Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Ganodermataceae
Genus: Ganoderma
G. sichuanense
Binomial name
Ganoderma sichuanense
J.D. Zhao & X.Q. Zhang (1983)[1]

Ganoderma lingzhi Sheng H. Wu, Y. Cao & Y.C. Dai (2012)

View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Pores on hymenium
Cap is offset or indistinct
Hymenium attachment is irregular or not applicable
Stipe is bare or lacks a stipe
Spore print is brown
Ecology is saprotrophic or parasitic
Edibility is too hard to eat
Traditional Chinese靈芝
Simplified Chinese灵芝

Lingzhi, Ganoderma sichuanense, also known as reishi or Ganoderma lingzhi[3] is a polypore fungus ("bracket fungus") native to East Asia belonging to the genus Ganoderma.

Its reddish brown, varnished, kidney-shaped cap with bands and peripherally inserted stem give it a distinct fan-like appearance. When fresh, the lingzhi is soft, cork-like, and flat. It lacks gills on its underside, and instead releases its spores via fine pores (80–120 μm) in yellow colors.[2]

In nature, it grows at the base and stumps of deciduous trees, especially maples. Only two or three out of 10,000 such trees will have lingzhi growth, and therefore its wild form is rare.[citation needed] Lingzhi may be cultivated on hardwood logs, sawdust, or woodchips.

The lingzhi mushroom is used in traditional Chinese medicine.[2][4] There is insufficient evidence to indicate that consuming lingzhi mushrooms or their extracts has any effect on human health or diseases.[5][6][7]


Lingzhi, also known as reishi from its Japanese pronunciation, is the ancient "mushroom of immortality", revered for over 2,000 years (with some evidence suggesting use in Neolithic China 6,800 years ago).[8] However, as of 2023 there is an ongoing debate on which one of the described Ganoderma species is the true lingzhi mushroom. It is also likely that a few similar Ganoderma species were considered interchangeable.

In the scientific literature, the lingzhi mushroom is ambiguously referred to as:

One source employed to solve the task of identifying the traditional lingzhi mushroom is the 16th century Chinese herbal compendium, the Bencao Gangmu (1578). There, a number of different lingzhi-like mushrooms defined by color were used for different purposes. No exact current species can be attached to these ancient lingzhi for certain, but according to Dai et al. (2017),[10] as well as other researchers, and based on molecular work, red lingzhi is most likely to be Ganoderma sichuanense.[11][2]

Ganoderma sichuanense is the most widely found species in Chinese herb shops today,[citation needed] and the fruiting bodies are widely cultivated in China and shipped to many other countries. About 7–10 other Ganoderma species are also sold in some shops, but have different Chinese and Latin names, and are considered different in their activity and functions. The differences are based on concentrations of triterpenes such as ganoderic acid and its derivatives, which vary widely among species. Research on the genus is ongoing, but a number of recent phylogenetic analyses have been published in recent years.[12]


Petter Adolf Karsten first described the genus Ganoderma in 1881,.[13][14] He designated as its type species a European fungus named Boletus lucidus by English botanist William Curtis in 1781. Since then, many other Ganoderma species have been described.

The lingzhi's botanical names have Greek and Latin roots. Ganoderma derives from the Greek ganos (γανος; 'brightness'), and derma (δερμα; 'skin; together; shining skin').[15] The specific epithet, sichuanense, comes from the Sichuan Chinese province. The common name, lingzhi, comes from Chinese, meaning 'divine mushroom'.


It was once thought that G. lingzhi generally occurred in two growth forms: a large, sessile, specimen with a small or nonexistent stalk, found in North America, and a smaller specimen with a long, narrow stalk, found mainly in the tropics. However, recent molecular evidence has identified the former, stalkless, form as a distinct species called G. sessile, a name given to North American specimens by William Alfonso Murrill in 1902.[12][16]

Environmental conditions play a substantial role in the lingzhi's manifest morphological characteristics. For example, elevated carbon dioxide levels result in stem elongation in lingzhi. Other formations include antlers without a cap, which may also be related to carbon dioxide levels. The three main factors that influence fruit body development morphology are light, temperature, and humidity. While water and air quality play a role in fruit body development morphology, they do so to a lesser degree.[17]

Distribution and habitat

Ganoderma lingzhi is found in East Asia growing as a parasite or saprotroph on a variety of trees.[18] Ganoderma curtisii and G. ravenelii are the closest relatives of the lingzhi mushroom in North America.[19]

In the wild, lingzhi grows at the base and stumps of deciduous trees, especially maples.[20] Only two or three out of 10,000 such aged trees will have lingzhi growth, and therefore it is extremely rare in its natural form.[citation needed] Today, lingzhi is effectively cultivated on hardwood logs or sawdust/woodchips.[21]


Clinical research and phytochemistry

Ganoderic acid A, a compound isolated from lingzhi

Ganoderma lucidum contains diverse phytochemicals, including triterpenes (ganoderic acids), which have a molecular structure similar to that of steroid hormones.[22] It also contains phytochemicals found in fungal materials, including polysaccharides (such as beta-glucan), coumarin,[23] mannitol, and alkaloids.[22] Sterols isolated from the mushroom include ganoderol, ganoderenic acid, ganoderiol, ganodermanontriol, lucidadiol, and ganodermadiol.[22] It is likely the that different Ganoderma species called Lingzhi vary in their chemical constituents, and that confusion about naming makes it difficult to interpret the supporting literature.

A 2015 Cochrane database review found insufficient evidence to justify the use of G. lucidum as a first-line cancer treatment.[5][6] It stated that G. lucidum may have "benefit as an alternative adjunct to conventional treatment in consideration of its potential of enhancing tumour response and stimulating host immunity."[6] Existing studies do not support the use of G. lucidum for treatment of risk factors of cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[7]

Folk medicine

Because of its bitter taste,[24] lingzhi is traditionally prepared as a hot water extract product for use in folk medicine.[25] Thinly sliced or pulverized lingzhi (either fresh or dried) is added to boiling water which is then reduced to a simmer, covered, and left for 2 hours.[26] The resulting liquid is dark and fairly bitter in taste. The red lingzhi is often more bitter than the black. The process is sometimes repeated to increase the concentration. Alternatively, it can be used as an ingredient in a formula decoction, or used to make an extract (in liquid, capsule, or powder form).[27]

Other uses

Lingzhi is commercially manufactured and sold. Since the early 1970s, most lingzhi is cultivated. Lingzhi can grow on substrates such as sawdust, grain, and wood logs. After formation of the fruiting body, lingzhi is most commonly harvested, dried, ground, and processed into tablets or capsules to be directly ingested or made into tea or soup. Other lingzhi products include processed fungal mycelia or spores.[26] Lingzhi is also used to create mycelium bricks.[28]

Cultural significance

Further information: Zhi (excrescences)

Tao Yuanming holding Lingzhi by Chen Hongshou[29]

In the chronicles of Shiji (1st century CE from Sima Qian), the initial use of nearby separately related words with Chinese: and Chinese: are attested to in the poems of Emperor Wu of Han. Later, in the 1st century CE through the poetry of Ban Gu, occurred the first combination of the characters 靈芝 together into a single word, in an ode dedicated to Lingzhi.[30][31]

Since ancient times, Taoist temples were called "the abode of mushrooms" and according to their mystical teachings, the use of woody mushrooms zhi (Ganoderma) or lingzhi "spirits mushroom", in particular making from it a concentrated decoction of hallucinogenic action,[30] gave followers the opportunity to see spirits or become spirits themselves by receiving the magical energy of the immortals xians, located on the "fields of grace" in the heavenly "mushroom fields" (zhi tian.[32]

In the philosophical work Huainanzi, it is said that the lingzhi mushroom is personification of nobility; from which shamans brewed a psychedelic drink.[33][34]

The Shennong bencao jing (Divine Farmer's Classic of Pharmaceutics) of c. 200–250 CE classifies zhi into six color categories, each of which is believed to benefit the qi, or "life force", in a different part of the body: qingzhi (青芝; 'green mushroom') for the liver, chizhi (赤芝; 'red mushroom') for the heart, huangzhi (黃芝; 'yellow mushroom') for the spleen, baizhi (白芝; 'white mushroom') for the lungs, heizhi (黑芝; 'black mushroom') for the kidneys, and zizhi (紫芝; 'purple mushroom') for the Essence.[clarification needed] Commentators identify the red chizhi, or danzhi (丹芝; 'cinnabar mushroom'), as the lingzhi.[35][36]

Chi Zhi (Ganoderma rubra) is bitter and balanced. It mainly treats binding in the chest, boosts the heart qi, supplements the center, sharpens the wits, and [causes people] not to forget [i.e., improves the memory]. Protracted taking may make the body light, prevent senility, and prolong life so as to make one an immortal. Its other name is Dan Zhi (Cinnabar Ganoderma). It grows in mountains and valleys.[37]

In the Taoist treatise of Baopuzi from Ge Hong, the lingzhi is used for immortality.[38][35][36]

The (1596) Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica) has a Zhi () category that includes six types of zhi (calling the green, red, yellow, white, black, and purple mushrooms of the Shennong bencao jing the liuzhi (六芝; "six mushrooms") and sixteen other fungi, mushrooms, and lichens, including mu'er (木耳; "wood ear"; "cloud ear fungus", Auricularia auricula-judae). The author Li Shizhen classified these six differently colored zhi as xiancao (仙草; "immortality herbs"), and described the effects of chizhi ("red mushroom"):

It positively affects the life-energy, or Qi of the heart, repairing the chest area and benefiting those with a knotted and tight chest. Taken over a long period of time, the agility of the body will not cease, and the years are lengthened to those of the Immortal Fairies.[39][40]

Stuart and Smith's classic study of Chinese herbology describes the zhi.

芝 (Chih) is defined in the classics as the plant of immortality, and it is therefore always considered to be a felicitous one. It is said to absorb the earthy vapors and to leave a heavenly atmosphere. For this reason, it is called 靈芝 (Ling-chih.) It is large and of a branched form, and probably represents Clavaria or Sparassis. Its form is likened to that of coral.[41]

The Bencao Gangmu does not list lingzhi as a variety of zhi, but as an alternate name for the shi'er (石耳; "stone ear", Umbilicaria esculenta) lichen. According to Stuart and Smith,

[The 石耳 Shih-erh is] edible, and has all of the good qualities of the 芝 (Chih), it is also being used in the treatment of gravel, and said to benefit virility. It is specially used in hemorrhage from the bowels and prolapse of the rectum. While the name of this would indicate that it was one of the Auriculariales, the fact that the name 靈芝 (Ling-chih) is also given to it might place it among the Clavariaceae.[41]

In Chinese art, the lingzhi symbolizes great health and longevity, as depicted in the imperial Forbidden City and Summer Palace.[25] It was a talisman for luck in the traditional culture of China, and the goddess of healing Guanyin is sometimes depicted holding a lingzhi mushroom.[40]

Regional names

Regional names
Historical name
Traditional Chinese靈芝
Literal meaningspirit mushroom
Middle Chinese/leŋ.t͡ɕɨ/
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese靈芝
Simplified Chinese灵芝
Hanyu Pinyinlíngzhī
Jyutpingling4 zi1
Vietnamese name
Vietnameselinh chi
Chữ Nôm靈芝
Thai name
RTGSlin chue
Korean name
Revised Romanizationyeongji
Japanese name
Revised Hepburnreishi


The Old Chinese name for lingzhi 靈芝 was first recorded during the Han dynasty (206 BC – 9 AD). In the Chinese language, língzhī (靈芝) is a compound. It comprises líng (); "spirit, spiritual; soul; miraculous; sacred; divine; mysterious; efficacious; effective)" as, for example, in the name of the Lingyan Temple in Jinan, and zhī (); "(traditional) plant of longevity; fungus; seed; branch; mushroom; excrescence"). Fabrizio Pregadio notes, "The term zhi, which has no equivalent in Western languages, refers to a variety of supermundane substances often described as plants, fungi, or 'excrescences'."[42] Zhi occurs in other Chinese plant names, such as zhīmá (芝麻; "sesame" or "seed"), and was anciently used a phonetic loan character for zhǐ (; "Angelica iris"). Chinese differentiates Ganoderma species into chìzhī (赤芝; "red mushroom") G. lingzhi, and zǐzhī (紫芝; "purple mushroom") Ganoderma sinense.

Lingzhi has several synonyms. Of these, ruìcǎo (瑞草; "auspicious plant") (ruì ; "auspicious; felicitous omen" with the suffix cǎo ; "plant; herb") is the oldest; the Erya dictionary (c. 3rd century BCE) defines xiú , interpreted as a miscopy of jūn (; "mushroom") as zhī (; "mushroom"), and the commentary of Guo Pu (276–324) says, "The [zhi] flowers three times in one year. It is a [ruicao] felicitous plant."[43] Other Chinese names for Ganoderma include ruìzhī (瑞芝; "auspicious mushroom"), shénzhī (神芝; "divine mushroom", with shen; "spirit; god' supernatural; divine"), mùlíngzhī (木靈芝) (with "tree; wood"), xiāncǎo (仙草; "immortality plant", with xian; "(Daoism) transcendent; immortal; wizard"), and língzhīcǎo (靈芝草) or zhīcǎo (芝草; "mushroom plant").

Since both Chinese ling and zhi have multiple meanings, lingzhi has diverse English translations. Renditions include "[zhi] possessed of soul power",[44] "Herb of Spiritual Potency" or "Mushroom of Immortality",[45] "Numinous Mushroom",[42] "divine mushroom",[46] "divine fungus",[47] "Magic Fungus",[48] and "Marvelous Fungus".[49]


In English, lingzhi or ling chih (sometimes spelled "ling chi", using the French EFEO Chinese transcription) is a Chinese loanword. It is also commonly referred to as "reishi", which is loaned from Japanese.[50]

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) gives the definition, "The fungus Ganoderma lucidum (actually Ganoderma lingzhi (see Ganoderma lucidum for details), believed in China to confer longevity and used as a symbol of this on Chinese ceramic ware.",[51] and identifies the etymology of the word as Chinese: líng, "divine" + zhī, "fungus". According to the OED, the earliest recorded usage of the Wade–Giles romanization ling chih is 1904,[52] and of the Pinyin lingzhi is 1980.

In addition to the transliterated loanwords, English names include "glossy ganoderma" and "shiny polyporus".[53]


The Japanese word reishi (霊芝) is a Sino-Japanese loanword deriving from the Chinese língzhī (灵芝; 靈芝). Its modern Japanese kanji, , is the shinjitai ("new character form") of the kyūjitai ("old character form"), . Synonyms for reishi are divided between Sino-Japanese borrowings and native Japanese coinages. Sinitic loanwords include literary terms such as zuisō (瑞草, from ruìcǎo; "auspicious plant") and sensō (仙草, from xiāncǎo; "immortality plant"). The Japanese writing system uses shi or shiba () for "grass; lawn; turf", and take or kinoko () for "mushroom" (e.g., shiitake). A common native Japanese name is mannentake (万年茸; "10,000-year mushroom"). Other Japanese terms for reishi include kadodetake (門出茸; "departure mushroom"), hijiridake (聖茸; "sage mushroom"), and magoshakushi (孫杓子; "grandchild ladle").


The Korean name, yeongji (영지; 靈芝) is also borrowed from, so a cognate with, the Chinese word língzhī (灵芝; 靈芝). It is often called yeongjibeoseot (영지버섯; "yeongji mushroom") in Korean, with the addition of the native word beoseot (버섯) meaning "mushroom". Other common names include bullocho (불로초, 不老草; "elixir grass") and jicho (지초; 芝草). According to color, yeongji mushrooms can be classified as jeokji (적지; 赤芝) for "red", jaji (자지; 紫芝) for "purple", heukji (흑지; 黑芝) for "black", cheongji (청지; 靑芝) for "blue" or "green", baekji (백지; 白芝) for "white", and hwangji (황지; 黃芝) for "yellow". South Korea produces over 25,000 tons of mushrooms every year.


The Thai word het lin chue (เห็ดหลินจือ) is a compound of the native word het (เห็ด) meaning "mushroom" and the loanword lin chue (หลินจือ) from the Chinese língzhī (灵芝; 靈芝).


The Vietnamese language word linh chi is a loanword from Chinese. It is often used with nấm, the Vietnamese word for "mushroom", thus nấm linh chi is the equivalent of "lingzhi mushroom".


  1. ^ a b Chao, Chi-ting. Taxonomic studies on the family Ganodermataceae of China II. OCLC 80615364.
  2. ^ a b c d e Cao, Yun; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2012). "Species clarification of the prize medicinal Ganoderma mushroom 'Lingzhi'". Fungal Diversity. 56 (1): 49–62. doi:10.1007/s13225-012-0178-5. S2CID 15239238.
  3. ^ a b c d Du, Zhuo; Li, Yi; Wang, Xin-Cun; Wang, Ke; Yao, Yi-Jian (2023). "Re-Examination of the Holotype of Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) and a Clarification of the Identity of Chinese Cultivated Lingzhi". Journal of Fungi. 9 (3): 323. doi:10.3390/jof9030323. ISSN 2309-608X. PMC 10051598. PMID 36983491.
  4. ^ Kenneth, Jones (1990). Reishi: Ancient Herb for Modern Times. Sylvan Press. p. 6.
  5. ^ a b "Reishi mushroom". 12 December 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Jin, Xingzhong; Ruiz Beguerie, Julieta; Sze, Daniel Man-yuen; Chan, Godfrey C.F. (2015). "Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD007731. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007731.pub3. PMC 6353236. PMID 27045603.
  7. ^ a b Klupp, Nerida L.; Chang, Dennis; Hawke, Fiona; Kiat, Hosen; Cao, Huijuan; Grant, Suzanne J.; Bensoussan, Alan (2015). "Ganoderma lucidum mushroom for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021 (2): CD007259. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007259.pub2. PMC 6486141. PMID 25686270.
  8. ^ Sun, Guoping; Cao, Lijuan; Huang, Luqi; Wang, Yajun; Yuan, Yuan; Han, Dong; Yuan, Bing; Wang, Yeran; Shen, Yueming (2018-05-01). "Archaeological evidence suggests earlier use of <italic>Ganoderma</italic> in Neolithic China". Chinese Science Bulletin. 63 (13): 1180–1188. doi:10.1360/n972018-00188. ISSN 0023-074X. S2CID 103581412.
  9. ^ Pegler, D. N.; Yao, Y. J. (1996). "Oriental species of Ganoderma section Ganoderma". Botany and Mycology for the Next Millenium: Collection of Scientific Articles Devoted to the 70th Anniversary of Academician Sytnik KM. Kyiv: Kholodny NG Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: 336–347.
  10. ^ Dai, Y.-C. (2017). "Ganoderma lingzhi (Polyporales, Basidiomycota): the scientific binomial for the widely cultivated medicinal fungus Lingzhi". Mycological Progress. 16 (11–12): 1051–1055. doi:10.1007/s11557-017-1347-4. S2CID 38561105.
  11. ^ Dai, Yu-Cheng; Zhou, Li-Wei; Hattori, Tsutomu; Cao, Yun; Stalpers, Joost A.; Ryvarden, Leif; Buchanan, Peter; Oberwinkler, Franz; Hallenberg, Nils; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wu, Sheng-Hua (December 2017). "Ganoderma lingzhi (Polyporales, Basidiomycota): the scientific binomial for the widely cultivated medicinal fungus Lingzhi". Mycological Progress. 16 (11–12): 1051–1055. doi:10.1007/s11557-017-1347-4. ISSN 1617-416X. S2CID 38561105.
  12. ^ a b Zhou, Li-Wei; Cao, Yun; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Vlasák, Josef; Li, De-Wei; Li, Meng-Jie; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2015). "Global diversity of the Ganoderma lucidum complex (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogeny". Phytochemistry. 114: 7–15. Bibcode:2015PChem.114....7Z. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.09.023. PMID 25453909.
  13. ^ Steyaert, R. L. (1961). "Note on the nomenclature of fungi and, incidentally, of Ganoderma lucidum" (PDF). Taxon. 10 (8): 251–252. doi:10.2307/1216350. JSTOR 1216350.
  14. ^ Karsten, PA. (1881). "Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum". Revue Mycologique, Toulouse (in Latin). 3 (9): 16–19.
  15. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-910207-5.
  16. ^ "Ganoderma sessile". MycoBank. International Mycological Association.
  17. ^ Yajima, Yuka; Miyazaki, Minoru; Okita, Noriyasu; Hoshino, Tamotsu (2013). "Production of Ginkgo Leaf−Shaped Basidiocarps of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), Containing High Levels of α- and β-D-Glucan and Ganoderic Acid A". International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 15 (2): 175–182. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v15.i2.60. PMID 23557369.
  18. ^ Loyd, Andrew L.; Richter, Brantlee S.; Jusino, Michelle A.; Truong, Camille; Smith, Matthew E.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Smith, Jason A. (2018). "Identifying the "Mushroom of Immortality": Assessing the Ganoderma Species Composition in Commercial Reishi Products". Frontiers in Microbiology. 9: 1557. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01557. PMC 6055023. PMID 30061872.
  19. ^ Loyd, A. L.; Barnes, C. W.; Held, B. W.; Schink, M. J.; Smith, M. E.; Smith, J. A.; Blanchette, R. A. (2018). "Elucidating "lucidum": Distinguishing the diverse laccate Ganoderma species of the United States". PLOS ONE. 13 (7): e0199738. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1399738L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0199738. PMC 6051579. PMID 30020945.
  20. ^ National Audubon Society (1993). Field Guide to Mushrooms.
  21. ^ Veena, S. S.; Pandey, Meera (2011). "Paddy Straw as a Substrate for the Cultivation of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. in India". International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 13 (4): 397–400. doi:10.1615/intjmedmushr.v13.i4.100. PMID 2164770.
  22. ^ a b c Paterson, R. Russell M. (2006). "Ganoderma – A therapeutic fungal biofactory". Phytochemistry. 67 (18): 1985–2001. Bibcode:2006PChem..67.1985P. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.004. hdl:1822/5522. PMID 16905165.
  23. ^ Kohguchi, Michihiro; Kunikata, Toshio; Watanabe, Hikaru; Kudo, Naoki; Shibuya, Takashi; Ishihara, Tatsuya; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kurimoto, Masashi (2014). "Immuno-potentiating Effects of the Antler-shaped Fruiting Body of (Rokkaku-Reishi)". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 68 (4): 881–887. doi:10.1271/bbb.68.881. PMID 15118318.
  24. ^ Meuninck, Jim (2017). Foraging Mushrooms Oregon: Finding, Identifying, and Preparing Edible Wild Mushrooms. Falcon Guides. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-4930-2669-2.
  25. ^ a b Smith, John; Rowan, Neil; Sullivan, Richard (2001). "Medicinal mushrooms: their therapeutic properties and current medical usage with special emphasis on cancer treatments". Cancer Research UK: 28, 31. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009.
  26. ^ a b Wachtel-Galor, Sissi; Yuen, John; Buswell, John A.; Benzie, Iris F. F. (2011). "Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A Medicinal Mushroom". In Benzie, Iris F. F.; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi (eds.). Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-4398-0713-2. PMID 22593926.
  27. ^ "How To Make A Medicinal Mushroom Double-Extraction Tincture". Herbal Academy. 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  28. ^ Andy Corbley (2020-12-10). "Stanford Designer is Making Bricks Out of Fast-Growing Mushrooms That Are Stronger than Concrete". Good News Network. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  29. ^ Философско-эстетический смысл так называемого «божественного гриба» («линчжи») в искусстве Китая / Завадская Е. В. // Научные сообщения Государственного музея искусства народов Востока // М.: Наука, 1977. — Вып. 9. — (с. 40—46) — С. 44. (табл. III) С. 179.
  30. ^ a b Философско-эстетический смысл так называемого «божественного гриба» («линчжи») в искусстве Китая Archived 2021-11-17 at the Wayback Machine / Evgeniya V. Zavadskaya [ru] // Научные сообщения Государственного музея искусства народов Востока // М.: Наука, 1977. — Вып. 9. — С. 40—46.
  31. ^ Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality / Wasson R. G. // New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972. — P. 85.P. 89.
  32. ^ Китай: колокольца в пыли. Странствия мага и интеллектуала / Aleksey A. Maslov [ru] // М.: Алетейа, 2005. — 376 с. — ISBN 5-98639-025-3 — С. 74, 356, 367.
  33. ^ Философы из Хуайнани. Хуайнаньцзы / Пер. Л. Е. Померанцевой. Сост. И. В. Ушаков // М: Мысль, 2004. — 430 с. — ISBN 5-244-00984-2 — С. 267. «Шаманок (Ушань) — гора в пров. Сычуань. Из гриба цзычжи (другое название — линчжи) мудрецы делали дурманящий напиток. О дереве гаося аналогичных сведений как будто нет. Комментарий говорит, что это высокое дерево с плотной шелковистой древесиной белого цвета и что гаося и цзычжи символы благородства, а чернобыльники и полынь — символы ничтожества.» — С. 50: «На горе Шаманок послушны ветру и покорны огню как дерево гаося и гриб цзычжи, так и чернобыльник и полынь все погибают вместе.»
  34. ^ Поздние даосы о природе, обществе и искусстве («Хуайнаньцзы» — II в. до н. э.) / Померанцева Л. Е. // М.: Издательство Московского университета, 1979. — 240 с. — С. 145, 220.
  35. ^ a b Ancient Chinese People's Knowledge of Macrofungi during the Period from 220 to 589 Archived 2021-11-12 at the Wayback Machine / Lu Di // «East Asian Science, Technology, and Medicine», № 37 (2013)/2014: 36-68.
  36. ^ a b Traditional uses, chemical components and pharmacological activities of the genus Ganoderma P. Karst.: a review / Li Wang, Jie-qing Li, Ji Zhang, Zhi-min Li,b Hong-gao Liu, Yuan-zhong Wang // RSC Advances: Issue 69, 2020.
  37. ^ The Divine Farmer's Materia Medica: A Translation of the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. Translated by Yang, Shouzhong. Blue Poppy Press. 1998. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9780936185965.
  38. ^ Li Bo Unkempt / Kidder Smith, Mike Zhai // Punctum Books, 2021. — ISBN 9781953035417, 9781953035424; doi:10.21983/P3.0322.1.00. — pp. 137, 405.
  39. ^ Li, Shizhen. 本草綱目  [Compendium of Materia Medica] (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 胸中結, 益心氣, 補中, 增智慧, 不忘。久食, 輕身不老, 延年神仙。
  40. ^ a b Halpern, Georges M. (2007). Healing Mushrooms. Square One Publishers. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7570-0196-3.
  41. ^ a b Stuart, G. A.; Smith, F. Porter (1911). Chinese Materia Medica, Pt. 1, Vegetable Kingdom. Presbyterian Mission Press. pp. 271, 274. ISBN 9780879684693.
  42. ^ a b Pregadio, Fabrizio, ed. (2008). The Encyclopedia of Taoism. Routledge. p. 1271. ISBN 9780203695487. Zhi 芝 numinous mushrooms; excrescences
  43. ^ Bretschneider, E. (1893). Botanicon Sinicum. Kelly & Walsh. p. 40.
  44. ^ Groot, Johann Jacob Maria de (1892–1910). The Religious System of China. Its ancient forms, evolution, history and present aspect. Manners, customs and social institutions connected therewith. Vol. IV. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 307.
  45. ^ Arora, David (1986). Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi (2nd ed.). Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-0-89815-169-5.
  46. ^ Hu, Shiu-ying (2006). Food Plants of China. Chinese University Press. p. 268. ISBN 9789629962296.
  47. ^ Bedini, Silvio A. (1994). The Trail of Time. Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780521374828.
  48. ^ Knechtges, David R. (1996). Wen Xuan or Selections of Refined Literature. Vol. 3. Princeton University Press. pp. 201, 211. ISBN 9780691021263.
  49. ^ Schipper, Kristofer M. (1993). The Taoist Body. University of California Press. p. 174.
  50. ^ Rogers, Robert (2011). "Ganoderma lucidum". The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms & Lichens of North America. BErkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. pp. 172–185. ISBN 978-1-55643-953-7.
  51. ^ "ling chih". Oxford English Dictionary. 4.0 (CD-ROM ed.). 2009.
  52. ^ Bushell, Stephen Wootton (1904). Chinese Art. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 148. (Victoria and Albert Museum); This context describes the lingzhi fungus and ruyi scepter as Daoist symbols of longevity on a jade vase.
  53. ^ "Names of a Selection of Asian Fungi". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. University of Melbourne. 18 February 1999.