Garcinia binucao
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae
Genus: Garcinia
G. binucao
Binomial name
Garcinia binucao
  • Garcinia duodecandra Pierre

Garcinia binucao is a species of flowering plant in the Clusiaceae family.[2] It is commonly known as binukaw or batuan, is a species of Garcinia endemic to the Philippines.[3] It is not cultivated, though its edible fruits are harvested from the wild for use as a souring agent in some Filipino dishes.


Binukaw belongs to the genus Garcinia (the mangosteens) of the family Clusiaceae. The first description of the correct name of the species is attributed to the French botanist Jacques Denys Choisy in Description des guttifères de l'Inde (1849) based on the basionym Cambogia binucao from the Spanish friar and botanist Francisco Manuel Blanco in Flora de Filipinas in 1837.[1][4]

The plant is known as binukaw (also spelled binucao, binukau, or bilukaw) in Tagalog, and batuan in Visayan languages. Other names include Ilocano balakut, Bikol buragris, and Panay Visayan haras.[5] The common names are sometimes shared with other similar Garcinia species in the Philippines like Garcinia morella.


Binukaw is an evergreen tree growing to a maximum height of around 25 m (82 ft) with a trunk around 40 cm (16 in) in diameter. The leaves are oblong to obovate around 5 to 12 cm (2.0 to 4.7 in) long and 4 to 7 cm (1.6 to 2.8 in) wide. The flowers are reddish to creamy white in color. The fruits are round berries, around 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter with a juicy pulp and numerous seeds.[5][6]


Binukaw is endemic to the Philippines.[3]


The sour fruits are edible and can be eaten raw. They are also commonly used as a souring agent in traditional Filipino dishes like sinigang.[7]


The species is becoming rare due to illegal logging and deforestation for agriculture.[6]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Garcinia binucao (Blanco) Choisy". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved April 17, 2019 – via The Plant List. Note that this website has been superseded by World Flora Online
  2. ^ "Garcinia binucao (Blanco) Choisy". Plants of the World Online. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. n.d. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Garcinia binucao (Blanco) Choisy". KewScience: Plants of the World Online. KewScience. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  4. ^ Mansfeld, Rudolf (2001). Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops Volume 1. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 1356. ISBN 9783540410171.
  5. ^ a b "Garcinia binucao (PROSEA)". Pl@ntUse. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Fern, Ken. "Garcinia binucao". Tropical Plants Database. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  7. ^ "The Souring Agents of Sinigang". Our Philippine Trees. September 25, 2009. Retrieved April 17, 2019.