Tondo
District
Tondo Church fronting Plaza Leon
Tondo Church fronting Plaza Leon
Location of Tondo
Map
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
CityManila
Congressional districtManila's 1st (western side) and 2nd districts (eastern side)
Area
 • Total8.65 km2 (3.40 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total654,220
 • Density76,000/km2 (190,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (Philippine Standard Time)
Zip codes
1012 (Tondo South)
1013 (Tondo North)
Area codes2

Tondo is a district located in Manila, Philippines. It is the largest, in terms of area and population, of Manila's sixteen districts,[2] with a census-estimated 654,220 people in 2020. It consists of two congressional districts. It is also the second most densely populated district in the city.

Etymology

The name Tondo can be derived from its Old Tagalog name, Tundun as inscribed in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD, the earliest native document found within the Philippines. Dutch anthropologist Antoon Postma, the first to translate the copperplate, believes the term tundun originated from the old Indian language Tamil (Thondai naadu-Chola),[3] which was used alongside Malay as a language of politics and religion in the area at the time.

Before this landmark discovery, several theories (however incorrect now) existed. Philippine National Artist Nick Joaquin once suggested that it might be a reference to a high ground ("tundok").[4] On the other hand, French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, supposed that the Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), was the most likely origin of the name.[5]

History

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Tondo, Manila" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Early Philippine history

Main article: Tondo (historical polity)

Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900 AD)

The region of Tondo has been settled by humans for over 1,100 years. Historically, Tondo already existed in the year 900 AD according to the Laguna Copperplate Inscription,[6] a legal document that is the earliest document in the Philippines, written in Kawi script now housed in the National Museum of Anthropology.

According to this document, Tondo was ruled by an unnamed person who held the Sanskrit title of senapati or the equivalent of an admiral. Tondo also had influence all the way to the modern-day province of Bulacan particularly around Lihan (Malolos) and Gatbuca (Calumpit). Tondo was ruled by a line of lakan until the Spanish conquest.

Colonial period

Tondo
1589–1901
StatusFormer municipality of Manila (1589-1901)
History 
• Established
1589
• Disestablished
1901
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tondo
1599
Tambobong
1815
Caloocan
1901
Manila
Plaza Liga Filipina

After the Spaniards conquered Tondo in January 1571 they established the Province of Tondo which covered many territories in Northern Luzon particularly Pampanga, Bulacan and Rizal (formerly called Morong), with the city of Manila as its center. In a census conducted by Miguel de Loarca in 1583, Tondo was reported to have spoken the same language as the natives of the province of Pampanga.[7]

Institute of National Language commissioner Jose Villa Panganiban also wrote that the dividing line between Kapampangan and Tagalog was the Pasig River, and that Tondo therefore originally spoke Kapampangan.[8] However, Fray Isacio Rodriquez's Historia dela Provincia del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus de Filipinas stated that Provincia de Tagalos which is Tondo covers all the territories of the future Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila. Prior to the establishment of Bulacan in 1578, Malolos and Calumpit were also included in the territory of Tondo as its visitas. In 1800, the Province of Tondo was renamed to Province of Manila.

Tondo was one of the first provinces to declare rebellion against Spain in the year 1896. In 1911, under the American colonial regime, there was a major reorganization of political divisions, and the province of Tondo was dissolved, with its towns given to the provinces of Rizal and Bulacan. Today, Tondo just exists as a district in the City of Manila.

Contemporary period

Aerial view of Tondo district after fire, 1941

Slums developed in Tondo along the Pasig River. Authorities sought to improve housing conditions on these areas without condoning the action of Squatting committed by the slums' residents. In the 1970s, the World Bank provided funds to improve conditions in Tondo which led the increase of rent prices and a property boom in the area. These caused the poor Gentrification. The slums that were upgraded were legalized but these areas remain vastly different from other parts of Manila with higher population density, more irregular road and plot patterns, and uncontrolled housing.[9]

In the 1987 constitution, Tondo was split into two congressional districts of Manila making the first district to the west while the second district in the east.

Economy

Manila North Harbor with Tondo skyline at the background

Tondo hosts the Manila North Harbor Port, the northern half of the Port of Manila, the primary seaport serving Metro Manila and surrounding areas.[10]

The area also hosted Smokey Mountain, a landfill which served Metro Manila and employed thousands of people from around 1960s until its closure in the late 1990s. The dumpsite served as a symbol of poverty even at least two decades since its closure.[11]

Demographics

Busy street near Pritil Market

Urbanization as well as the Lina Law which favors squatting over land owners has resulted in Tondo being one of the most densely populated areas in the world at 69,000 inhabitants per square kilometer (180,000/sq mi).[12]

Crime

Tondo has developed a reputation for criminality and poverty. In 2010, Manila records state that Tondo has the highest criminal rate in the whole city with the most common crime being pickpocketing.[13]

Culture

The district celebrates the feast of the Tondo Church annually in January, which is dedicated to the image of the Santo Niño housed within the 16th-century Augustinian Tondo Church. The Lakbayaw Street Dance Festival, a competition among Ati-Atihan groups and school, local and religious groups, served as the climax of the feast.[14]

Education

The Department of Education – Schools Division Office of Manila lists 26 public elementary schools and 11 public high schools in Tondo.[15]

Barangays

Zones

First District
Second District

List of barangays

FIRST DISTRICT
Zone/Barangay Land area (km²) Population (2020 census)
Zone 1
Barangay 1 0.04953 km² 2,995
Barangay 2 0.03787 km² 1,887
Barangay 3 0.03893 km² 1,341
Barangay 4 0.04018 km² 1,691
Barangay 5 0.02473 km² 1,288
Barangay 6 0.04150 km² 771
Barangay 7 0.04402 km² 1,560
Barangay 8 0.03638 km² 147
Barangay 9 0.01276 km² 447
Barangay 10 0.006060 km² 160
Zone 2
Barangay 11 0.01336 km² 2,758
Barangay 12 0.02056 km² 2,137
Barangay 13 0.01241 km² 2,371
Barangay 14 0.01447 km² 2,070
Barangay 15 0.006980 km² 1,119
Barangay 16 0.01059 km² 1,477
Barangay 17 0.009080 km² 1,176
Barangay 18 0.02325 km² 1,982
Barangay 19 0.01878 km² 2,272
Barangay 20 1.372 km² 45,772
Barangay 25 0.02200 km² 2,545
Barangay 26 0.01961 km² 2,555
Barangay 28 0.02258 km² 2,787
Barangay 29 0.07244 km² 4,406
Barangay 30 0.01179 km² 166
Barangay 31 0.01750 km² 2,881
Barangay 32 0.01606 km² 2,219
Zone 3
Barangay 33 0.02387 km² 4,082
Barangay 34 0.01156 km² 1,854
Barangay 35 0.01531 km² 2,265
Barangay 36 0.01173 km² 2,231
Barangay 37 0.009990 km² 2,057
Barangay 38 0.01394 km² 2,870
Barangay 39 0.1038 km² 2,324
Barangay 41 0.02111 km² 3,825
Barangay 42 0.01759 km² 2,142
Barangay 43 0.01292 km² 3,362
Barangay 44 0.05213 km² 800
Barangay 45 0.01765 km² 2,264
Barangay 46 0.01634 km² 2,088
Barangay 47 0.03325 km² 1,123
Zone 4
Barangay 48 0.01689 km² 4,070
Barangay 49 0.01984 km² 2,119
Barangay 50 0.03537 km² 4,217
Barangay 51 0.04022 km² 2,580
Barangay 52 0.02638 km² 2,732
Barangay 53 0.02453 km² 2,916
Barangay 54 0.02705 km² 1,648
Barangay 55 0.03648 km² 2,492
Zone 5
Barangay 56 0.05299 km² 3,457
Barangay 57 0.02752 km² 882
Barangay 58 0.02985 km² 3,719
Barangay 59 0.02256 km² 1,112
Barangay 60 0.01361 km² 4,503
Zone 6
Barangay 61 0.04362 km² 1,022
Barangay 62 0.02066 km² 1,967
Barangay 63 0.01866 km² 1,448
Barangay 64 0.01542 km² 495
Barangay 65 0.01938 km² 1,631
Barangay 66 0.02644 km² 2,956
Barangay 67 0.02007 km² 4,083
Barangay 68 0.007310 km² 1,115
Barangay 69 0.02362 km² 1,968
Barangay 70 0.01273 km² 2,344
Barangay 71 0.03982 km² 3,417
Barangay 72 0.02674 km² 3,233
Barangay 73 0.01038 km² 2,478
Barangay 74 0.02003 km² 1,039
Barangay 75 0.02651 km² 1,350
Zone 7
Barangay 76 0.01828 km² 1,844
Barangay 77 0.01281 km² 1,372
Barangay 78 0.01471 km² 1,221
Barangay 79 0.007830 km² 1,520
Barangay 80 0.01168 km² 2,553
Barangay 81 0.01771 km² 1,815
Barangay 82 0.02250 km² 2,642
Barangay 83 0.01402 km² 1,473
Barangay 84 0.01456 km² 1,141
Barangay 85 0.02539 km² 4,032
Barangay 86 0.02075 km² 1,415
Barangay 87 0.02072 km² 1,633
Barangay 88 0.009840 km² 1,096
Barangay 89 0.01241 km² 720
Barangay 90 0.009980 km² 630
Zone 8
Barangay 91 0.05655 km² 4,552
Barangay 92 0.02656 km² 2,639
Barangay 93 0.04385 km² 3,960
Barangay 94 0.09789 km² 2,178
Barangay 95 0.03333 km² 5,543
Barangay 96 0.08864 km² 2,100
Barangay 97 0.03041 km² 3,634
Barangay 98 0.01408 km² 1,899
Barangay 99 0.01293 km² 6,310
Barangay 100 0.02934 km² 2,222
Barangay 101 0.1038 km² 15,358
Barangay 102 0.02389 km² 4,157
Barangay 103 0.03294 km² 4,772
Barangay 104 0.03892 km² 5,741
Barangay 105 0.5062 km² 24,971
Barangay 106 0.07641 km² 2,513
Zone 9
Barangay 107 0.1578 km² 7,003
Barangay 108 0.03204 km² 5,391
Barangay 109 0.02678 km² 3,254
Barangay 110 0.1781 km² 2,677
Barangay 111 0.01452 km² 2,661
Barangay 112 0.02743 km² 5,593
Barangay 116 0.04229 km² 5,943
Barangay 117 0.02099 km² 4,160
Barangay 118 0.1419 km² 10,840
Barangay 119 0.01863 km² 2,345
Barangay 120 0.01699 km² 3,873
Barangay 121 0.02799 km² 4,511
Barangay 122 0.02322 km² 3,824
Barangay 123 0.09875 km² 8,660
Zone 10
Barangay 124 0.03070 km² 159
Barangay 125 0.01540 km² 4,510
Barangay 126 0.1365 km² 1,162
Barangay 127 0.04520 km² 565
Barangay 128 1.067 km² 23,702
Barangay 129 0.04715 km² 5,716
Zone 11
Barangay 130 0.03322 km² 1,758
Barangay 131 0.02571 km² 1,621
Barangay 132 0.04207 km² 925
Barangay 133 0.07548 km² 2,115
Barangay 134 0.03383 km² 1,058
Zone 12
Barangay 135 0.03240 km² 1,935
Barangay 136 0.02872 km² 1,197
Barangay 137 0.03017 km² 911
Barangay 138 0.02568 km² 2,939
Barangay 139 0.007160 km² 371
Barangay 140 0.03246 km² 543
Barangay 141 0.006960 km² 529
Barangay 142 0.01676 km² 1,710
Barangay 143 0.01029 km² 1,401
Barangay 144 0.03131 km² 880
Barangay 145 0.01763 km² 1,029
Barangay 146 0.03743 km² 2,895
SECOND DISTRICT
Zone 13
Barangay 147 0.1300 km² 2,275
Barangay 148 0.1047 km² 2,333
Barangay 149 0.02148 km² 1,554
Barangay 150 0.04766 km² 2,277
Barangay 151 0.05243 km² 1,639
Zone 14
Barangay 152 0.02517 km² 6,218
Barangay 153 0.02093 km² 2,051
Barangay 154 0.02421 km² 948
Barangay 155 0.01807 km² 3,257
Barangay 156 0.04336 km² 1,615
Barangay 157 0.01802 km² 1,505
Barangay 158 0.02412 km² 1,934
Barangay 159 0.01371 km² 1,558
Barangay 160 0.01494 km² 1,256
Barangay 161 0.03005 km² 1,004
Barangay 162 0.02344 km² 556
Barangay 163 0.04533 km² 3,840
Barangay 164 0.02660 km² 1,807
Barangay 165 0.02269 km² 1,014
Zone 15
Barangay 166 0.03358 km² 882
Barangay 167 0.02876 km² 926
Barangay 168 0.03009 km² 1,387
Barangay 169 0.02741 km² 914
Barangay 170 0.01939 km² 1,378
Barangay 171 0.02704 km² 1,124
Barangay 172 0.04526 km² 1,210
Barangay 173 0.03045 km² 1,616
Barangay 174 0.02559 km² 715
Barangay 175 0.03679 km² 988
Barangay 176 0.04428 km² 1,278
Zone 16
Barangay 177 0.1371 km² 3,308
Barangay 178 0.02283 km² 1,519
Barangay 179 0.03228 km² 1,021
Barangay 180 0.03520 km² 2,145
Barangay 181 0.01847 km² 2,773
Barangay 182 0.05269 km² 3,936
Barangay 183 0.04116 km² 8,424
Barangay 184 0.04504 km² 3,311
Barangay 185 0.03429 km² 3,532
Barangay 186 0.04620 km² 1,678
Zone 17
Barangay 187 0.01100 km² 886
Barangay 188 0.01397 km² 865
Barangay 189 0.02422 km² 1,481
Barangay 190 0.01556 km² 1,232
Barangay 191 0.01048 km² 703
Barangay 192 0.03407 km² 1,878
Barangay 193 0.01132 km² 979
Barangay 194 0.01699 km² 775
Barangay 195 0.01056 km² 1,401
Barangay 196 0.02015 km² 1,631
Barangay 197 0.01453 km² 523
Zone 18
Barangay 198 0.04329 km² 5,032
Barangay 199 0.03578 km² 3,471
Barangay 200 0.01520 km² 1,666
Barangay 201 0.05224 km² 1,152
Barangay 202 0.03268 km² 1,420
Barangay 202-A 0.01950 km² 1,213
Barangay 203 0.06060 km² 2,462
Barangay 204 0.05164 km² 2,684
Barangay 205 0.04640 km² 1,760
Zone 19
Barangay 206 0.04145 km² 2,433
Barangay 207 0.04955 km² 1,541
Barangay 208 0.03002 km² 635
Barangay 209 0.06273 km² 5,075
Barangay 210 0.03629 km² 3,212
Barangay 211 0.03119 km² 2,007
Barangay 212 0.02913 km² 2,675
Zone 20
Barangay 213 0.03187 km² 3,231
Barangay 214 0.01596 km² 1,577
Barangay 215 0.01780 km² 3,106
Barangay 216 0.03176 km² 2,431
Barangay 217 0.02803 km² 1,263
Barangay 218 0.02250 km² 321
Barangay 219 0.03687 km² 1,080
Barangay 220 0.05358 km² 1,270
Zone 21
Barangay 221 0.02506 km² 3,353
Barangay 222 0.01733 km² 2,040
Barangay 223 0.01887 km² 1,629
Barangay 224 0.03784 km² 1,069
Barangay 225 0.01565 km² 2,419
Barangay 226 0.02445 km² 1,562
Barangay 227 0.04637 km² 1,836
Barangay 228 0.01517 km² 3,010
Barangay 229 0.01879 km² 1,545
Barangay 230 0.01091 km² 2,364
Barangay 231 0.02429 km² 1,888
Barangay 232 0.03739 km² 1,778
Barangay 233 0.02135 km² 735
Zone 22
Barangay 234 0.04128 km² 1,945
Barangay 235 0.02426 km² 1,557
Barangay 236 0.02861 km² 801
Barangay 237 0.02222 km² 452
Barangay 238 0.01655 km² 364
Barangay 239 0.02265 km² 1,785
Barangay 240 0.01350 km² 56
Barangay 241 0.08630 km² 447
Barangay 242 0.02383 km² 448
Barangay 243 0.01484 km² 436
Barangay 244 0.01323 km² 640
Barangay 245 0.01004 km² 281
Barangay 246 0.01857 km² 1,254
Barangay 247 0.01411 km² 737
Barangay 248 0.008640 km² 503
Zone 23
Barangay 249 0.01475 km² 1,610
Barangay 250 0.03508 km² 1,182
Barangay 251 0.009610 km² 1,181
Barangay 252 0.008880 km² 910
Barangay 253 0.02374 km² 1,329
Barangay 254 0.04850 km² 3,713
Barangay 255 0.02253 km² 1,086
Barangay 256 0.02140 km² 1,030
Barangay 257 0.01151 km² 1,308
Barangay 258 0.02197 km² 1,181
Barangay 259 0.06758 km² 2,090
Zone 24
Barangay 260 0.03956 km² 1,641
Barangay 261 0.01545 km² 735
Barangay 262 0.04478 km² 1,736
Barangay 263 0.01511 km² 1,306
Barangay 264 0.02586 km² 2,443
Barangay 265 0.01479 km² 125
Barangay 266 0.02719 km² 1,665
Barangay 267 0.01300 km² 1,952

Notable people

References

  1. ^ "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  2. ^ "Republic Act No. 409: An Act to Revise the Charter of the City of Manila, and for Other Purposes". Official Gazette. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  3. ^ Postma, Antoon (1992). "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Philippine Studies. 40 (2): 183–203. JSTOR 42633308.
  4. ^ Joaqiun, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young. City of Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-9715693134.
  5. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. Lulu.com. p. 444. ISBN 9781291457261.
  6. ^ Morrow, Paul. "The Laguna Copperplate Inscription". Archived from the original on February 5, 2008.
  7. ^ Miguel de Loarca's Census of 1583.
  8. ^ Panganiban
  9. ^ "Settlements & Growth". Creating Neighbourhoods and Places in the Built Environment. Taylor & Francis. September 2, 2003. p. 39. ISBN 1135817901.
  10. ^ "SMC wrests control of port from Romero". Manila Standard. February 18, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  11. ^ Endo, Jun (March 10, 2017). "Mountain of garbage blights Manila". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  12. ^ "Tondo: The space in between". Al Jazeera. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  13. ^ "Tondo has highest crime rate in Manila". ABS-CBN (in Filipino). August 21, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  14. ^ Santos, Mat (January 20, 2018). "Celebrating the Feast of the Sto. Niño". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  15. ^ "DepED Manila Public Schools". Department of Education Manila. Retrieved March 17, 2018.

Further reading

14°37′01″N 120°58′01″E / 14.617°N 120.967°E / 14.617; 120.967