Place of originPalestine
Region or stateLevant
Main ingredientsChicken, sumac, onion, taboon bread, olive oil

Musakhan (Arabic: مسخّن, lit.'something that is heated'[1]), also known as muhammar (Arabic: محمر, lit.'reddish'), is a Palestinian dish composed of roasted chicken baked with onions, sumac, allspice, saffron, and fried pine nuts served over taboon bread. Originating in the Tulkarm and Jenin area,[2] musakhan is often considered the national dish of Palestine. The dish is particularly popular among Palestinians, Israeli Arabs and Jordanians.[3] It is also eaten by Arabs and Druze in Galilee, especially around Iksal and Sandala, and in the Triangle.[4][5] The dish can be found in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan as well.[3] Musakhan means "reheated" in Arabic, and is called this as the dish was a way for Palestinian farmers to reheat old taboon bread and make it taste better.[6]

Musakhan is simple to make and the ingredients needed are easily obtainable, which may account for the dish's popularity. Many of the ingredients used—olive oil, sumac and pine nuts—are staples of Palestinian cuisine. The dish is typically eaten with one's hands. It is usually presented with the chicken on top of the bread, and could be served with soup.

World records

Main article: List of Palestinian records

On April 20, 2010, the largest ever dish of musakhan was prepared in Ramallah, Palestine and was entered into the Guinness Book of World Records.[7] Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayad described it as a great achievement and honor for the Palestinian people: "This great achievement completely depended on Palestinian products, mainly olive oil. It also has a cultural dimension and a Palestinian message to the world that they want their legitimate rights."[8] The total diameter of the musakhan loaf was 4 meters, with a total weight of 1,350 kg. Forty Palestinian cooks made use of 250 kg of flour, 170 kg of olive oil, 500 kg of onions and 70 kg of almonds.


See also


  1. ^ "Recipe: Musakhkhan (Arab Levant, Palestine) Musakhkhan". Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  2. ^ Albala, Ken. Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia [4 volumes]: [Four Volumes]. p. 293.
  3. ^ a b Ghillie Basan (January 2007). The Middle Eastern Kitchen. Hippocrene Books. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-0-7818-1190-3.
  4. ^ Trevor Mostyn (1983). Jordan: A Meed Practical Guide. Middle East Economic Digest Limited. ISBN 978-0-9505211-8-3.
  5. ^ Haaretz (10 November 2014). "After Death Threats, Palestinian Food-serving U.S. Restaurant Closes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  6. ^ Kassis, Reem (2023). We Are Palestinian: A Celebration of Culture and Tradition. Bonnier Books Ltd. ISBN 9781800783287.
  7. ^ Amjad Rafiq (2010-04-10). "Palestinian 'musakhan' to enter Guinness record book". Archived from the original on 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2017-11-29.; "الفلسطينيون يدخلون "غينيس" بأكبر رغيف مسخن في العالم" [Palestinians enter Guinness World Records with the world's largest 'Musakhan']. 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-04-23.
  8. ^ "Palestinian largest "Musakhan "enters the world Guinness book". Baheth Center. 2010-04-20. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011.