Pinapaitan
Stew of goat meat and offals
Alternative namesPapaitan, sangkutsar (singkutsar), sinanglaw (sinanglao)
TypeStew
CourseEntree
Place of originPhilippines
Region or stateIlocos region
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsGoat (or beef), offals, bile (or cud)
Ingredients generally usedGinger, shallots (or onions), garlic, tamarind, bilimbi, chili pepper
VariationsFish,[1] carabao, kinigtot
Similar dishesKilawin, niu bie tang

Pinapaitan or papaitan (lit. "to [make] bitter") is a Filipino-Ilocano stew made with goat meat and offal and flavored with its bile, chyme, or cud (also known as papait).[2][3][4] This papait gives the stew its signature bitter flavor profile or "pait" (lit. "bitter"),[5][6] a flavor profile commonly associated with Ilocano cuisine.[7][8] Similar to other Ilocano meat dishes, pinapaitan does not contain any vegetables other than those used for flavoring.[9]

Various offal include tripe, kidneys, liver, heart, intestines, pancreas, and spleen. Hide and blood may also be added.[10][11][12] Alternately, it can be made with beef when goat is not available.[10] It also goes by the name sangkutsar from the Spanish term "sancochar" meaning "to parboil".[13][2][14] In Vigan and Pangasinan, pinapaitan made with beef is known as sinanglaw.[15]

It is enjoyed as a main dish served with rice or as pulutan (appetizer) with alcohol.[16] One researcher has suggested that the consumption of pinapaitan may be an underlying display of machismo, not dissimilar to extreme chili-eating competitions. Nevertheless, the consumption of bitter foods including bile is said to trigger the body's innate immunity, thus supporting disease prevention and promoting health.[17]

It has no relation to the similar sounding dish named paitan (白湯), a common soup for Japanese ramen.

History

Pinapaitan has been a staple of Ilocano cuisine for hundreds of years, and it remains a popular comfort food to this day.

The most probable origin of pinapaitan is from the Spanish colonial era. In the early 1800s, the Spanish friars would get the best meat, while the Filipinos were given the less desirable cuts. Pinapaitan is said to be a product of this resourcefulness, which dates back to that time.[18]

Preparation

Pinapaitan is typically prepared the same day the goat (or cattle) is butchered.[16] Bile is collected from the liver and gallbladder, or cud from the stomach or small intestines of the same animal.[19]

The meat and offal are sliced into thin bitesize pieces 3 cm to 5 cm and parboiled in water mixed with vinegar to remove impurities or gaminess. Aromatics vegetables, primarily ginger (optionally garlic or shallots) is sauteed, followed by the meat and offal. Water is added to the meat and simmered until tender.[10]

The bile (or cud) is added to the stew towards the end of the cooking process. It is optionally soured with vinegar, bilimbi, or tamarind (pulp or leaves), or spiced with chili peppers. It may be seasoned with salt, patis, or MSG.[12]

Some recipes use bittermelon, or its leaves, as a substitute for bile or when it is not available.[18]

Similar dishes

Kinigtot (lit. "surprised") or ginulat is a similar Ilocano stir-fried dish using goat meat or beef, which is mixed with papait.[17] Kilawin is another Ilocano dish with parcooked goat that is traditionally eaten with papait

Ilocanos are not the only ones partial to bitter flavors using bile. Niu bie tang is a soup made by the Dong ethnic group in the Guizhou Province of China. Cattle are fed fine grass and herbs before slaughtering and extracting the ingredients. Other ingredients are added to the cud and bile and boiled to make a soup. People in Guizhou enjoy the soup as the base of noodle dishes.[20]

The Dai ethnic group in southern Yunnan is noted for its noodle dish sapie (撒撇), a dish laced with bile and chyme.[17][21] The Isan ethnic community in northern Thailand and Laotians, also feature bile in laap (ລາບ).[22] Further afield in Italy, chyme from unweaned calves furnishes the sauce for a Roman dish called pajata.[23][17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Prein, M.; Oficial, R.; Bimbao, M.A.; Lopez, T. (2002). Aquaculture for diversification of small farms within forest buffer zone management: an example from the uplands of Quirino province, Philippines. In Rural aquaculture. Wallingford UK: CABI Publishing. p. 97-109.
  2. ^ a b Korten, G. B. (June 10, 2015). Sagana. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-5035-4524-3. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  3. ^ "Animal Industry". Philippine Journal of Animal Science. 3–6. Philippine Society of Animal Science.: 73 1966.
  4. ^ Constantino, Ernesto (March 31, 2019). Ilokano Dictionary. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-7902-0. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  5. ^ Gapultos, Marvin (November 20, 2018). Pulutan! Filipino Bar Bites, Appetizers and Street Eats: (Filipino cookbook with over 60 Easy-to-Make Recipes). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-2036-5. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  6. ^ Urbano, Chris (November 20, 2018). The World of Filipino Cooking: Food and Fun in the Philippines by Chris Urbano of "Maputing Cooking" (over 90 recipes). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-2041-9. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  7. ^ Delgado, Karla P. (2004). Philippine Markets. Centro Escolar University. p. 26. ISBN 978-971-8865-11-8. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  8. ^ Asiaweek. Asiaweek Limited. November 1994. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  9. ^ "A Taste of Ilocos Norte". Museo Ilocos Norte. December 9, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  10. ^ a b c "Papaitan Recipe". Knorr. Unilever Philippines. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  11. ^ Bartholomew, Rafe (June 1, 2010). Pacific Rims: Beermen Ballin' in Flip-Flops and the Philippines' Unlikely Love Affair with Basketball. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-101-18791-3. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  12. ^ a b Gibson, Jessica (December 18, 2021). "How to Cook Papaitan: 8 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow Life". wikihow.life. Retrieved October 13, 2023.
  13. ^ "What Is Sangkutsa Method? | Pinoy Food Guide". Pinoy Food Guide. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  14. ^ Torre, Visitacion R. De la (2006). The Ilocos Heritage. Tower Book House. ISBN 978-971-91030-9-7. Retrieved October 13, 2023.
  15. ^ Cacho-Sitchon, Kaye L. (April 25, 2021). "Sinanglaw for breakfast". ANCX. ABS-CBN. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  16. ^ a b Pormentira, Shulamite M. (April 30, 2021). "Memories of Baguio and a hot bowl of papaitan". ANCX. ABS-CBN. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  17. ^ a b c d Jacob-Ashkenazi, Jeanne Rebollido (April 26, 2021). "Beyond pulutan: What men really get out of papaitan and other bitter dishes, according to scienc". ANCX. ABS-CBN. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  18. ^ a b Nusselder, Joost (February 25, 2022). "How to cook papaitan kambing recipe: Ilocano goat tripe". Bite My Bun. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  19. ^ The Children of Lam-ang: The Folk Culture of the Ilocos Region. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, Republic of the Philippines. 1984. p. 60. ISBN 978-971-10-1153-6. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  20. ^ Li, Yan (April 4, 2019). "Some smelly Chinese dishes you need courage to try". www.ecns.cn. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
  21. ^ "Most Popular Yunnan Food". www.tasteatlas.com. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  22. ^ "Laab Diip Raw Beef Salad". Saeng's Kitchen. Retrieved October 7, 2023.
  23. ^ "This Roman Delicacy Uses the Intestines of a Milk-Fed Calf". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved October 7, 2023.