Brown rice
Chinese name
Literal meaningrough rice
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetgạo lứt
Thai name
Korean name
Japanese name
Filipino name
Nepali name
Nepaliमार्सी चामल

Brown rice is a whole grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed. This kind of rice sheds its outer hull or husk but the bran and germ layer remain on, constituting the brown or tan colour of rice. White rice is the same grain without the hull, the bran layer, and the cereal germ. Red rice, gold rice, and black rice (also called purple rice) are all whole rices with differently pigmented outer layers.

Cooking time

Brown rice generally needs longer cooking times than white rice, unless it is broken or flour blasted (which perforates the bran without removing it).[1] Studies in 2003 estimated a cooking time between 35 and 51 minutes.[2] A shorter cooking time is necessary for "converted" or parboiled rice.


Brown rice has a shelf life of approximately 6 months,[3] but hermetic storage, refrigeration or freezing can significantly extend its lifetime. Freezing, even periodically, can also help control infestations of Indian meal moths.


Cooked, long-grain brown rice is 70% water, 26% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat. In a reference amount of 100 grams (3.5 oz), cooked brown rice supplies 123 calories of food energy, and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of manganese (36% DV) and moderate source (11-17% DV) of magnesium, phosphorus, niacin, and thiamine.

Rice, brown, long-grain, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy514 kJ (123 kcal)
25.6 g
Sugars0.24 g
Dietary fiber1.6 g
0.97 g
2.74 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.18 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.07 mg
Niacin (B3)
2.56 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.38 mg
Vitamin B6
0.123 mg
Folate (B9)
9 μg
3 mg
0.106 mg
0.56 mg
39 mg
0.974 mg
103 mg
86 mg
5.8 μg
4 mg
0.71 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water70.3 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[4] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[5]


Arsenic is in the natural environment and may be present in common grains, such as brown rice.[6] Although rice may absorb arsenic more readily than other crops, rice remains as a staple of a well-balanced diet, particularly when fortified with micronutrients in infant rice cereal.[7]

Cooking brown rice in hot water can reduce the content of inorganic arsenic by 40-60%, although this cooking method also diminishes the content of micronutrients.[7]

In Vietnam

Brown rice is widely cultivated in Vietnam,[8][9] mainly in the northern and central provinces.[10][11] According to statistics from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the area of brown rice cultivation in Vietnam in 2023 reached 150,000 hectares,[12][13][14] with a production of 1.2 million tons. Brown rice has high economic value and is popular in the market.[15][16] The price of brown rice is usually higher than white rice by 10-20%.[17][18] Brown rice has great potential for development in Vietnam,[19][20][21] and could become a major export product.[22][23]


See also


  1. ^ "USDA ARS Online Magazine Vol. 50, No. 5".
  2. ^ Manickavasagan, Annamalai (2017-08-22). Brown Rice. Springer. p. 33. ISBN 9783319590110.
  3. ^ "Storage". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  4. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  5. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154.
  6. ^ "Arsenic in Food and Dietary Supplements". US Food and Drug Administration. 1 June 2023. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  7. ^ a b "What You Can Do to Limit Exposure to Arsenic". US Food and Drug Administration. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  8. ^ "Niềm vui mới của nông dân Cai Lậy". Báo Nhân Dân điện tử (in Vietnamese). 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  9. ^ "Nghiên cứu công nghệ sản xuất một số sản phẩm thực phẩm có giá trị dinh dưỡng cao từ gạo lứt". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  10. ^ tcct (2023-08-28). "Doanh nghiệp trong chuỗi sản xuất - phân phối đặc sản Tây Bắc". Tạp chí Công Thương (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  11. ^ "TP. Buôn Ma Thuột: Triển vọng từ mô hình trồng giống lúa gạo đen". Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  12. ^ Ly/BNEWS/TTXVN, Khánh. "Bnews - Tin tức kinh tế mới nhất, cập nhật 24h". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  13. ^ "Lúa gạo lứt đen thảo dược tiếp tục mang lại hiệu quả cao". Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  14. ^ "Tăng khả năng cạnh tranh của gạo Việt". Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  15. ^ "Quy mô thị trường gạo Bắc Âu". (in Vietnamese). 2022-04-28. Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  16. ^ thị, Doanh nghiệp và Tiếp. "Gạo lứt là gì? Tìm hiểu các loại gạo lứt giảm cân hiệu quả". Doanh nghiệp và Tiếp thị (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  17. ^ (2021-12-02). "Gạo trắng tốt hơn gạo lứt". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  18. ^ Minh, Báo Pháp Luật TP Hồ Chí (2022-09-25). "Gạo trắng, gạo lứt, gạo huyết rồng, gạo lứt đen: Gạo nào tốt cho sức khỏe hơn?". Báo Pháp Luật TP. Hồ Chí Minh (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  19. ^ Tùng, Trọng (2020-09-11). "Chuỗi giá trị sản phẩm từ gạo: Tiềm năng còn bỏ ngỏ". Báo Kinh tế đô thị - Đọc tin tức thời sự kinh tế 24h mới nhất (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  20. ^ Khôi -, Chu (2023-04-10). "Ganola mum". Nhịp sống kinh tế Việt Nam & Thế giới (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  21. ^ PHÓNG, BÁO SÀI GÒN GIẢI (2018-01-02). "Gạo lứt Thảo dược – đổi vị cho người ăn kiêng". BÁO SÀI GÒN GIẢI PHÓNG (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  22. ^ MEDIATECH. "Việt Nam đã sản xuất thành công dầu gạo từ gạo lứt". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.
  23. ^ "Gạo Việt Nam thêm cơ hội tiếp cận thị trường Anh". (in Vietnamese). Retrieved 2023-12-24.