Suman sa lihiya, a variety of suman wrapped in banana leaves.
Alternative namesRice cake
Place of originPhilippines
Main ingredientsGlutinous rice

Suman or budbud is a rice cake originating in the Philippines. It is made from glutinous rice cooked in coconut milk, often wrapped in banana leaves, coconut leaves, or buli or buri palm (Corypha) leaves for steaming. It is usually eaten sprinkled with sugar or laden with latik. A widespread variant of suman uses cassava instead of glutinous rice.


There are numerous varieties of suman, with almost every town or locality having its speciality. Some are described below:[1]

Other names

It is known as marcha in India, Nepal and Bhutan, benh men in Vietnam, chiu, chu or daque in China and Taiwan, loogpang in Thailand, ragi in Indonesia and nuruk in Korea.[6]

Suman wrapping

Suman wrapping is a unique art in itself, and can be traced to pre-colonial roots which have had contact with Indian traditions. Wrappers utilize a wide variety of indigenous materials such as palm, banana, anahaw and bamboo leaves, coconut shells, and others. Some wrappings are simple folds such as those found in the binuo and the kamoteng kahoy, resulting in rectangular suman. Others are in vertical coils like the inantala, giving it a tubular form. Still others are in pyramid-like shapes, like the balisungsong. Some forms of suman are eaten like ice cream–with cones made from banana leaves, and still others are in very complex geometric patterns like the pusu ("heart"). Some are woven into the shape of a banana blossom (which in the Philippines is referred to as the banana plant's "heart"), or the pinagi (from the word pagi, meaning stingray), a complex octahedral star.[1]

Suman dishes (as well as savory variants like binalot and pastil) are differentiated from pusô (or patupat), in that the latter use woven palm leaves.[1][7]


See also


  1. ^ a b c Nocheseda, Elmer I. "In Praise of Suman Past". Tagalog Dictionary. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
  2. ^ Sison, Jainey (August 18, 2017). "KURUKOD (Cassava Suman with Coconut Filling)". Mama;s Guide Recipes. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  3. ^ "Suman sa Ibus Recipe". Retrieved December 24, 2007.
  4. ^ "Cassava Suman Recipe by Pinoy Recipeat iba pa". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  5. ^ "Suman sa Lihiya Recipe". Retrieved October 16, 2013.
  6. ^ Jyoti Prakash Tamang, Patricia Lappe-Oliveras and Baltasar Mayo (editors) Insights of Fermented Foods and Beverages: Microbiology and Health-Promoting ... (2022), p. 49, at Google Books
  7. ^ Nocheseda, Elmer I. (2011). "The Art of Pusô: Palm Leaf Art in the Visayas in Vocabularios of the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries" (PDF). Philippine Studies. 59 (2): 251–272.