Strawberry ice cream
Caramel ice cream

Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, combined with flavorings and sweeteners, such as sugar, and possible other ingredients. This mixture is stirred slowly while cooling to prevent large ice crystals from forming; the result is a smoothly textured ice cream. In the United States, ice cream made with just cream, sugar, and a flavoring (usually fruit) is sometimes referred to as "Philadelphia style" ice cream. Ice creams made with eggs, usually in the form of custards, are "French" ice creams.[1]

Frozen custard, frozen yogurt, sorbet, gelato, and other similar products are sometimes informally called ice cream, but governments generally regulate the commercial use of these terms based on quantities of ingredients.[2] American federal labeling standards require ice cream to contain a minimum of 10% milk fat (about 7 grams (g) of fat per 1/2 cup serving) and 20% total milk solids by weight. [3].


Before the development of modern refrigeration, ice cream was a luxury item reserved for special occasions. Making ice cream was quite laborious. Ice was cut from lakes and ponds during the winter and stored in large heaps, in holes in the ground, or in wood-frame ice houses, insulated by straw. Many farmers and plantation owners, including U.S. Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, cut and stored ice in the winter for use in the summer. Frederic Tudor of Boston turned ice harvesting and shipping into big business, cutting ice in New England and shipping it around the world.

Ice cream was made by hand in a large bowl placed inside a tub filled with ice and salt. This was called the pot-freezer method. French confectioners refined the pot-freezer method, making ice cream in a sorbtierre (a covered pail with a handle attached to the lid). In the pot-freezer method, the temperature of the ingredients is reduced by the mixture of crushed ice and salt. The salt water is cooled by the ice, and the action of the salt on the ice causes it to (partially) melt, absorbing latent heat and bringing the mixture below the freezing point of pure water. The immersed container can also make better thermal contact with the salty water and ice mixture than it could with ice alone.

The hand-cranked churn, which also uses ice and salt for cooling, replaced the pot-freezer method. The exact origin of the hand-cranked freezer is unknown, but the first U.S. patent for one was #3254 issued to Nancy Johnson on September 9, 1843. The hand-cranked churn produced smoother ice cream than the pot freezer and did it quicker. Many inventors patented improvements on Johnson's design.

In Europe and early America, ice cream was made and sold by small businesses, mostly confectioners and caterers. Jacob Fussell of Baltimore, Maryland was the first to manufacture ice cream on a large scale. Fussell bought fresh dairy products from farmers in York County, Pennsylvania, and sold them in Baltimore. An unstable demand for his dairy products often left him with a surplus of cream, which he made into ice cream. He built his first ice-cream factory in Seven Valleys, Pennsylvania, in 1851. Two years later he moved his factory to Baltimore. Later he opened factories in several other cities and taught the business to others, who operated their own plants. Mass production reduced the cost of ice cream and added to its popularity.

An electric ice cream maker

The development of industrial refrigeration by German engineer Carl von Linde during the 1870s eliminated the need to cut and store natural ice and when the continuous-process freezer was perfected in 1926, it allowed commercial mass production of ice cream and the birth of the modern ice cream industry.

The most common method for producing ice cream at home is to use an ice cream maker, in modern times generally an electrical device that churns the ice cream mixture while cooled inside a household freezer, or using a solution of pre-frozen salt and water, which gradually melts while the ice cream freezes. Some more expensive models have an inbuilt freezing element. A newer method of making home-made ice cream is to add liquid nitrogen to the mixture while stirring it using a spoon or spatula. Some ice cream recipes call for making a custard, folding in whipped cream, and immediately freezing the mixture.

Commercial delivery

A bicycle-based ice cream vendor in Indonesia

Ice cream can be mass-produced and thus is widely available in developed parts of the world. Ice cream can be purchased in large cartons (vats and squrounds) from supermarkets and grocery stores, in smaller quantities from ice cream shops, convenience stores, and milk bars, and in individual servings from small carts or vans at public events. In Turkey and Australia, ice cream is sometimes sold to beach-goers from small powerboats equipped with chest freezers. Some ice cream distributors sell ice cream products from traveling refrigerated vans or carts (commonly referred to in the US as "ice cream trucks"), sometimes equipped with speakers playing children's music. Traditionally ice cream vans in the United Kingdom make a music box noise rather than actual music.


Ice cream may have the following composition: Greater than 10% milkfat and usually between 10% and as high as 16% fat in some premium ice creams: 9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat: this component, also known as the serum solids, contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and carbohydrates (lactose) found in milk: 12 to 16% sweeteners: usually a combination of sucrose and glucose-based corn syrup sweeteners: 0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers: 55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients. [1] These compositions are percentage by weight. Since ice cream can contain as much as half air by volume, these numbers may be reduced by as much as half if cited by volume. In terms of dietary considerations, however, the percentages by weight are more relevant. Even the low fat products have high caloric content: Ben and Jerry's No Fat Vanilla Fudge weighs in at 150 calories per half cup due to its high sugar content [[2]] .


Precursors of ice cream

Ancient civilizations had saved ice for cold foods for thousands of years.[citation needed] Mesopotamia has the earliest icehouses in existence, 4,000 years ago, beside the Euphrates River, where the wealthy stored items to keep them cold.[citation needed] The pharaohs of Egypt had ice shipped to them.[citation needed] In the fifth century BC, ancient Greeks sold snow cones mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens.[citation needed] Persians, having mastered the storage of ice, ate chilled desserts well into summer.[citation needed] Roman emperor Nero (37–68) had ice brought from the mountains and combined with fruit toppings. These were some early chilled delicacies.[4]

Ancient Persians mastered the technique of storing ice inside giant naturally-cooled refrigerators known as yakhchals. These structures kept ice brought in from the winter, or from nearby mountains, well into the summer. They worked by using tall windcatchers that kept the sub-level storage space at frigid temperatures.

In 400 BC, Persians invented a special chilled pudding-like dish, made of rosewater and vermicelli which was served to royalty during summers. The ice was mixed with saffron, fruits, and various other flavors. The treat, widely made in Iran today, is called "faloodeh", and is made from starch (usually wheat), spun in a sieve-like machine which produces threads or drops of the batter, which are boiled in water. The mix is then frozen, and mixed with rosewater and lemons, before serving.[3][4][verification needed]

In 62 AD, the Roman emperor Nero sent slaves to the Apennine mountains to collect snow to be flavored with honey and nuts. [citation needed]

Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat asserts in her History of Food, "the Chinese may be credited with inventing a device to make sorbets and ice cream. They poured a mixture of snow and saltpetre over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup, for, in the same way as salt raises the boiling-point of water, it lowers the freezing-point to below zero."[5] Toussaint-Samat gives no ancient Chinese historical source for this claim.

In the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperors used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi where it was used in fruit sorbets.[6]

When Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici married the duc d’Orléans in 1533, she is said to have brought with her Italian chefs who had recipes for flavored ices or sorbets and introduced them in France.[7] One hundred years later Charles I of England was supposedly so impressed by the "frozen snow" that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative.[8] There is, however, no historical evidence to support these legends, which first appeared during the 19th century.

The first recipe for flavored ices in French appears in 1674, in Nicholas Lemery’s Recueil de curiositéz rares et nouvelles de plus admirables effets de la nature.[7]

Recipes for sorbetti saw publication in the 1694 edition of Antonio Latini's Lo Scalco alla Moderna (The Modern Steward).[7]

Recipes for flavored ices begin to appear in François Massialot's Nouvelle Instruction pour les Confitures, les Liqueurs, et les Fruits starting with the 1692 edition. Massialot's recipes result in a coarse, pebbly texture. However, Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of sugar and snow.[7]

Ice cream

Ice cream recipes first appear in 18th century England and America. A recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts in 1718. (ISBN 0-907325-25-4)

To ice CREAM.

Take Tin Ice-Pots, fill them with any Sort of Cream you like, either plain or sweeten'd, or Fruit in it; shut your Pots very close; to six Pots you must allow eighteen or twenty Pound of Ice, breaking the Ice very small; there will be some great Pieces, which lay at the Bottom and Top: You must have a Pail, and lay some Straw at the Bottom; then lay in your Ice, and put in amongst it a Pound of Bay-Salt; set in your Pots of Cream, and lay Ice and Salt between every Pot, that they may not touch; but the Ice must lie round them on every Side; lay a good deal of Ice on the Top, cover the Pail with Straw, set it in a Cellar where no Sun or Light comes, it will be froze in four Hours, but it may stand longer; than take it out just as you use it; hold it in your Hand and it will slip out. When you wou'd freeze any Sort of Fruit, either Cherries, Rasberries, Currants, or Strawberries, fill your Tin-Pots with the Fruit, but as hollow as you can; put to them Lemmonade, made with Spring-Water and Lemmon-Juice sweeten'd; put enough in the Pots to make the Fruit hang together, and put them in Ice as you do Cream.

The earliest reference to ice cream given by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1744, reprinted in a magazine in 1877. 1744 in Pennsylvania Mag. Hist. & Biogr. (1877) I. 126 Among the rarities..was some fine ice cream, which, with the strawberries and milk, eat most deliciously. [9]

The 1751 edition of The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse features a recipe for ice cream. OED gives her recipe: H. GLASSE Art of Cookery (ed. 4) 333 (heading) To make Ice Cream..set it [sc. the cream] into the larger Bason. Fill it with Ice, and a Handful of Salt. [10]

1768 saw the publication of L'Art de Bien Faire les Glaces d'Office by M. Emy, a cookbook devoted entirely to recipes for flavored ices and ice cream.[7]

Ice cream was introduced to the United States by Quaker colonists who brought their ice cream recipes with them. Confectioners sold ice cream at their shops in New York and other cities during the colonial era. Ben Franklin, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson were known to have regularly eaten and served ice cream. First Lady Dolley Madison is also closely associated with the early history of ice cream in the United States. One respected history of ice cream states that, as the wife of U.S. President James Madison, she served ice cream at her husband's Inaugural Ball in 1813.

Typical packaging: Breyers brand "Take Two" chocolate and vanilla ice cream

Around 1832, Augustus Jackson, an African American confectioner, not only created multiple ice cream recipes, but he also invented a superior technique to manufacture ice cream. [5]

In 1843, Nancy Johnson of Philadelphia was issued the first U.S. patent for a small-scale handcranked ice cream freezer. The invention of the ice cream soda gave Americans a new treat, adding to ice cream's popularity. This cold treat was probably invented by Robert Green in 1874, although there is no conclusive evidence to prove his claim.

The ice cream sundae originated in the late 19th century. Several men claimed to have created the first sundae, but there is no conclusive evidence to back up any of their stories. Some sources say that the sundae was invented to circumvent blue laws, which forbade serving sodas on Sunday. Towns claiming to be the birthplace of the sundae include Buffalo, New York; Two Rivers, Wisconsin; Ithaca, New York; and Evanston, Illinois. Both the ice cream cone and banana split became popular in the early 20th century. Several food vendors claimed to have invented the ice cream cone at the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, MO, and reliable evidence proves that the ice cream cone was popularized at the fair. However, Europeans were eating cones long before 1904. [6] [7]

In the UK, ice cream remained an expensive and rare treat, until large quantities of ice began to be imported from Norway and the US in the mid Victorian era. A Swiss-Italian businessman, Carlo Gatti, opened the first ice cream stall outside Charing Cross station in 1851, selling scoops of ice cream in shells for one penny. [8] The penny lick soon became popular, remaining on sale until banned in 1926, [citation needed] by which time it had been replaced by the ice cream cone.

George and Davis' Ice Cream Cafe on Little Clarendon Street, Oxford.

The history of ice cream in the 20th century is one of great change and increases in availability and popularity. In the United States in the early 20th century, the ice cream soda was a popular treat at the soda shop, the soda fountain, and the ice cream parlor. During American Prohibition the soda fountain to some extent replaced the outlawed alcohol establishments, including bars and saloons.

Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the second half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common. There was an explosion of ice cream stores and of flavors and types. Vendors often competed on the basis of variety. Howard Johnson's restaurants advertised "a world of 28 flavors." Baskin-Robbins made its 31 flavors ("one for every day of the month") the cornerstone of its marketing strategy. The company now boasts that it has developed over 1000 varieties.

One important development in the 20th century was the introduction of soft ice cream. A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was a member)[11][12] discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream, which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients, thereby reducing costs. This ice cream was also popular amongst consumers who preferred the lighter texture, and most major ice cream brands now use this manufacturing process. [citation needed] It also made possible the soft ice cream machine in which a cone is filled beneath a spigot on order. In the United States, Dairy Queen, Carvel, and Tastee Freez pioneered in establishing chains of soft-serve ice cream outlets.

Technological innovations such as these have introduced various food additives into ice-cream, notably the stabilizing agent gluten,[13] to which some people have an intolerance. Recent awareness of this issue has prompted a number of manufacturers to start producing gluten-free ice-cream.[14]

The 1980s saw a return of the older, thicker ice creams being sold as "premium" and "superpremium" varieties under brands such as Ben and Jerry's and Häagen-Dazs.

Ice cream throughout the world


The tradition of ice cream making was taken to Argentina by the Italian immigrants and the helado (ice cream) has become one of the most popular desserts in the country. Among the most famous manufacturers are Freddo, one of the oldest, Pérsico and Munchi's, all of them located in Buenos Aires. However, each city has its own heladería (ice cream house) which offer creamy ice creams. There are hundreds of flavors but Argentina's most traditional and popular one is dulce de leche, which has become a favorite abroad, especially in the US.

Australia and New Zealand

An ice cream van at Batemans Bay, New South Wales, Australia

Per capita, Australians and New Zealanders are among the leading ice cream consumers in the world, eating 18 litres and 20 litres each per year respectively, behind the United States of America where people eat 23 litres each per year.[15] Brands include Streets, Peters, Sara Lee, New Zealand Natural, Cadbury and Baskin-Robbins.


The first ice cream manufacturer in Finland were the Italian Magi family, who opened the Helsingin jäätelötehdas in 1922 and Suomen Eskimo Oy. Other manufacturers soon spawned, like Pietarsaaren jäätelötehdas (1928-2002).

Finland's first ice cream bar opened at the Lasipalatsi in 1936, and at the same time another manufacturer, Maanviljelijäin Maitokeskus started their production.

Today, the two largest ice cream manufacturers are Ingman and Nestlé (who bought Valiojäätelö). Finland is also the leading consumer of ice cream in Europe, with 13.7 liters per person in 2003.[16]


In 1651 Italian Francesco dei Coltelli opened an ice cream café in Paris and the product became so popular that during the next 50 years another 250 icecafés opened in Paris. Some "French Style" ice creams are made with butter in place of cream.[citation needed]


Italian ice-cream parlours (Eisdielen) have been popular in Germany since the 1920s, when many Italians immigrated and set up business. As in Italy itself, ice cream is considered a traditional dessert and the ice-cream at an Eisdiele is still mostly hand-made.


In 1962[17], the popular Ghanaian treat FanMilk was created by the Fan Milk Limited company. FanIce comes in strawberry, chocolate and vanilla. FanMilk also makes additional products, though FanIce is the closest to Western ice cream. Pouches of FanIce and other FanMilk products can be bought from men on bikes equipped with chill boxes in any moderately sized town, and in cities large enough for grocery stores, FanMilk can be bought in tubs for eating at home.


Ice cream in its modern form is a relatively new invention. Ice treats have been enjoyed since ancient times. During the 5th century BC, ancient Greeks ate snow mixed with honey and fruit in the markets of Athens. The father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, encouraged his ancient Greek patients to eat ice "as it livens the lifejuices and increases the well-being."[18] In the 4th century BC, it was well known that a favorite treat of Alexander the Great was snow ice mixed with honey and nectar.[19] In modern times Greek ice cream recipes have some unique flavors such as Pagoto Kaimaki, (Greek: Παγωτό Καϊμάκι), made from mastic-resin which gives it an almost chewy texture, and salepi, used as a thickening agent to increase resistance to melting; both give the ice cream a unique taste; Olive Oil Ice Cream with figs; Pagoto Kataifi Chocolate, (Greek: Παγωτό Καταΐφι-κακάο), made from the shredded filo dough pastry that resembles angel's hair pasta or vermicelli; and Mavrodaphne Ice Cream, (Greek: Μαυροδάφνη Παγωτό), made from a Greek dessert wine. Fruity Greek Sweets of the Spoon are usually served as toppings with Greek-inspired ice cream flavors.


Italian ice cream in Rome

Ice cream is a traditional dessert in Italy. Much is still hand-made by individual gelateria (look for the sign 'produzione propria', meaning 'our own make' in the ice cream shops). Italian ice cream or gelato is made from whole milk, eggs, sugar, and natural flavorings. Gelato typically contains 7-8% fat, less than ice cream's minimum of 10%.

Before the cone became popular for serving ice cream, in English speaking countries, Italian street vendors would serve the ice cream in a small glass dish referred to as a "penny lick" or wrapped in waxed paper and known as a hokey-pokey (possibly a corruption of the Italian "ecco un poco" - "here is a little").[20]

Some of the most known ice cream machine makers are Italian companies Carpigiani, Crm-Telme, Corema-Telme, Technogel, Cattabriga, Matrix, Promag.


Mochi ice cream sold in Japan
Japanese green tea ice cream with anko sauce

Ice cream is also a popular dessert in Japan , with almost two in five adults eating some at least once a week, according to a recent survey.[21] Since 1999, the Japanese Ice Cream Association has been publishing the Ice Cream White Paper once a year, and the four most popular ice cream flavors in Japan has not changed (including their orders) since 1999 according to the Paper.[22] The top four flavors are vanilla, chocolate, matcha (powdered green tea) and strawberry. Other notable popular flavors are milk, caramel and azuki (Red Bean) also according the Paper.[22] Azuki is particularly favored by people in their 50s and older.[22] While matcha is a truly Japanese flavor favored by Japanese and well-known among non-Japanese outside of Japan, plum and ginger, tastes often presented as Japanese flavors outside of Japan, did not make the cut in the top 17 favorite flavor list in 2006.[22] In Japan, a soft serve ice cream is called softcream which is also very popular. As a seasonal treat during the cherry blossom season, ice cream is available that is actually flavored with cherry blossoms.


See Dondurma for Turkish ice cream.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, per capita consumption of ice cream is 6 litres per year.[citation needed] Much of the lower-priced ice cream sold, including that from some ice cream vans, has little milk or milk solids content, being made with vegetable oil, usually hydrogenated palm kernel oil. Ice cream sold as dairy ice cream must contain milk fat, and many companies make sure that dairy is prominently displayed on their packaging or businesses.

The Ice Cream Alliance Ltd, a trade association for the UK ice-cream industry, says that: "It is necessary for a manufacturer to be aware of the compositional requirements of the country in which he intends to sell his ice cream. In the UK this is a minimum of 5% fat and a minimum of 2.5% milk protein. There is also an Italian ice cream dessert known as Tartufo. (Schedule 8, the Food Labelling Regulations 1996).[23]

Ice cream cone

Strawberry ice cream in a cone.

Main article: Ice-cream cone

Mrs Marshall's Cookery Book, published in 1888, endorsed serving ice cream in cones, but the idea definitely predated that. Agnes Marshall was a celebrated cookery writer of her day and helped to popularise ice cream. She patented and manufactured an ice cream maker and was the first person to suggest using liquefied gases to freeze ice cream after seeing a demonstration at the Royal Institution.

Reliable evidence proves that ice cream cones were served in the 19th century, and their popularity increased greatly during the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. According to legend, at the World's Fair an ice cream seller had run out of the cardboard dishes used to put ice cream scoops in, so they could not sell any more produce. Next door to the ice cream booth was a Syrian waffle booth, unsuccessful due to intense heat; the waffle maker offered to make cones by rolling up his waffles and the new product sold well, and was widely copied by other vendors. [9] [10]

Other frozen desserts

The following is a partial list of ice-cream-like frozen desserts and snacks:

Raspberry sherbet.

Using liquid nitrogen

Dippin' Dots Flavored Ice Cream

Using liquid nitrogen to freeze ice cream is an old idea and has been used for many years to harden ice cream. However, the use of liquid nitrogen in the primary freezing of ice cream, that is to effect the transition from the liquid to the frozen state without the use of a conventional ice cream freezer, has only recently started to see commercialization. Some commercial innovations have been documented in the National Cryogenic Society Magazine "Cold Facts" [11]. The most noted brands are Dippin' Dots [12], Blue Sky Creamery [13], Project Creamery [14], and Sub Zero Cryo Creamery [15]. The preparation results in a column of white condensed water vapor cloud, reminiscent of popular depictions of witches' cauldrons. The ice cream, dangerous to eat while still "steaming," is allowed to rest until the liquid nitrogen is completely vaporized. Sometimes ice cream is frozen to the sides of the container, and must be allowed to thaw.

Making ice cream with liquid nitrogen has advantages over conventional freezing. Due to the rapid freezing, the crystal grains are smaller, giving the ice cream a creamier texture, and allowing one to get the same texture by using less milkfat. However, such ice crystals will grow very quickly via the processes of recrystallization thus obviating the original benefits unless steps are taken to inhibit ice crystal growth.

See also


  1. ^ Rombauer and Becker, Joy of Cooking, 1975.
  3. ^ Wisconsin Dairy - Ice Cream section
  4. ^ Tamra Andrews: Nectar and Ambrosia:An Encyclopedia of Food in World Mythology, ABC-CLIO:Santa Barbara, 2000 (p. 121)
  5. ^ Olver, Lynne (2005). "The Food Timeline- history notes: ice cream & ice". /www.foodtimeline.org. Retrieved 2006-04-07. quoting History of Food, Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, translated by Anthea Bell [Barnes & Noble Books:New York] 1992 (p. 749-50)
  6. ^ Tannahill, Reay (1995). Food in History (revised edition ed.). Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-88404-6. ((cite book)): |edition= has extra text (help)
  7. ^ a b c d e Powell, Marilyn (2005). Cool: The Story of Ice Cream (Paperback ed.). Penguin Canada. ISBN 978-0-14-305258-6. ((cite book)): External link in |title= (help)
  8. ^ Goff, Professor H. Douglas. "Ice Cream History and Folklore". Dairy Science and Technology. University of Guelph. Retrieved 2006-04-07.
  9. ^ "ice cream, n." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. 27 March 2008 <http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50110937>.
  10. ^ "ice cream, n." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. 27 March 2008 <http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50110937>.
  11. ^ Margaret Thatcher
  12. ^ J. Lyons & Co
  13. ^ Pat Kendall, Ph.D., R.D. (March 31, 2003). "Gluten sensitivity more widespread than previously thought". Colorado State University Extension.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ "Haagen-Dazs: FAQ - Is Haagen Dazs Gluten Free?". Nestlé.
  15. ^ "Business Outlook: ice cream manufacturing (based on a report to be found through www.ibisworld.com.au)". Reed Business Information. 2005. Retrieved 2006-03-03. ((cite web)): Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessyear= and |coauthors= (help)
  16. ^ Tike web page on consumer habits
  17. ^ :: Fan Milk Limited :: - The Company
  18. ^ "Norway - the official site in the United States". What's Cooking: (N)ice and cold. The Government of Norway et al. 2005. Retrieved 2006-11-04. ((cite web)): Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessyear= and |coauthors= (help)
  19. ^ "ReadWriteThink". Commercial ice cream is first sold in the U.S. in 1786. The International Reading Association (IRA), the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), and the Verizon Foundation. 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-04. ((cite web)): Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessyear= and |coauthors= (help)
  20. ^ Edmund Forte. "Hokey Pokey and All That: The history of ice cream". — Forte presents this and several alternative hypotheses.
  21. ^ "What Japan Thinks - Japanese Opinion Polls Translated into English". Nearly two in five Japanese eat ice cream every week. 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-27. ((cite web)): Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessyear= and |coauthors= (help)
  22. ^ a b c d http://www.icecream.or.jp/data/hakusho05.html Japanese Ice Cream Association. Vanilla holds an unshakable top position in favorite ice cream flavors. Ice Cream White Paper 2006. Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved on 2006-10-21 (Japanese).
  23. ^ "Technical Fact Sheet No. 4" (pdf). The Ice Cream Alliance Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-04. ((cite web)): Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessyear= and |coauthors= (help)
  24. ^ Eater, Picky (2004). "AsianWeek". Rice Noodles in Your Frozen Delights. Pan Asia Venture Capital Corporation. Retrieved 2006-11-04. ((cite web)): Cite has empty unknown parameters: |accessyear= and |coauthors= (help)