Bibingka
Alternative namesBingka, Bingkah, Vivingka[1][2]
CourseDessert, breakfast, merienda
Place of originPhilippines
Serving temperatureHot or warm
Main ingredientsGlutinous rice (galapóng), water or coconut milk
Ingredients generally usedButter, muscovado, grated cheese, desiccated coconut, salted duck egg
VariationsSalukara, Cassava cake, Bibingkang Malagkit
Similar dishesPanyalam, puto

Bibingka (/bɪˈbŋkɑː/; bi-BEENG-kah) commonly refers to a type of baked rice cake from the Philippines that is traditionally cooked in a terracotta oven lined with banana leaves and is usually eaten for breakfast or as merienda (mid-afternoon snack) especially during the Christmas season. It is also known as bingka in the Visayas and Mindanao islands.[1]

It can also be used as a general term referring to other Filipino baked rice cakes products, for example, those made with cassava flour (bibingkang cassava / bibingkang kamoteng kahoy), glutinous rice (bibingkang malagkit), or plain flour.[3]

Etymology

Bibingka Galapong cooked with slices of salted egg with toppings of grated coconut and kesong puti (carabao cheese)

The origin of the name is unknown. The linguist Robert Blust hypothesizes that it was originally a loanword, likely from Malay [kue] bingka. However, the consistent partial reduplication of the word (bibingka) in most Philippine languages, is unexplained.[2]

Bibingka is the name used for the dish in most languages of the Philippines, including Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Bikol, Maranao, and Mansaka. It is also known as bingka in Cebuano, bingka or bingkah in Aklanon, and vivingka in Ivatan.[2]

Description

Bibingka is a traditional Christmas food in Philippine cuisine. It is usually eaten along with puto bumbóng as a snack after attending the nine-day Simbang Gabi ('Night mass', the Filipino version of Misa de Gallo).[4]

In 2007 the town of Dingras, Ilocos Norte in the Philippines sought Guinness World Records certification after baking a kilometer-long cassava bibingka made from 1,000 kilos of cassava and eaten by 1,000 residents.[5]

Preparation

Traditionally prepared bibingka in Baliwag

In the traditional recipe for bibingka glutinous rice is soaked in water overnight in tapayan jars to ferment with wild yeast called bubod or tuba palm wine, then ground with a millstone or gilingang bato into a batter called galapong. The fermentation provide a faint aftertaste to the product. to save time, modern versions sometimes use regular rice flour or Japanese mochiko flour in place of galapong. Other ingredients can also vary greatly, but the most common secondary ingredients are eggs and milk.[6][7][8]

Bibingka is cooked over coals in a shallow banana leaf-lined terra cotta bowl into which the rice flour mixture is poured. It is topped with sliced duck egg and cheese, covered with more banana leaf,[citation needed] and then with a metal sheet holding more coals. The result is a soft and spongy large flat cake that is slightly charred on both surfaces and infused with the aroma of toasted banana leaves. Additional toppings are then added, such as butter, sugar, cheese, or grated coconut.[citation needed]

Bakery-made bibingka in banana leaf liner showing the notched edges from cupcake tin molds

More modern preparation of the dessert makes use of metal cake pans and purpose-built multi-tiered standing electric ovens. Mass-produced bibingka in Philippine bakeries are also made using tin molds that give them a crenulated edge similar to large puto or puto mamon (cupcakes).

Variants

Bibingka is also used as a general term for desserts made with flour and baked in the same manner. The term can be loosely translated to "[rice] cake". It originally referred primarily to bibingka galapong, the most common type of bibingka made with rice flour. Other native Philippine cakes have also sometimes been called bibingka. These may use other kinds of flour, such as corn flour, cassava flour, or plain flour, and are usually considered separate dishes altogether.[9] Some variations of bibingka differ only from the type of toppings they use. The common types of bibingka are listed below:

  • Cassava buko bibingka - a variant of cassava cake that adds young coconut (buko) to the recipe.[15]
  • Pineapple cassava bibingka - a variant of cassava cake that adds crushed pineapple chunks.[16]
  • Royal bibingka - a variant of cassava cake from Vigan, Ilocos Sur shaped like cupcakes with a cheese and margarine topping.[17]

In Eastern Indonesia

See also: Wingko

Wingko babat semarang from Java, Indonesia

Bibingka or bingka is also popular in Indonesia, particularly among Christian-majority areas in northern Sulawesi and the Maluku Islands, both of which were former colonies of the Portuguese Empire and are geographically close to the southern Philippines. It is prepared almost identically to Philippine bibingka. In the provinces of North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, bibingka is usually made with rice or cassava flour and coconut milk with shredded coconut baked inside. In the Maluku Islands, bibingka is spiced and sweetened with brown sugar or sweet meat floss. It is also traditionally cooked in clay pots lined with banana, pandan, or nipa leaves. As in the Philippines, it is also usually eaten during the Christmas season.

A pancake-like variant of bibingka was introduced to the Chinese Indonesian communities of East Java during the Dutch colonial period. Known as wingko, wiwingka, or bibika, it became popular throughout the island of Java.

Variants

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Edgie Polistico (2017). Philippine Food, Cooking, & Dining Dictionary. Anvil Publishing, Incorporated. ISBN 9786214200870.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b c Blust, Robert. "Austronesian Comparative Dictionary". ACD. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  3. ^ "Sweet and Sticky Pinoy Treats: Our Top 10 Kakanin". www.spot.ph. June 22, 2010. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  4. ^ Alvin Elchico, Gracie Rutao and JV Dizon (December 24, 2010). "Filipinos go for ham, bibingka for Christmas". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  5. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, Ilocos Norte town makes 'longest bibingka' Archived October 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Gene Gonzalez (2017). The Little Kakanin Book. Anvil Publishing, Incorporated. ISBN 9789712731921.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Nocheseda, Elmer. "The Invention of Happiness". Manila Speak. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  8. ^ Lilles, Cecile Lopez (September 7, 2006). "Reclaiming the vanishing tradition of Filipino 'merienda'". PhilStar Global. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  9. ^ "Bibingkang Malagkit (Sticky Rice Cake)". Casa Veneracion. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Bibingkang Galapong and Bibingkang Malagkit – Triumph & Disaster". Market Manila. August 25, 2006. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Connie Veneracion (March 2, 2007). "Cassava bibingka with custard topping". Casa Veneracion. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  12. ^ "Bibingkang Mandaue". Market Manila. October 17, 2006. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  13. ^ Zabal-Mendoza, Trixie. "This Delicious Delicacy Can Only Be Found in Cavite City". Yummy.ph. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  14. ^ Tan, Kiki. "Discovering the mouthwatering bibingka a la Luisiana, Laguna (and getting life lessons along the way)…". zest. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  15. ^ "How to Make Cassava Buko Bibingka". Atbp.ph. December 15, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  16. ^ "Pineapple Cassava Bibingka". Kawaling Pinoy Tasty Recipes. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  17. ^ "Royal Bibingka". Panlasang Pinoy. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  18. ^ Damo, Ida. "Durian Bibingka". ChoosePhilippines. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  19. ^ Uy, Amy A. (September 1, 2013). "Rice cakes, roscas, and more eats at the Samar Food Fest". GMA News Online. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  20. ^ "Linamnam at Latik: Ang pagkain ng Samar". GMA News Online. November 16, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2018.