieties at specialist roadside stalls or restaurants throughout Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.[4]

Mànjiān (曼煎) is a homophone of Mǎnqīng (滿清), which ruled the final imperial dynasty in China, while guǒ (粿) means pancake.[5]


The origins of this dish is related to General Tso, who was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.[6] In 1855, the army of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom invaded the Fujian region and General Tso was appointed to lead an army to crush the rebels.

To provide the soldiers with food without interfering the life of local people, General Tso decided to switch from the flatbread which was eaten together with spring onion and chilli sauce, to the pancake that used locally sourced and mass-produced ground cane sugar and peanut as filling.[6]

The recipe for the pancake was spread throughout the Fujian region, especially in places around Quanzhou and later on throughout the whole Southeast China, It was also brought south into the lands of Southeast Asia by the Chinese Hokkien immigrants, especially in places such as Singapore due to its port. Subsequently, it spread to neighbouring regions.[1]

Other names

The dessert is also known by various names in different languages, depending on the region.


The name of this food in Southeast Asia. (Green) called Terang Bulan, (Yellow) called Apam, and (Red) called Martabak Manis.[citation needed]
The name of this food in Southeast Asia. (Green) called Terang Bulan, (Yellow) called Apam, and (Red) called Martabak Manis.[citation needed]
More recent Indonesian terang bulan with various toppings.
More recent Indonesian terang bulan with various toppings.

Malaysia and Singapore



Hong Kong




The pancake's batter is made from a mixture of flour, eggs, sugar, baking soda, coconut milk and water.[7] The batter is cooked upon a thick round iron frying pan in plenty of palm margarine to avoid it sticking to the pan. Then other ingredients are sprinkled as filling; the most common or traditional is crushed peanut granules with sugar and sweetcorn kernels (available from cans), but modern innovations such as chocolate sprinkles and cheddar cheese are also available.[7] Then, the pancake is folded (hence the name: "turnover pancake") and cut into several pieces.[10]

In Indonesia there is a smaller version made with smaller pan, they are called martabak mini or terang bulan mini.

The texture of the apam balik can vary depending on the amount of batter and type of pan used, from one that is akin to a crispier form of crumpets to small thin light pancake shells that break when bitten (the latter is usually called apam balik nipis, 'thin apam balik').

There is a Peranakan variant, the apom balik, that closely resembles the Indonesian Serabi.

See also


  1. ^ a b "傳統小吃滿煎糕的由來" (in Chinese). renminbao.info. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  2. ^ "每日一識-板煎嗲 @ 午間食客 C'est Qiutian :: 痞客邦 ::".
  3. ^ a b "Deliciously Unique Pancakes..." The Malaysia Pancake Co. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  4. ^ Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Lonely Planet. 2010. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-1-74104-887-2. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". mag.sinchew-i.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ a b Hummel, Arthur W. Sr., ed. (1943). "Tso Tsung-t'ang" . Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Martabak Manis Alias Kue Terang Bulan". Femina (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  8. ^ "r/MapPorn - Map of Nusantara divided by how they call a pancake-like street snack". reddit. 10 March 2019. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  9. ^ "閩客語典藏::客英大辭典查詢結果".
  10. ^ Rondoletto. "Indonesian Sweet Martabak / Terang Bulan". Food.com.