|Region or state||South Asia |
|Associated cuisine||Pakistani Indian Bangladeshi|
|Main ingredients||Milk, sugar|
Kulfi (//) is a frozen dairy dessert of the Indian subcontinent. It is often described as "traditional Indian ice cream". Kulfi originated in 16th-century Delhi during the Mughal era. It is part of the national cuisines of India, Pakistan, and Trinidad and Tobago. It is also popular in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the Middle East.[better source needed]
Kulfi is denser and creamier than regular ice cream. It comes in various flavours. Traditional ones include cream (malai), rose, mango, cardamom (elaichi), saffron (kesar or zafran), and pistachio.[better source needed] Newer flavours may include apple, orange, strawberry, peanut, or avocado.[better source needed] Unlike ice cream, kulfi is not whipped, which results in a solid, dense dessert similar to frozen custard. Thus, it is sometimes considered a distinct category of frozen dairy-based dessert. The density of kulfi causes it to melt more slowly than ice cream.
See also: Mughlai cuisine
The word kulfi comes from the Persian qulfi (قلفی) meaning "covered cup". The dessert originated in Delhi during the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. The mixture of dense evaporated milk was already popular in the sweet dishes in the Indian subcontinent. During the Mughal period, this mixture was flavoured with pistachios and saffron, packed into metal cones and immersed in slurry ice, resulting in the invention of kulfi. Ain-i-Akbari, a detailed record of the Mughal emperor Akbar's administration, mentions use of saltpeter for refrigeration as well as transportation of Himalayan ice to warmer areas.
Although Delhi has been described as the birthplace of kulfi, Australian food historian Charmaine O'Brien suggests, "...it is likely that [kulfi] originally evolved in the cooler climates of Persia or Samarkand and that the Mughals appropriated the concept and elaborated on it to create the creamy, perfumed dessert that it now is."
To prepare kulfi, sweetened, flavoured milk is slow cooked. The milk is stirred almost continuously to prevent it from sticking to the cooking utensil. During this process, the milk condenses and thickens. The slow cooking caramelises the sugar in the mixture and browns its milk proteins, giving kulfi its distinctive taste. The mixture is then poured into moulds (often kulhars) and sealed. The sealed moulds are submerged in an insulated matka filled with ice and salt. This quickly freezes the mixture, giving it a soft, smooth consistency free of ice crystals. Kulfi prepared in this traditional way is called matka kulfi.
The moulds are removed from the freezer 10–15 minutes before serving to allow the kulfi to melt slightly. The kulfi is then removed from the moulds and garnished with ground cardamom, saffron, or pistachios. Kulfi is also served with falooda (vermicelli noodles).
Throughout the Indian subcontinent, kulfi is sold by street vendors known as kulfiwallahs. It is also commonly served in Indian restaurants.
... Kulfi is the traditional Indian ice cream and has a strongly characteristic cooked-milk flavor and dense icy texture. ... The basis of making kulfi is to reduce a large volume of milk down to a very small concentrated amount ...
... Kulfi is an Indian-style ice cream that is richer and creamier than regular ice cream, due to the lack of air that is whipped into traditional ice cream to make it lighter. The milk, traditionally from buffalo ...