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Gelato
CafeMia.jpg
CourseDessert
Place of originItaly
Region or stateFlorence, Tuscany
Created by
Inventedcirca 1530
Serving temperature−14 to −11 °C
7 to 12 °F[1][2][3][4][5]
Main ingredients
Variations
Other informationserve with spade not scoop[15]

Gelato (Italian pronunciation: [dʒeˈlaːto]; lit.'frozen') is the common word in Italian for all kinds of ice cream. In English, it specifically refers to a frozen dessert of Italian origin. Artisanal gelato in Italy generally contains 6%–9% butterfat, which is lower than other styles of frozen dessert.[16][17] Gelato typically contains 35% air and more flavoring than other kinds of frozen desserts, giving it a density and richness that distinguishes it from other ice creams.[18][19][20]

Name

In the Italian language, gelato is the generic word for ice cream, independent of the style, so every kind of ice cream is referred to as gelato in Italian.[21] In the English language, however, the word gelato has come to be used to refer to a specific style of ice cream derived from the Italian artisanal tradition.[22] This is similar to the word chai, the generic word for tea in multiple languages like Hindi, Persian, Russian, Turkish and Swahili, that in English has come to refer to a specific style of tea of Indian origin.

History

Main article: History of ice cream

In 1295, Marco Polo returned to Venice from China with a recipe similar to sorbet.[23]

Cosimo Ruggeri, Bernardo Buontalenti, and Catherine de' Medici were contemporaries.[24]

In Florence, Cosimo Ruggeri (died 1615), is credited with creating the first gelato, fior di latte, at the court of Catherine de' Medici, in a competition, with the theme "il piatto più singolare che si fosse mai visto".[25][26][27][28]

In the 1530s, Catherine de' Medici took gelato to Paris.[24][29]

Since 1565, Bernardo Buontalenti (1531–1608), an innovator in ice conservation, made a sorbet, with ice, and salt, consisting of lemon, wine, milk, sugar, egg, and honey,[30] "plus orange and bergamot flavouring".[31] and is credited with inventing gelato alla crema,[24][27] the egg cream gelato,[30][32] precursor to modern Florentine gelato.[33][27]

In 1686,[27] Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli, a Sicilian,[34] brought, his grandfather Francesco's[35] gelato-making machine to Paris, opened Café Procope and introduced the dessert.[36] Procopio obtained French citizenship, and a royal license from Louis XIV, making him the sole producer of the frozen dessert in the kingdom.[37][38][39]

In 1904, in America, Emery Thompson built the first automated ice cream machine.[40]

In 1945, in Bologna, Bruto Carpigiani began selling gelato-making equipment,[41][42] and created Motogelatiera, the first automated gelato machine.[32] The batch freezer made it easier to store frozen desserts.[32] Carpigiani is a big manufacturer of gelato machinery.[42] Italy is the only country where the market share of artisanal gelato versus mass-produced gelato is more than 55%.[citation needed]

Commercial production

The process consists of heating the ingredients to 85 °C (185 °F) for pasteurization. Then, it is lowered to 5 °C (41 °F) and mixed to the desired texture. The cold process mixes the ingredients and is batched in the freezer.[43] In the "sprint" process, milk or water is added to a package of ingredients which is then mixed and batched.[citation needed]

As with other ice creams, the sugar in gelato prevents it from freezing solid by binding to the water and interfering with the normal formation of ice crystals. This creates smaller ice crystals and results in the smooth texture of gelato.[44] Commercial gelati are often sweetened with inverted sugar, sucrose, dextrose, or xylitol,[45] and may include a stabilizer such as guar gum.[46]

Flavors

The first, fior di latte ('milk flower'), is a plain, base ice cream with no flavor and no eggs added. Stracciatella, is fior di latte gelato with chocolate chunks. Traditional flavors of gelato include, cream (also known as custard), vanilla, chocolate, hazelnut, almond, and pistachio.[47] Modern flavors include raspberry, strawberry, apple, lemon, pineapple, and black raspberry.[citation needed]

Further reading

See also

Dairy
Non-dairy

References

  1. ^ "Story". Minus 12˚ Craft Ice Cream. Herne Hill railway station. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  2. ^ "Ice Cream vs. Gelato vs. Sherbet vs. Sorbet: What's the Difference?". MasterClass. 28 September 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  3. ^ "Gelato FAQs". ecco un poco. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Gelato vs. Ice Cream". sweetcycle. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  5. ^ Mullan, Michael. "Plotting freezing point curves for ice cream and gelato mixes". dairyscience.info. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  6. ^ "Traditional Frozen Treats". Molecular Recipes. KQ2 Ventures LLC. 28 June 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  7. ^ "I grassi in gelateria: perché utilizzare la panna e quando è possibile sostituirla". Frascheri Professionale S.p.A (in Italian). 20 May 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  8. ^ Quirk, Mary Beth (14 July 2017). "What's The Difference Between Ice Cream, Frozen Custard, And Gelato?". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  9. ^ D’Ulivo, Lucia (15 May 2018). "Come fare il gelato in casa: 3 trucchi per risultati da gelateria". Edible Molecules. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  10. ^ Davis, Bea. "May is Artisan Gelato Month". Paris Gourmet. Carlstadt, New Jersey. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  11. ^ Druckman, Charlotte (30 May 2017). "Why You Haven't Heard of America's Greatest Gelato Maker". Eater. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  12. ^ This, Herve (11 May 2019). "Conservation de sorbets et glaces". Hervé This vo Kientza. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  13. ^ "Olive Oil Gelato Recipe". Serious Eats. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  14. ^ "Il gelato artigianale". Pasticceria Mosaico di Aquileia (in Italian). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  15. ^ "Gelato v Ice Cream: Temperature & Method". Bravo Gelato. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  16. ^ "Calorie e valori nutrizionali del gelato", Paginemediche [1]
  17. ^ M.T. Wroblewski (6 December 2018). "Nutrition Facts on Gelato Compared to Ice Cream". San Francisco Gate. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  18. ^ Sylvia Poggioli (17 June 2013). "Italian University Spreads The 'Gelato Gospel'". NPR. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  19. ^ Goff, H. Douglas (June 1997). "Colloidal aspects of ice cream—A review" (PDF). International Dairy Journal. 7 (6–7): 363–373. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(97)00040-X.
  20. ^ Goff, H.D.; Caldwell, K.B.; Stanley, D.W.; Maurice, T.J. (May 1993). "The Influence of Polysaccharides on the Glass Transition in Frozen Sucrose Solutions and Ice Cream" (PDF). Journal of Dairy Science. 76 (5): 1268–1277. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77456-1. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  21. ^ "Gelato in the Italian-English dictionary". Cambridge Dictionary.
  22. ^ "Gelato in the English dictionary". Cambridge Dictionary.
  23. ^ "Storia del gelato fiorentino: Caterina de' Medici e Buontalenti". It’s Tuscany (in Italian). Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  24. ^ a b c Gemelli, Marco (9 May 2013). "Chi inventò il gelato? Sfida fiorentina tra Buontalenti e Ruggeri". Il Forchettiere (in Italian). Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  25. ^ "Storia del gelato e della crema fiorentina Buontalenti". About Florence (in Italian). Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  26. ^ Caviezel, Luca (2016). Scienza e tecnologia del gelato artigianale (in Italian). Pinerolo: Chiriotti. ISBN 9788896027271.
  27. ^ a b c d "Gelato: A history of the world's favorite dessert and traditionally authentic gelaterias in Florence". Destination Florence. Florence: Destination Florence Convention & Visitors Bureau scrl. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  28. ^ "Buontalenti, l'artista che inventò il gelato fiorentino". FirenzeToday (in Italian). 15 August 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  29. ^ Jewkes, Stephen (1 October 2012). "Italy opens world's first gelato culture museum". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  30. ^ a b Jones, Adam (26 July 2019). "The story behind Italy's love of gelato". ItaliaRail. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  31. ^ Steadman, Philip (13 April 2021). "The 'garden of marvels' at Pratolino". Renaissance Fun: The machines behind the scenes. 7. doi:10.2307/j.ctv18msqmt.16. Retrieved 6 July 2022. Giovanni Battista della Porta describes a method by which ‘Wine may freeze in glasses’ using saltpetre (Natural Magick, English edition, 1658, p. 324
  32. ^ a b c "History". Carpigiani Gelato Museum. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  33. ^ David, Elizabeth (20 January 2011). Harvest of the Cold Months: The Social History of Ice and Ices. Faber & Faber. ISBN 9780571275328.
  34. ^ "FRANCESCO PROCOPIO CUTO'" (PDF). Comune di Palermo (in Italian). Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  35. ^ Sorini, Alex Revelli; Cutini, Susanna. "Procopio Cutò e il gelato". enciclopedia digitale di culture e politiche alimentari. Accademia Italiana Gastronomia e Gastrosofia. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  36. ^ Polliotti, Luciana (2017). Il genio del gelato. Francesco Procopio Cutò. Storie d'amore, di talento e di alchimia tra Palermo e Parigi (in Italian). Bologna, Italy: Fausto Lupetti Editore. ISBN 9788868741860.
  37. ^ Olga Stornello (1 November 2018). "Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli: the man who invented gelato". Sicilian Post. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  38. ^ Polliotti, Luciana (1999). Gelati gelati. Milano: Mondadori. ISBN 9788804447283. OCLC 432911498.
  39. ^ Caviezel, Luca; Polliotti, Luciana (2010). I pochi segreti e le molte virtù del gelato artigianale di tradizione italiana : spunti di riflessione sul mestiere di gelatiere nel terzo millennio (con una galleria di ricette, anche storiche). Longarone: Longarone Fiere. OCLC 963873066.
  40. ^ Donati, Silvia (2 July 2015). "Foodie Guide to Gelato". Italy Magazine. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  41. ^ Jennings, Sheri (23 September 2010). "The inside scoop on making gelato". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  42. ^ a b "Taste the History of Gelato". ITALY Magazine. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  43. ^ "Ice Cream Hardness". Ice Cream Calculator. 31 May 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  44. ^ Omran, A. Monem (July 1974). "Kinetics of ice crystallization in sugar solutions and fruit juices". AIChE Journal. 20 (4): 795–803. doi:10.1002/aic.690200422.
  45. ^ Hills, Sarah (1 April 2009). "Danisco unveils gelato concept for industrial production". FoodNavigator. William Reed Ltd. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  46. ^ "COSA È LA BILANCIATURA?". Gelato Per Passione (in Italian). 12 August 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  47. ^ Thompson, Kelly R.; Chambers, Delores H.; Chambers IV, Edgar (June 2009). "Sensory Characteristics of ice cream produced in the United States and Italy" (PDF). Journal of Sensory Studies. 24 (3): 396–414. doi:10.1111/j.1745-459X.2009.00217.x. Retrieved 6 July 2022.