Sinigang
Sinigang na Baboy.jpg
A pot of tamarind sinigang
TypeSoup or stew
CourseMain course
Place of originPhilippines
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsMeat, vegetables, tamarind, fish sauce, onions, siling mahaba, tomatoes
VariationsPork, beef, shrimp, fish, chicken
Food energy
(per serving)
~120 kcal
Similar dishesPinangat na isda, paksiw, kansi, kadyos, baboy, kag langka
Other informationCan be served in many different forms

Sinigang is a Filipino soup or stew characterized by its sour and savory taste. It is most often associated with tamarind (Filipino: sampalok), although it can use other sour fruits and leaves as the souring agent. It is one of the more popular dishes in Filipino cuisine. In 2021, sinigang was rated as the world's best vegetable soup by TasteAtlas.[1][2]

Origin

Sinigang means "stewed [dish]", it is a nominalized form of the Tagalog verb sigang, "to stew".[3] While present nationwide, sinigang is seen to be culturally Tagalog in origin, thus the similar sour stews and soups found in the Visayas and Mindanao (like linarang) are regarded as different dishes and differ in the ingredients used. Fish sauce is a common condiment for the stew.

Ingredients

Pork sinigang
Pork sinigang

Sinigang is most often associated with tamarind in modern times, but it originally referred to any meat or seafood cooked in a sour and acidic broth, similar to but differentiated from paksiw (which uses vinegar).[4] Other variations of the dish derive their sourness from native ingredients. These souring agents include unripe mangoes, butterfly tree leaves (alibangbang), citruses (including the native calamansi and biasong), santol, bilimbi (kamias or iba), gooseberry tree fruits (karmay), binukaw fruits (also batuan), and libas fruits, among others.[5][6] Guava, introduced to the Philippines via the Manila galleons is also used.[7] Seasoning powder or bouillon cubes with a tamarind base are commercial alternatives to using natural fruits.[8][9]

Sinigang typically uses meat or seafood (e.g., fish, pork, beef, shrimp, or chicken) stewed with tamarind, tomatoes, garlic, and onions. Other vegetables commonly used in the making of sinigang include okra, taro corms (gabi adds a starchy component to the dish and thickens the broth[10]), white radish (labanós), water spinach (kangkóng), yardlong beans (sitaw) and eggplant (talóng). Most Filipinos like to cook sinigang with long green peppers in order to enhance the taste and add a little spice to the dish. Another variation includes adding locally made miso.

Sinigang variations

Sinigang na hipon (shrimp) with unripe guavas
Sinigang na hipon (shrimp) with unripe guavas
Sinigang na isda with milkfish (bangus) and santol
Sinigang na isda with milkfish (bangus) and santol

Similar dishes

Main articles: Sinampalukan, Pinangat na isda, and Linarang

Sinampalukang manók or sinampalukan is technically not a variation of sinigang, as the chicken has to be sautéed in ginger first instead of all the ingredients being placed simultaneously into the pot and brought to a boil. Sinampalukan is also distinguished by its use of shredded tamarind leaves, and is usually made together with ginger, onions, tomatoes, eggplant and other vegetables.[15][16]

Other Filipino dishes that are similar to sinigang but distinct include pinangat na isda from Southern Luzon and linarang from Cebu. Both of which also use sour fruits but are restricted to fish or seafood and differ in the other ingredients used.[17][18][19]

There are also similar soured beef stews. They include the cansi from the Western Visayas islands which use beef and breadfruit and is soured with batuan or bilimbi fruits. Because it resembles a cross between bulalo and sinigang it is sometimes known as sinigang na bulalo.[20] Another soured beef stew is sinanglaw from Ilocos which is soured with bilimbi or tamarind, but is unique in that it also includes bitter ingredients like bitter gourd or bile, as is common in Ilocano cuisine.[21]

Beyond Philippines

Malaysia

Beef singgang
Beef singgang

Around the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, particularly in the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, there is a dish called singgang that is considered as a close resemblance to sinigang.[22][23] The common ingredients found in singgang are lemongrass, galangal, garlic, chili and asam gelugur as souring agent. Either budu or tempoyak would also sometimes be added to further flavourize the dish.[24][25] Terengganu's singgang and Kelantan's singgang differs through an addition of turmeric into the former.[25]

Meanwhile, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, another dish that is thought to be similar to singgang is called pindang.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ Arnaldo, Steph (3 August 2021). "Taste Atlas rates sinigang the world's 'best vegetable soup'". Rappler. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  2. ^ "The world's best: Sinigang is top-rated vegetable soup on TasteAtlas". ABS-CBN News. 3 August 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  3. ^ "sigang". Tagalog-Dictionary.com. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  4. ^ Pamaran, Maan D'Asis (12 October 2016). "The Filipino-Spanish food connection". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  5. ^ "The Souring Agents of Sinigang". Our Philippine Trees. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  6. ^ "Sinigang na Salmon at Bauhinia Filipino Cuisine". Flavours of Iloilo. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  7. ^ The Souring Agents of Sinigang
  8. ^ Sinigang Recipe
  9. ^ Sinigang na Baboy Recipe
  10. ^ "Sinigang na Baboy". Kawaling Pinoy. 2013-01-27. Retrieved 2021-08-29.
  11. ^ Sinigang na Hipon Recipe - Pinoy Recipe at Iba pa. Retrieved March 30, 2019
  12. ^ Seafood Sinigang Recipe - Pinoy Recipe at Iba pa. Retrieved March 30, 2019
  13. ^ "Bule". Steamy Bain Marie. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  14. ^ Daez, Mikael (3 November 2013). "Saksi: Bule baluga, sinigang na pinasarap ng patani". Saksi (in English and Tagalog). GMA. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  15. ^ Manalo, Lalaine. "Sinampalukang Manok". Kawaling Pinoy. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  16. ^ "Sinampalukan Manok (Tamarind'd Chicken)". 80 Breakfasts. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  17. ^ "Pinangat na Isda Fish Poached in Kamias and Tomatoes". Filipino-food-recipes.com. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  18. ^ Belen, Jun. "How to Make Fish Pinangat (Fish Soured in Calamansi and Tomatoes)". Junblog. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  19. ^ Fenix, Michaela (2017). Country Cooking: Philippine Regional Cuisines. Anvil Publishing, Incorporated. ISBN 9789712730443.
  20. ^ Reyes, Gladys. "Ilonggo Food: Bacolod Cansi Recipe". Experience Negros. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  21. ^ "Sinanglaw". Ang Sarap. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  22. ^ "NCCA's 'Sinigang versus Adobo' poll divides the nation". GMA News Online. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  23. ^ Reggie Aspiras (8 October 2009). "'Sinigang' and 'asocena' aren't exclusive to Filipinos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  24. ^ a b "Khasiat ikan singgang dari sudut saintifik yang sangat wow". sinarplus+ (in Malay). Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  25. ^ a b "Singgang Ikan Tongkol Terengganu, Lauk Lejen Kesukaan Ramai". rasa (in Malay). Retrieved 15 January 2022.

Further reading