Embo
West Rembo, Post Proper Northside, and Cembo
West Rembo, Post Proper Northside, and Cembo
Etymology: Enlisted Men's Barrio
Map showing the Embo area. Faded portions of the Post Proper barangays overlap the territory already controlled by barangays Fort Bonifacio, Pinagsama, Ususan, and Western Bicutan.
Map showing the Embo area. Faded portions of the Post Proper barangays overlap the territory already controlled by barangays Fort Bonifacio, Pinagsama, Ususan, and Western Bicutan.
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
CityTaguig
First military settlement (Cembo)1949
Transfer of control to Makati (de facto)January 7, 1986
Transfer of control to Taguig , (de jure)2023
Area
 • Total8.838 km2 (3.412 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total336,875
 • Density38,000/km2 (99,000/sq mi)
Divisions
 • Barangays
10
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1640–1649[2]
1635 (Bonifacio Global City)
Area code2

Embo (sometimes stylized in all caps), which stands for Enlisted Men's Barrio, refers to a collective term for ten[3][4][5] barangays in Taguig, Philippines. The barangays were originally established to house military personnel of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). The area were formerly disputed between the cities of Makati and Taguig,[6] as well as the municipality of Pateros.[7] As of November 2023, the barangays were transferred from Makati to Taguig.[8][9]

Etymology

The collective for the Embo barangays were derived from enlisted men's barrios (EMBOs), as the area is originally a settlement for enlisted men serving in the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[10][11][12]

History

Early history

Fort William McKinley and surrounding areas, including the present-day Embo barangays, circa 1930s

Part of the Embo area was formerly known as Mamancat, Masilang, San Nicolas,[13] and Malapadnabato,[14] respectively, all originally part of Pateros.[15] Mamancat was known as a trading hub alongside its more developed neighbor, Aguho (now Barangay Agujo, Pateros) during the Spanish colonial era.[16] San Nicolas, which comprises the present-day western portion of West Rembo, is the location of the Ermita de San Nicolas de Tolentino that was established in 1686 and is believed to be first settled by Chinese traders.[17] Malapad-na-bato used to be linked to Pasig via an old bridge.[18] Masilang comprises the present-day South Cembo.[15] Malapadnabato and Masilang later became part of San Pedro Macati (now Makati), while Malapad-na-bato later became part of Pasig.[19]

Establishment of EMBO settlements

At the end of the Philippine–American War, the United States colonial administration established the Fort William McKinley at the center of present-day Metro Manila. During World War II, the military reservation would be used as the headquarters of the United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) until the Imperial Japanese military took over it. After the conclusion of the war, the Philippines would be granted full independence by the United States in 1946 but retained control over its military bases.[11]

Fort McKinley would only be turned over to the Philippine government in 1949. The reservation was renamed as Fort Bonifacio and the government made plans to create settlements for military personnel within the vicinity of the installation.[11]

Cembo would be the first settlements among the EMBO barangays to be established, when the first batch of enlisted servicemen from the Infantry Group, Philippine Ground Force from Floridablanca, Pampanga arriving in 1949 to settle in the area.[20] In 1954, East Rembo was established as settlements for Fort Bonifacio-based enlisted men serving in the armed forces upon the authorization of the Armed Forces of the Philippines through the office of General Alfonso Arellano, the Commanding General of Fort Bonifacio.[21]

In 1956, two more settlements would be authorized:[11] West Rembo and Pitogo.[17][22] In 1957, Comembo, in the site formerly known as Mamancat, would be settled by personnel from the Combat Engineering Group of the Philippine Army.[16] In the same year, the area was reserved for military use.[23]

On October 27, 1965, the area was declared "open to disposition under certain provisions" through Proclamation No. 481, which was issued by President Diosdado Macapagal.[24] Pembo would be established to for personnel of the First Ranger Regiment, who were also known as the Panthers.[25] In 1966, Cembo Annex was separated from Cembo proper and was renamed South Cembo.[26]

On December 11, 1972, two barangays inside the Fort Bonifacio military reservation were established, namely: Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside.[27][28]

Transfer to Makati

On January 7, 1986, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Proclamation No. 2475, which transferred control of the Fort Bonifacio area to the municipal government of Makati and reserved the area for military personnel and their dependents.[29] In 1990, President Corazon Aquino issued Proclamation No. 518 to award land titles in the EMBO area to bona fide occupants.[12][30]

In February 1996, a new barangay named Rizal was created from Pembo through Makati City Ordinance No. 96-010. It was later ratified through a plebiscite held on June 29, 1996. Prior to the creation of Rizal, Pembo was larger than the municipality of Pateros, with a land area of 123 hectares (300 acres) and a population of 65,000 in 1995.[25][31]

The Fort Bonifacio area and the Embo barangays would be subject of a territorial dispute between the city governments of Taguig and Makati. Taguig filed the case in 1993. In 2022, the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that Makati should stop exercising jurisdiction over the Embo barangays although the Makati city government has maintained that will continue to do so until it exhausts all legal remedies and Taguig secures a writ of execution from the Supreme Court.[10]

Transfer to Taguig

Further information: Makati–Taguig boundary dispute

Aerial view of barangays Pembo, Rizal, Post Proper Northside, and Post Proper Southside, with Bonifacio Global City on the background, in October 2023

In April 2023, the Supreme Court of the Philippines has junked the motion for reconsideration that was filed by the City Government of Makati to override the court's earlier decision, siding with Taguig. The Taguig city government has released a statement "welcoming the new Taguigeños", referring to the residents of the affected Embo barangays, and that they would start working on the transition and handover of the Embo barangays.[8] On the dispositive portion of the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruling on December 1, 2021, it reinstated the Writ of Preliminary Injunction dated August 2, 1994 issued by the RTC of Pasig, explicitly referring to Parcels 3 and 4, Psu-2031, comprising Fort Bonifacio, be made permanent insofar as it enjoined the Municipality, now City of Makati, from exercising jurisdiction over, making improvements on, or otherwise treating as part of its territory, Parcels 3 and 4, Psu-2031, comprising Fort Bonifacio.[18]

On November 8, 2023, the Department of the Interior and Local Government released a memo dated October 26, 2023 transferring the control of the Embo barangays to Taguig.[32]

Subdivisions

The political map of Embo barangays. Faded portions of the Post Proper barangays, previously claimed by Makati, overlap the territory that is already controlled by Taguig's barangays Fort Bonifacio, Pinagsama, Ususan, and Western Bicutan.

The Embo barangays are constituted as subdivisions of the city of Taguig.[11][33] These barangays, however, remain part of Makati's 2nd congressional district.[34] Barangays Post Proper Northside, Post Proper Southside, Pitogo, and Rizal are also grouped with other barangays with "Embo" in its name.

Seal Barangay Makati numbering Etymology Population (2020) Area (km2)
Cembo Barangay 25 Central Enlisted Men's Barrio 25,049 0.22
South Cembo Barangay 24 14,978 0.20
Comembo Barangay 28 Combat Enlisted Men's Barrio 15,805 0.27
East Rembo Barangay 27 Riverside Enlisted Men’s Barrio 26,450 0.44
West Rembo Barangay 26 29,649 0.55
Pembo Barangay 29 Panthers Enlisted Men's Barrio 44,506 0.64
Post Proper Northside Barangay 30 57,940 2.376
Post Proper Southside Barangay 31 63,308 3.412
Rizal Barangay 33[35] Named after José Rizal 44,536 0.59
Pitogo Barangay 23 From pitogo, a local term for a palm plant[36] 14,654 0.14
Total population and area 336,875 8.838

Education

University of Makati

West Rembo in particular was designated by the local government of Makati as the city's Center of Education and Cultural Affairs. It is the site of Makati's public university, University of Makati.[17] 14 public elementary and secondary schools, now under the administration of the Department of Education's Schools Division Office of Taguig City and Pateros since January 2024, are also based in the Embo barangays. Those schools are as follows:[37]

Most of Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside overlap territories controlled by barangays Fort Bonifacio and Pinagsama, which are home to educational institutions. Fort Bonifacio is home to private institutions, including international schools and the satellite campuses of De La Salle University and University of the Philippines, in Bonifacio Global City, while Pinagsama is home to Enderun Colleges and MINT College in McKinley Hill and Palar Integrated School, a public school already under the jurisdiction of Taguig.

Religion

St. John of the Cross Parish Church in Pembo

The predominantly Roman Catholic population in the Embo barangays, particularly the areas previously controlled by Makati, is served by five parishes under the Archdiocese of Manila.[38][39] Conversely, the areas already under the control of Taguig, even before the transfer of Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside to the city, including the Bonifacio Global City and parts of the Bonifacio Capital District, fall under the Diocese of Pasig.[40]

The Mater Dolorosa Parish of the Amigonian Fathers and Brothers in East Rembo was established on September 8, 1987 through a decree by Manila Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin. It originally covered the barangays of Cembo, West Rembo, East Rembo, Comembo, and Pembo. Cembo would later be transferred to the Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish.[41] The Saint John of the Cross Parish would be established for Pembo on August 9, 1991.[42] On June 18, 1992, the Santa Teresita would be established in West Rembo. In 1998, a standalone parish for Comembo was proposed and was realized within the span of two years.[41] The Military Ordinariate of the Philippines also has jurisdiction over the Philippine Army headquarters once claimed by Post Proper Southside and formerly the St. Michael the Archangel Parish in Bonifacio Global City, which is previously a military reservation.[40]

The Pembo locale of Iglesia Ni Cristo is located at Barangay Rizal. The headquarters of Victory, an Evangelical Christian church, is located in Bonifacio Global City, Fort Bonifacio, particularly in the area overlapping the Post Proper Northside. Churches of Baptists and Members Church of God International are also found in the Embo barangays.

References

  1. ^ "Population of the National Capital Region (Based on the 2020 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority.
  2. ^ Hicap, Jonathan (29 February 2024). "Taguig's EMBO barangays get new ZIP codes". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  3. ^ "Newly elected EMBO Barangay, SK officials took oath before Binay". CNN Philippines. November 26, 2023. Archived from the original on January 30, 2024. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  4. ^ Bautista, Nillicent (January 6, 2024). "'Embo' barangays excluded from Makati's tax allocation". Philippine Star. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  5. ^ Cruz, James Patrick (August 21, 2023). "Comelec OKs inclusion of 10 EMBO barangays in Taguig for Barangay, SK elections". Rappler. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  6. ^ Hicap, Jonathan (May 31, 2023). "Pateros LGU confident in recovering Fort Bonifacio from Taguig". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  7. ^ San Juan, Joel (May 12, 2023). "Supreme Court gives Pateros say in land row". BusinessMirror. Retrieved July 18, 2023.
  8. ^ a b Hicap, Jonathan (April 3, 2023). "Taguig LGU lauds SC decision over Fort Bonifacio ownership". Manila Bulletin.
  9. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson (April 5, 2023). "Makati raises 'constitutional' issues in BGC land dispute". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  10. ^ a b Garcia, Patrick (28 April 2022). "Contested areas in SC ruling to remain under Makati City's jursidiction – LGU". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e Limos, Mario Alvaro (24 September 2019). "The Military Roots of Cembo, Rembo, and Pembo Districts". Esquire Philippines. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  12. ^ a b Rufo, Aries (17 March 2015). "How a Binay dummy got a P1B Makati property". Rappler. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  13. ^ Map of Manila and Vicinity (Map). 1:25000. Office Engineer Officer, Philippine Division. January 1905. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  14. ^ "Malapadnabato, Province of Rizal, Calabarzon, Philippines". mindat.org. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  15. ^ a b Manila South, Philippine Islands, Manila City, Luzon (Map). 1:12500. Its A.M.S. S901. United States. Army Map Service. 1945. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  16. ^ a b "Comembo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  17. ^ a b c "West Rembo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  18. ^ a b G.R. No. 235316 (1 December 2021), Municipality of Makati (now City of Makati) vs. Municipality of Taguig (now City of Taguig), Supreme Court E-Library
  19. ^ Salonga, Isayas R. (1934). Rizal Province directory, Volume I. Manila: General Printing Press. p. 79. Retrieved August 19, 2023.
  20. ^ "Cembo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  21. ^ "East Rembo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  22. ^ "Pitogo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  23. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 423, s. 1957 (12 July 1957), Reserving for military purposes certain parcels of the public domain situated in the Municipalities of Pasig, Taguig, Parañaque, Province of Rizal and Pasay City, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, retrieved June 30, 2023
  24. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 481, s. 1965 (27 October 1965), A certain portion of the land embraced therein situates in the Municipality of Pateros and declaring the same open to disposition, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, retrieved December 14, 2023
  25. ^ a b "Pembo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  26. ^ "South Cembo - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  27. ^ "Barangay Post Proper Northside". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved January 25, 2024.
  28. ^ "Barangay Post Proper Southside". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved January 25, 2024.
  29. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 2475, s. 1986 (7 January 1986), Excluding From the Operation of Proclamation No. 423, Series of 1957 Which Established the Fort William Mckinley (Now Fort Bonifacio) Military Reservation Situated in the Municipalities of Pasig, Taguig, Parañaque, Makati and Pasay City, Metro Manila, a Certain Portion of the Land Embraced Therein Situated in the Municipality of Makati and Declaring the Same Open to Disposition Under the Provisions of Act No. 3038 and Republic Act No. 274 in Relation the Provisions of the Public Land Act, as Amended, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, retrieved April 6, 2023
  30. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 518, s. 1990 (21 January 1990), Excluding From the Operation of Proclamation No. 423 Dated July 12, 1957 Which Established the Military Reservation Known as “Fort William Mckinley” (Now Fort Andres Bonifacio) Situated in the Municipalities of Pasig, Taguig, Pateros and Parañaque, Province of Rizal and Pasay City (Now Metropolitan Manila) as Amended by Proclamation No. 2475 Dated January 7, 1986, Certain Portions of Land Embraced Therein Known as Barangays Cembo, South Cembo, West Rembo, East Rembo, Comembo, Pembo and Pitogo, Situated in the Municipality of Makati, Metropolitan Manila and Declaring the Same Open for Disposition Under the Provisions of Republic Act No. 274, and Republic Act No. 730 in Relation to the Provisions of the Public Land Act, as Amended, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, retrieved April 6, 2023
  31. ^ "Rizal - History". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  32. ^ Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd (November 8, 2023). "DILG's Taguig office to take control of 10 EMBO villages". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved November 9, 2023.
  33. ^ Gamil, Jaymee (7 August 2013). "Makati mayor sees 'takeover' of Bonifacio Global City in 2 weeks". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  34. ^ Murcia, Alvin (14 February 2022). "Bongbong barnstorms Makati". Daily Tribune. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  35. ^ Republic Act No. 10961 (24 July 2017), An Act Creating a Barangay to Be Known as Barangay Rizal in the City of Makati (PDF), Senate of the Philippines Legislative Digital Resources, retrieved 26 September 2022
  36. ^ "Pitogo - Introduction". Makati Web Portal. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  37. ^ "Taguig now operates 14 'Embo' schools, transition concluded: DepEd". ABS-CBN News. January 15, 2024. Retrieved January 15, 2024.
  38. ^ "Vicariate of Our Lady of Guadalupe". Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  39. ^ Esmaquel, Paterno III (March 4, 2024). "In Makati-Taguig dispute, here's one thing that won't change for EMBOs". Rappler. Retrieved March 6, 2024.
  40. ^ a b "Diocese of Pasig". Catholink. Retrieved February 2, 2024.
  41. ^ a b "Historical Background". Mater Dolorosa Parish. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  42. ^ "Our History". St. John of the Cross Parish. Retrieved 30 April 2022.