TypeRice wine
Country of origin Philippines
Region of originVisayas, Mindanao

Pangasi, also known as pangase or gasi, are various traditional Filipino rice wines from the Visayas Islands and Mindanao.[1] They could also be made from other native cereals like millet and job's tears. Pangasi and other native Filipino alcoholic beverages made from cereal grains were collectively referred to by the Spanish as pitarrillos.[2]

Aside from being consumed recreationally, pangasi figured prominently in the rituals of the babaylan shamans in various Filipino ethnic groups. Pangasi was mentioned by early Spanish explorers as being common in the Visayas, though it has largely disappeared throughout most of its range in modern times. It survives in some areas of Visayas and Mindanao.[3][4]

In Panay Island in the Western Visayas, pangasi is traditionally fermented with various leaves as well as sugarcane juice among the Suludnon people. This is very similar to the pangasi (also called agkud) of the Lumad peoples of Mindanao.[1][5][6]

In the Zamboanga Peninsula, pangasi (more commonly spelled as "pangase") refers to three different kinds of wines among the Subanen people of the Zamboanga Peninsula. Traditional pangase is made either from rice or job's tears (adlay) fermented with a starter culture (tapay) and typically spiced with ginger (in modern times, hot peppers are also used). It is fermented inside jars known as bandi or tibod for two weeks to three years. However, modern pangase are increasingly being made with cassava tubers, which was introduced by the Spanish to the Philippines.[7][8]

See also


  1. ^ a b Gico, Emma T.; Ybarzabal, Evelyn R. (November 20, 2018). "Indigenous Rice Wine Making in Central Panay, Philippines". Central Philippine University. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  2. ^ Gibbs, H.D.; Holmes, W.C. (1912). "The Alcohol Industry of the Philippine Islands Part II: Distilled Liquors; their Consumption and Manufacture". The Philippine Journal of Science: Section A. 7: 19–46.
  3. ^ Demetrio, Feorillo Petronilo A. III (2012). "Colonization and Alcoholic Beverages of Early Visayans from Samar and Leyte". Malay. 25 (1): 1–18.
  4. ^ Garvan, John M. (1912). "Report on the drinks and drinking among the Mandaya, Manobo, and Mangguangan Tribes". The Philippine Journal of Science: Section A. 7: 106–114.
  5. ^ Caldo, Gloria A.; Hiroshige, Sakai (1985). "Microbiological studies on pangasi, a rice wine in Mindanao". The Philippine Agriculturist. 68 (4).
  6. ^ Jocano, F. Landa (1958). "The Sulod: A Mountain People In Central Panay, Philippines". Philippine Studies. 6 (4): 401–436. JSTOR 42720408.
  7. ^ Nabua, Wilson C.; Tugahan, Valerio A.; Malate, Renato F. (2013). Production, Processing and Marketing of Pangase Wine: A Subanen Identity (PDF). Philippine Agricultural Economics & Development Association.
  8. ^ "Proponents see steady market for Adlay wine of Zamboanga's Subanen tribe". BusinessMirror. November 17, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2019.