Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines, is a large metropolitan area that has several levels of subdivisions. Administratively, the region is divided into seventeen primary local government units with their own separate elected mayors and councils who are coordinated by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, a national government agency headed by a chairperson directly appointed by the Philippine president. The cities and municipality that form the region's local government units are further divided into several barangays or villages (formerly called barrios) which are headed by an elected barangay captain and barangay council.

The region as a whole is geographically divided into four districts, of which the first district is the central capital City of Manila, the second and third districts located to the east and north of the City, respectively, and the fourth district covering the remaining areas of the region south of the City and the Pasig River.

Districts

Unlike other administrative regions in the Philippines, Metro Manila is not composed of provinces. Instead, the region is divided into four geographic areas called "districts."[1] The districts have their district centers at the four original cities in the region: the city-district of Manila (Capital District), Quezon City (Eastern Manila), Caloocan (Northern Manila, also informally known as Camanava), and Pasay (Southern Manila).[2] The districts serve mainly to organize the region's local government units for fiscal and statistical purposes.

Districts of Metro Manila
Districts of Metro Manila
Districts of Metro Manila
District Cities/Municipality Population (2020) Area
Capital District
(1st District)
Manila 1,846,513 42.88 km2
(16.56 sq mi)
Eastern Manila District
(2nd District)
4,771,371 236.36 km2
(91.26 sq mi)
Northern Manila District (Camanava)
(3rd District)
3,004,627 126.42 km2
(48.81 sq mi)
Southern Manila District
(4th District)
3,861,951 208.28 km2
(80.42 sq mi)
Metro Manila 12,877,253 619.57 km2
(239.22 sq mi)
Sources:

Cities and municipality

Administrative divisions

Primary local government units of Metro Manila, 2019
Primary local government units of Metro Manila, 2019

The political and administrative boundaries of the National Capital Region has not changed since its formation in 1975 as a public corporation under Presidential Decree No. 824. They are composed of sixteen independent cities, classified as highly urbanized cities, and one independent municipality: Pateros.

Barangays

Main article: List of barangays of Metro Manila

The cities and municipality of Metro Manila are divided into barangays with populations ranging from under 1,000 to over 200,000. In the City of Manila, Caloocan and Pasay, the barangays are grouped into zones for strategical purposes. As of 2015, there are 1,710 barangays in Metro Manila.

Other divisions

Congressional districts

In terms of congressional representation, the region has 32 congressional districts with each city comprising one or more districts. The lone municipality of Pateros shares a congressional district with the first district of Taguig.

Congressional districts of Metro Manila
City / Municipality District Area[10] (km2) Population (2015)[11] Electorate (2016)[12] Representative (2019)
Caloocan 1st 45.44 1,193,419 430,816 Dale Malapitan (PDP–Laban)
2nd 7.67 390,559 218,117 Edgar Erice (Liberal)
Las Piñas Lone 32.69 588,894 304,311 Camille Villar (Nacionalista)
Makati 1st 16.31 242,655 189,215 Romulo Peña Jr. (Liberal)
2nd 15.65 339,947 208,372 Luis Campos Jr. (NPC)
Malabon Lone 15.71 365,525 194,733 Josephine Lacson-Noel (NPC)
Mandaluyong Lone 21.26 386,276 200,760 Neptali Gonzales II (NUP)
Manila 1st 4.57 415,906 215,264 Manny Lopez (NPC)
2nd 4.08 215,457 128,781 Rolando Valeriano (NUP)
3rd 6.24 221,780 148,663 Yul Servo (NUP)
4th 5.14 265,046 151,540 Edward Maceda (PMP)
5th 11.56 366,714 188,080 Cristal Bagatsing (PDP–Laban)
6th 7.79 295,245 142,151 Benny Abante (NUP)
Marikina 1st 9.03 178,875 94,750 Bayani Fernando (NPC)
2nd 13.62 271,866 122,961 Stella Quimbo (Liberal)
Muntinlupa Lone 39.75 504,509 309,595 Ruffy Biazon (PDP–Laban)
Navotas Lone 10.77 249,463 125,795 John Rey Tiangco (Navoteño)
Parañaque 1st 17.06 258,210 291,067 Eric Olivarez (PDP–Laban)
2nd 27.99 407,612 Joy Tambunting (NUP)
Pasay Lone 13.97 416,522 253,824 Tony Calixto (PDP–Laban)
Pasig Lone 31.00 755,300 390,923 Roman Romulo (Aksyon)
Pateros–Taguig Lone 24.6 440,815 33,938 Alan Peter Cayetano (Nacionalista)
Quezon City 1st 19.59 409,162 184,554 Onyx Crisologo (NUP)
2nd 46.27 688,773 279,166 Precious Hipolito (NPC)
3rd 46.27 324,669 130,688 Allan Reyes (PFP)
4th 23.42 446,122 186,925 Bong Suntay (PDP–Laban)
5th 28.03 535,798 204,483 Alfred Vargas (PDP–Laban)
6th 21.97 531,592 164,526 Kit Belmonte (PDP–Laban)
San Juan Lone 5.95 122,180 71,225 Ronaldo Zamora (PDP–Laban)
Taguig Lone 20.61 427,940 369,095 Lani Cayetano (Nacionalista)
Valenzuela 1st 25.82 300,525 146,771 Weslie Gatchalian (NPC)
2nd 18.69 319,897 172,160 Eric Martinez (PDP–Laban)
Total 619.57 12,877,253 6,253,249 Total

Council districts

In terms of Sangguniang Panlungsod (city council, or in the case of Pateros, Sangguniang Bayan or municipal council) representation, each city is divided into city or municipal council districts. These are coextensive to congressional districts above, except that those cities that elect their representative at-large (Las Piñas, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig and San Juan) their city council representation is divided into two districts.

For Taguig, its two congressional districts, with the first district taken without Pateros, are used to determine representation to its city council. For Pateros, it is divided into two districts, independent of Taguig.

Each district sends in an equal number of councilors.

Old districts

Metro Manila cities may also be divided into traditional districts, such as the former municipalities (now city districts) that make up the City of Manila and the historical municipalities and estates like Novaliches, Balintawak, San Francisco del Monte and Diliman that were amalgamated to form Quezon City. Neither division has its own government. In Pasay, traditional districts include Malibay, Santa Clara, San Rafael and Maricaban.

Gated communities

Some cities in Metro Manila may also be divided into several gated communities, also known as subdivisions, which may or may not constitute their own barangays or low-level local government units. Some examples are: Dasmariñas Village in Makati; Ayala Alabang in Muntinlupa; Marina Bay, Merville, Tahanan Village and Better Living Subdivision in Parañaque; La Vista, White Plains, BF Homes, Greenmeadows and Filinvest Homes in Quezon City.

Historical divisions

Before 1901

Main article: Manila (province)

Before 1901, the Province of Manila which today encompasses most of Metro Manila and the northern part of the neighboring province of Rizal was divided into 24 municipalities with Intramuros (then known as Manila) as its capital.

1901–1942

Except for the City of Manila which amalgamated six smaller municipalities in June 1901, the Province of Manila was absorbed by the newly created Province of Rizal with Pasig as its provincial capital.

1942–1947

Main article: City of Greater Manila

The City of Greater Manila was formed in January 1942 combining the City of Manila and Quezon City, as well as six other municipalities from Rizal: Caloocan, Makati, Mandaluyong, Parañaque, Pasay and San Juan.[13]

1947–1975

The seven municipalities of the City of Greater Manila were restored and reorganized under the Province of Rizal.

In November 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 824, Metropolitan Manila was created out of four cities and thirteen municipalities (twelve from the province of Rizal and the municipality of Valenzuela from Bulacan) which covers the present-day territory of Metro Manila.[14] It was declared the National Capital Region of the Philippines in June 1978.[15]

References

  1. ^ "Municipal and City Level Estimates" (PDF). National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  2. ^ "Environmental Management Bureau – National Capital Region". Environmental Management Bureau. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). Table B - Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City, and Municipality - By Region. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  4. ^ "An Update on the Earthquake Hazards and Risk Assessment of Greater Metropolitan Manila Area" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. November 14, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  5. ^ "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical Cyclone Severe Wind and Earthquake for the Greater Metro Manila Area Component 5 – Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  6. ^ Pateros; Land Use Classification
  7. ^ "An Update on the Earthquake Hazards and Risk Assessment of Greater Metropolitan Manila Area" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. November 14, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  8. ^ "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical Cyclone Severe Wind and Earthquake for the Greater Metro Manila Area Component 5 – Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  9. ^ "Land Use Classification". Municipality of Pateros. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  10. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  11. ^ "Population Counts by Legislative District (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 11, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  12. ^ "Philippine 2016 Voters Profile by Province and City / Municipality". Commission on Elections. January 7, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  13. ^ "Executive Order No. 400, s. 1942". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 824, s. 1975". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  15. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 1396, s. 1978". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 22 September 2015.