Nam phrik
Nam phrik kapi.JPG
Nam phrik kapi (foreground)
Alternative namesน้ำพริก
TypeDip or chili sauce
Place of originThailand
Region or stateSoutheast Asia
Created byThai people
Main ingredientsChili peppers
Similar dishesNgapi yay, Lalab, Ulam (salad)
Nam phrik num, a northern Thai specialty
Nam phrik num, a northern Thai specialty
Ready-to-eat nam phrik pla salat pon from Khorat
Ready-to-eat nam phrik pla salat pon from Khorat
Nam phrik long ruea
Nam phrik long ruea
Khao phat nam phrik narok is rice fried with nam phrik narok; here served with grilled pork and a nam chim (dipping sauce)
Khao phat nam phrik narok is rice fried with nam phrik narok; here served with grilled pork and a nam chim (dipping sauce)

Nam phrik (Thai: น้ำพริก, pronounced [ná(ː)m pʰrík̚]) is a type of Thai spicy chili sauce typical of Thai cuisine. Usual ingredients for nam phrik type sauces are fresh or dry chilies, garlic, shallots, lime juice and often some kind of fish or shrimp paste. In the traditional way of preparing these sauces, the ingredients are pounded together using a mortar and pestle, with either salt or fish sauce added to taste.

Nam phrik type sauces are normally served on small saucers placed by the main dish as a condiment or dip for bland preparations, such as raw or boiled greens, fish, poultry and meats. Depending on the type, the region and the family that prepares it, nam phrik may vary in texture from a liquid to a paste to an almost dry, granular, or powdery consistency.

Instead of khrueang kaeng or phrik kaeng, the words nam phrik can also be used to denote Thai curry pastes such as in nam phrik kaeng som for kaeng som[1] or nam phrik kaeng phet for kaeng phet.[2]

History

The first Westerner to report of nam phrik was Simon de la Loubère, a French ambassador to the court of Ayutthaya. In 1687–88 he noted that it contains "a mustard like sauce, which consisted of crayfish corrupted (fermented fish); which they called kapi." King Chulalongkorn, regarded as one of the greatest kings of Thailand, repeatedly stated during his tour of Europe in 1907 that, besides khai chiao (omelette), he most missed nam phrik.[3] The chef David Thompson, an acknowledged expert on Thai cuisine, writes, "They are at the very core of Thai cooking and have fed the Thai from their distant past to the present."[4]

Chili peppers originated in the Americas, where they have been cultivated for over 6,000 years. They were probably introduced to Asia, and Thailand, in the 16th century by Portuguese emissaries and traders in what is known as the Columbian Exchange.[5][6][7] Before chili peppers were known and enthusiastically embraced in Thai cuisine, other spices such as black pepper, long pepper, and Sichuan pepper were used instead to achieve the desired "spiciness".[8]

Selected types

For nam phrik as curry pastes, see Thai curry.

Types of nam phrik vary according to the ingredients, the preparation and the region. Some may include tamarind, green mango, galangal, lemongrass, and/or mushrooms and even ingredients such as frog.[9] If fish paste is used, it may be made in a variety of ways, by mincing dried, boiled, grilled or salted fish, or by using fish roe. In Isan, pla ra, giving an intense flavor, is often used. Some types of nam phrik may be sweetened with sugar. A Thai cook book from 1974 lists over 100 different recipes.[10] Among the most widespread varieties, the following deserve mention:

See also

References

  1. ^ Chaslin, Pierre; Canungmai, Piyatep; Tettoni, Luca (1987). Discover Thai Cooking. Times Editions. ISBN 9971401126. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-03. Retrieved 2012-02-06.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Wongcha-Um, P (2009). "What Is Thai Cuisine?" (PDF). National University of Singapore. Retrieved 7 December 2015.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Wu, Olivia (14 July 2004). "Thai Salsa / Savory, sweet, sour, spicy -- nam prik is at the heart of Thai cuisine". The San Francisco Chronicle.
  5. ^ "Thai food". chaine-thailand.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  6. ^ Robinson, Simon (14 June 2007). "How the chili spread from its South American home and spiced up world cuisine". Time. Tezpur, India. Archived from the original on June 17, 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  7. ^ Holland, Michael (2012). "Chili Peppers". TravelingChili.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  8. ^ Romero-Frias, Xavier (2013). "On the Role of Food Habits in the Context of the Identity and Cultural Heritage of South and South East Asia". Academia.edu. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2020-06-16. Retrieved 2012-02-21.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/bitstream/handle/10635/17685/2.%20Thesis%20body%20-%20What%20is%20Thai%20Cuisine.pdf?sequence=2[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ Pranee Khruasanit Halvorsen (28 March 2009). "Nam Prik Kapi, the way Thais like it" – via YouTube.
  12. ^ "Namphrik kha - Lanna Food - Northern Thai Information Center, Chiang Mai University Library". library.cmu.ac.th.
  13. ^ "Nam Prik Goong Siab (Smoked shrimp chili dip)". Thai Street Food. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  14. ^ TAT Krabi (2017). "Krabi e-brochure" (PDF). Tourism Authority of Thailand. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2018-02-12.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ "Clay's Kitchen : Tam Ra Ahan Thai (Thai Recipes) ตำราอาหารไทย". www.panix.com.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2020-06-16. Retrieved 2012-02-21.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Prik Pao (Thai Red Chilli Paste) Recipe
  20. ^ "Thai Home Cooking", She Simmer's
  21. ^ "Clay's Kitchen : Tam Ra Ahan Thai (Thai Recipes) ตำราอาหารไทย". www.panix.com.
  22. ^ "น้ำพริกปลาฉิ้งฉ้าง (Anchovy Fish Chilli Paste)". khunmaejuphuket.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
  23. ^ "น้ำพริกปลาร้า (ป่น)". isangate.com. Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
  24. ^ "น้ำพริกปลาสลาดป่น". www.the-than.com.
  25. ^ "น้ำพริกปลาย่าง :: น้ำพริก". xn--12c1cpu7eo7l6a.com.
  26. ^ "น้ำพริกไตปลา". www.the-than.com.
  27. ^ Akkasit Jongjareonrak et al. Antioxidant activity of fermented fish viscera (Tai-Pla) from short-bodied mackerel, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112 Thailand

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