Telugu cinema
Indiafilm.svg
No. of screens2809 screens in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states of India[1]
Main distributorsUsha Kiran Movies
Suresh Productions
Vyjayanthi Movies
DVV Entertainments
Annapurna Studios
Geetha Arts
Arka Media Works
Sri Venkateswara Creations
14 Reels Entertainment
Prasad Art Pictures
Mythri Movie Makers
UV Creations
Produced feature films (2017)[3]
Total294

Telugu cinema, also known as Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, widely spoken in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Telugu cinema is based in Film Nagar, a neighbourhood of Hyderabad, India.[4] The nickname Tollywood is a portmanteau of the words Telugu and Hollywood.[5] By 2021, it has emerged as the largest film industry in India in terms of box-office.[6][7][8][9]

Since 1909, filmmaker Raghupathi Venkaiah was involved in producing short films and travelling to different regions in Asia to promote film work. In 1921, he produced the silent film, Bhishma Pratigna.[10] He is cited as the father of Telugu cinema.[11][12][13] In 1933, East India Film Company has produced its first Indian film, Savitri in Telugu. The film was directed by father of the "Telugu theatre Movement" Chittajallu Pullaiah starring Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam.[14] The film was shot with a budget of estimated ₹10 lakh (₹1 million) in Calcutta.[15] It received an honorary diploma at the 2nd Venice International Film Festival.[16]

Pathala Bhairavi (1951) was the only South Indian film screened at the first India International Film Festival.[17][18] Pathala Bhairavi (1951), Malliswari (1951), Devadasu (1953), Mayabazar (1957), Nartanasala (1963), Maro Charitra (1978), Maa Bhoomi (1979), Sankarabharanam (1980), Sagara Sangamam (1983), and Siva (1989), have been showcased among CNN-IBN's 100 Greatest Indian Films of All Time.[19]

Parallel cinema such as B. Narsing Rao's ethnographic film Maa Ooru won the 1992 Hungarian Visual Arts "Main Prize - Media Wave Award".[20][21] K. N. T. Sastry's Thilaadanam received "New Currents Award" at the 7th Busan International Film Festival.[22][23] K. Viswanath's Swathi Muthyam was India's official entry to the 59th Academy Awards. Rajnesh Domalpalli's Vanaja won "Best First Feature Award" at the 57th Berlin International Film Festival.[24][25] S. S. Rajamouli's epic duology Baahubali, and alternate history film RRR are the only Indian films to receive the American Saturn Award nominations in various categories.[26][27][28]

History

Promotional poster of Bhakta Prahlada the first full-length Telugu talkie produced and directed by H. M. Reddy to have a theatrical release.[29]
Promotional poster of Bhakta Prahlada the first full-length Telugu talkie produced and directed by H. M. Reddy to have a theatrical release.[29]
From left to right: Raghupati Venkayya (father of Telugu cinema), Y. V. Rao (pioneer of cinema during crown rule)[30] and stalwart Chittoor Nagayya known for his method acting.[31]

Early development

The Telugu film industry originated with silent films in 1921, with the production and release of Bhishma Pratigna in 1921.[32] The film was directed by Raghupathi Venkayya and his son R. S. Prakash.[33] Y. V. Rao and R. S. Prakash established a long-lasting precedence of focusing exclusively on religious themes; Nandanar, Gajendra Moksham, and Matsyavatar, three of their most noted productions, centred on religious figures, parables, and morals.[34] The first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone, was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.[35] In 1935, Andhra Cine Tone was built in Visakhapatnam by Gottumukkala Jagannadha Raju. He introduced digital theater sound with the 1935 film Jagadamba.[36]

Rise of the "talkie"

The first Telugu film with audible dialogue, Bhakta Prahlada, was produced by H.M. Reddy, who directed the first bilingual (Telugu and Tamil) talkie Kalidas (1931). Bhakta Prahlada was completed on 15 September 1931,[37] which henceforth became known as "Telugu Film Day" to commemorate its completion.[38][39][40] Popularly known as talkies, films with sound quickly grew in number and popularity. In 1934, the industry saw its first major commercial success with Lavakusa. Directed by C. Pullaiah and starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani, the film attracted unprecedented numbers of viewers to theatres and thrust the young industry into mainstream culture.[41] By 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes.[41] That year, under the direction of Kruthiventi Nageswara Rao, Prema Vijayam, a film focusing on social issues, was released. Its success prompted the production of dozens of other immensely successful 'social films', notably 1939's Vandemataram, touching on societal problems like the practice of giving dowry, Telugu films increasingly focused on contemporary living: 29 of the 96 films released between 1937 and 1947 had social themes.[42]

Cinema during the Crown Rule

In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, has co-produced and directed the social problem film, Mala Pilla starring, Kanchanamala, the film dealt with the crusade against untouchability, prevailing in pre-independent India.[43][44] In 1939, he directed Raithu Bidda, starring thespian Bellary Raghava. The film was banned by the British administration in the region, for depicting the uprise of the peasantry among the Zamindar's during the British raj.[45] 1940 film, Viswa Mohini, is the first Indian film, depicting the Indian movie world. The film was directed by Y. V. Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi, starring Chittoor Nagayya. Rao subsequently made the sequel films Savithri and Sathyabhama (1941–42) casting thespian Sthanam Narasimha Rao.[46][47]

The outbreak of World War II and the subsequent resource scarcity caused the British Raj to impose a limit on the use of filmstrip in 1943 to 11,000 feet,[48] a sharp reduction from the 20,000 feet that had been common till then.[49] As a result, the number of films produced during the war was substantially lower than in previous years. Nonetheless, before the ban, an important shift occurred in the industry: Independent studios formed, actors and actresses were signed to contracts limiting whom they could work for, and films moved from social themes to folklore legends.[50] Ghantasala Balaramayya, has directed the mythological Seetarama Jananam under his home production, Prathiba Picture, marking veteran Akkineni Nageswara Rao's Telugu screen debut in 1944.[51]

Classical cinema and Golden Age

Malliswari is the first Telugu film which had a public release with thirteen prints along with Chinese subtitles at Beijing on 14, March 1953, and a 16 mm film print was also screened in the United States.[52][53] The film was directed by B. N. Reddy, a recipient of the Dada Saheb Phalke Award, and the Doctor of Letters honour.[53]

The industry is one of the largest producers of folklore, fantasy, mythological and melodrama films.[54][55][56] Filmmakers like K. V. Reddy, B. Vittalacharya and Kodi Ramakrishna have pioneered this genre.[57][58] 1956 film Tenali Ramakrishna has garnered the All India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film. In 2013, IBN Live's poll cited Mayabazar as the Greatest Indian film of all time.[59]

Relangi, and Ramana Reddy were a comedy double act during this era.[60] Nartanasala won three awards at the third Afro-Asian Film Festival in Jakarta.[61] Donga Ramudu directed by K. V. Reddy was archived in the curriculum of the Film and Television Institute of India.[62] Nammina Bantu received critical reception at the San Sebastián International Film Festival.[63][64] 1967 film Ummadi Kutumbam was selected by Film Federation of India as one of its entries to the Moscow Film Festival.[62][65] The 1968 cult classic Sudigundalu was screened at the Tashkent and Moscow Film Festivals.[66]

From left to right: A production still of Mayabazar (1957), N. T. Rama Rao in Pathala Bhairavi (1951) the only south Indian film screened at 1st IFFI, Kanta Rao and Raajanala in a folklore combat scene

Bapu's directorial venture Sakshi was showcased at Tashkent International film festival in 1968.[67] In 1976, he directed Sita Kalyanam got critical acclaim at the BFI London Film Festival and Chicago International Film Festival, and is part of the curriculum at British Film Institute.[68][69] Oka Oori Katha (1977) won special awards at Karlovy Vary International Film Festival and Carthage Film Festival.[70]

Sankarabharanam won the Prize of the Public at the Besançon Film Festival of France in the year 1981.[71] B. Narsing Rao scripted and produced Maa Bhoomi which was showcased at Karlovy Vary Film Festival, and Cork Film Festivals. He directed, Daasi "(Bonded Woman)" and Matti Manushulu "(Mud People)" which won the Diploma of Merit awards at the 16th, and 17th Moscow International Film Festivals in 1989 and 1991 respectively.[72] M. V. Raghu's Neo-realistic film Kallu (1988), scripted by Gollapudi Maruti Rao has received thirty state awards and has garnered special mention from the CBFC Jury.[73][74]

Rise of Tollywood

Moola Narayana Swamy and B. N. Reddy founded Vijaya Vauhini Studios in 1948 in the city of Chennai.[75] Indian film doyen L. V. Prasad, who started his film career with Bhakta Prahlada, founded Prasad Studios in 1956 based in Chennai.[76] However, through the efforts of D. V. S. Raju, the Telugu film industry completely shifted its base from Chennai to Hyderabad in the early 1990s, during N. T. Rama Rao's political reign.[77]

From left to right: S. V. Ranga Rao, A. Nageswara Rao, and Savitri

Veteran actor Akkineni Nageswara Rao relocated to Hyderabad and has developed Annapurna Studios. The Telugu film industry is one of the three largest film producers in India. About 245 Telugu films were produced in 2006, the highest in India for that year. Film studios in Hyderabad, developed by D. Ramanaidu and Ramoji Rao, are involved in prolific film production and employment.[78] There is a fair amount of dispersion among the Indian film industries. Since 2005, many successful Telugu films have been largely remade by the Bengali cinema and Hindi film industries, while in the past, Telugu filmmakers drew inspiration from Bengali cinema and literature.[79] Telugu film production accounts for one percent of the gross domestic product of the region.[80][81][82]

The digital cinema network company UFO Moviez marketed by Southern Digital Screenz (SDS) has digitized several cinemas in the region.[83][84] The Film and Television Institute of Telangana, Film and Television Institute of Andhra Pradesh, Ramanaidu Film School and Annapurna International School of Film and Media are some of the largest film schools in India.[85][86] The Telugu states consist of approximately 2800 theaters, the largest number of cinema halls of any state in India.[87] Being commercially consistent, Telugu cinema had its influence over commercial cinema in India.[88]

The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world, Ramoji Film City.[89] The Prasads IMAX located in Hyderabad is one of the largest 3D IMAX screens, and the most attended cinema screen in the world.[90][91][92] As per the CBFC report of 2014, the industry is placed first in India, in terms of films produced yearly.[93] The industry holds a memorandum of understanding with the Motion Picture Association of America to combat video piracy.[94][95][96] In the years 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2014 the industry has produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[97][78]

1992 film Gharana Mogudu is the first Telugu film to gross over 10 crore at the box office.[98] Produced on a shoe string budget of 1.2 crore 2000 film Nuvve Kavali became sleeper hit of the late 1990's.[99][100] It received an estimated foot fall for 200 days in 20 screens grossing over 20 crore.[101][102][103]

Neo Tollywood

Hyderabad International Convention Center has been the Hyderabad home for Filmfare Awards South since 2007.[104][105]

Dasari Narayana Rao directed the most number of films in the Telugu language, exploring themes such as aesthestics in Meghasandesam (1982), Battle of Bobbili in the biographical war film Tandra Paparayudu (1986), alternate history with Sardar Papa Rayudu (1980), and gender discrimination in Kante Koothurne Kanu (1998) for which he received the Special Jury Award (Feature Film - Director) at the 46th National Film Awards.[106] K. Raghavendra Rao explored devotional themes with Annamayya (1997), Sri Manjunatha (2001), Sri Ramadasu (2006), Shirdi Sai (2012) and Om Namo Venkatesaya (2017) receiving various state honors.[107]

Singeetam Srinivasa Rao introduced science fiction to the Telugu screen with Aditya 369 (1991), the film dealt with exploratory dystopian and apocalyptic themes.[108] The edge of the seat thriller had characters which stayed human, inconsistent and insecure. The film's narrative takes the audience into the post apocalyptic experience through time travel, as well as folklore generation of 1500 A.D, which including a romantic backstory, the "Time Machine" made it a brilliant work of fiction.[109][110][111]

Ram Gopal Varma's Siva, which attained cult status in Telugu cinema, is one of the first Telugu films produced after the migration of Telugu film industry from Madras to Hyderabad to feature characters speaking the Telangana dialect.[112][113] Varma was credited with the introduction of steadicams and new sound recording techniques in Telugu films.[114] Within a year of the film's release, more than ten steadicams were imported into India.[115] Siva attracted the young audience during its theatrical run, and its success encouraged filmmakers to explore a variety of themes and make experimental Telugu films.[116][117]

Subsequently, Varma introduced road movie and film-noir to Indian screen with Kshana Kshanam. Varma experimented with close-to-life performances by the lead actors, which bought a rather fictional storyline a sense of authenticity at a time when the industry was being filled with unnecessary commercial fillers.[118] It went on to gather a cult following in south India,[119] with a dubbed Hindi version titled Hairaan released to positive reports from bollywood critics, the Ann Arbor Film Festival, and the Fribourg Festival.[120][121]

Chiranjeevi's works such as the comedy thriller, Chantabbai, the vigilante thriller, Kondaveeti Donga the first Telugu film to be released on a 70 mm 6-Track Stereophonic sound,[122] the western thriller Kodama Simham, and the action thriller, Gang Leader, popularized genre films with the highest estimated footfall.[123] Reddiff.com cited Sekhar Kammula's, National Award-winning Dollar Dreams (2000) as a take off from where Nagesh Kukunoor's Hyderabad Blues (1998) ends.[124] Dollar Dreams explored the conflict between American dreams and human feelings. The film re-introduced Social realism to Telugu screen, and brought back its lost glory which until then was stuck in its run of the mill commercial pot-boilers.[125]

Vanaja (2006) won several international awards including the first prize in the live-action feature film category at the Chicago International Children's Film Festival.[126] Dream (2012), has garnered the Royal Reel Award at the Canada International Film Festival.[127][128][129] 2013 Social problem film, Naa Bangaaru Talli won Best Film award at the Trinity International Film Festival in Detroit, and four Awards at the Indonesian International Film Festival.[130][131][132]

2014 film Minugurulu was selected as Best Indian Film at the 9th India International Children's Film Festival, held at Bangalore.[133] 2013 Cultural film, O Friend, This Waiting! has received special mention at the Erasing Borders Festival of Classical Dance, Indo-American Arts Council, New York, 2013.[134] 2014 film Parampara has garnered the Platinum Award for Best Feature at the International Indonesian Movie Awards.[135] 2018 biographical film Mahanati based on the life of veteran actress Savitri has garnered the "Equality in Cinema Award" at the 2018 Indian Film Festival of Melbourne.[136]

Sub-Genres and off beat films

Prabhas on the sets of Saaho 2019
Prabhas on the sets of Saaho 2019

Screenwriters such as Chandra Sekhar Yeleti experimented with the off beat film Aithe (2003) with a caption "all movies are not the same". Aithe was made on a shoestring budget of about 1.5 crores and went on to collect more than 6 crores. After almost two years he delivered another thriller Anukokunda Oka Roju (2005) both films were a refreshing change of pace to the audiences, produced by Gangaraju Gunnam.[137] Aithe was remade in Tamil as Naam (2003) and in Malayalam as Wanted (2004).[138]

Mohana Krishna Indraganti explored the themes of chastity, and adultery in his literary adaption Grahanam (2004) (based on "Gunadosham" by social critic G. V. Chalam).[139][140] Grahanam was shot in 19 days with a digital camera.[141] B. Anuradha of Rediff.com cited "In this offbeat film, Indraganti upholds the tirade against chauvinists who accuse a noble lady of infidelity, ignoring her denials with contempt". The film was featured at the Independent South Asian Film Festival in the United States.[142][141]

Speaking about the centenary of Indian cinema at the CII Media and Entertainment Summit 2012, filmmaker Shekhar Kapur said regional cinema is surpassing Hindi cinema in content and story, and cited Eega (2012) as an example. Kapur said he was impressed with its story and use of technology, and called it "no less than a Hollywood superhero film".[143] Shah Rukh Khan called Eega an "awesomely original" film and a "must watch" with children.[144][145] Eega has garnered Best Film to watch with a crowd at the 8th Annual Edition Toronto After Dark Film Festival.[146]

Sub Genre war drama Kanche (2015) by Krish Jagarlamudi explored the 1944 Nazi attack on the Indian army in the Italian campaign, during World War II in an engrossing background tale of caste-ism while giving it a technically brilliant cinematic rendition.[147] Sankalp Reddy explored submarine warfare in his directorial debut Ghazi (2017), based on the mysterious altercation between PNS Ghazi and INS Karanj during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.[148]

Indo-Asian News Service called new-generation film maker Sandeep Vanga's Arjun Reddy the "most original, experimental work to come out of Telugu cinema in a long time", and said the protagonist's (played by Vijay Deverakonda) "rise, fall and rise ... is nothing short of poetic and heart wrenching".[149] Actor-dancer Allu Arjun produced and acted in the short film, I Am That Change (2014), to spread awareness on individual social responsibility. The movie was directed by Sukumar, which was screened in theatres across Andhra Pradesh and Telangana on Indian Independence day, 2014.[150] Adivi Sesh scripted the Neo-noir Kshanam (2016), based on a real life incident of a missing three-year-old girl.[151] Sesh followed it up writing R.A.W. thriller Goodachari (2018), and the war docudrama Major (2022).[152][153]

Spread to World markets

See also: List of highest-grossing Telugu films and Pan-Indian film

Mahesh Babu, and Kajal Aggarwal on the sets of Brahmotsavam 2016
Mahesh Babu, and Kajal Aggarwal on the sets of Brahmotsavam 2016
Sets of Baahubali series at Ramoji Film City

Athadu was released with 6 prints in United States and was distributed by Vishnu Mudda and Soma Kancherla of Crown DVD distribution company in San Jose, Dallas, Detroit, Virginia, New Jersey, Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston, Minneapolis, Phoenix at Arizona and also in centers like Lowell at Massachusetts, MA, Tulsa at Oklahoma, West Virginia, Springfield, Boulder at Colorado and Corpus Christi at South Texas. Because of the demand, another print was imported from India for screening.[154][155] The film's first screening in USA happened at Cine Plaza 13 at North Bergen on the night of 11 August 2005.[156] At Connecticut, a special screening was conducted on 19 August 2005. Initially one show was planned but because of the demand another show was screened. There at the theater, a turn out of 442 people was observed which included standing audience for 434 seats and about 60 could not be accommodated.[157] Apart from USA, the film released in selected screens in United Kingdom, Singapore, Germany and Australia.[155]

Bommarillu was released worldwide with 72 prints. Owing to its success, the number of reels grew to about hundred.[158] It collected a distributors share of 5 crore in its opening week in India.[158] Released in six major metros in the United States, the film collected $73,200 (then approximately 0.3 crore) within the first four days of screening.[158] A 2006 survey conducted by a popular entertainment portal in the United States revealed that the film was watched by an Indian expatriate population of 65,000, which generated a revenue of 3 crore at that time.[159] A cumulative gross revenue for the film was reported to be as 25 crore including 3.5 crore from overseas, the largest for any Telugu film at that time. Owing to this path breaking trade, the film was remade into Tamil, Bengali, Oriya and Urdu/Hindi.[160]

2006 action film, Pokiri has been remade in Hindi, Tamil and Kannada in the following two years owing to the film's commercial success. It was screened at the IIFA film festival held in Dubai in 2006. [161] Walt Disney Pictures co-produced Anaganaga O Dheerudu, making it the first South Indian production by Disney.[162][163] Dookudu was released among seventy nine screens in the United States, the Los Angeles Times quoted it as The biggest hit you've never heard of.[164][165][166] In the rest of north, east and west India, it opened up in 21 cities.[167] The film set a box office record by collecting a gross of more than 1 billion at the time.[168][169]

On 1 June 2022, RRR was screened in over 100 theatres across the United States for a one night event called "#encoRRRe".[170] Speaking to Deadline Hollywood, Dylan Marchetti of Variance Films said that "With more than 250 films coming out of India annually, RRR could be a gateway drug".[171] Nashville Scene's Jason Shawhan wrote about the event that "the nationwide encore of RRR is American audiences reaching with outstretched arms to something so exciting and rock-solid entertaining that its success already happened without insular traditional media even mentioning it. This isn’t America dipping a toe in Indian cinema — it’s a victory lap".[172]

Cast and crew

From left to right: Bhanumathi on a postal stamp, Sobhan Babu, Kota Srinivasa Rao, Brahmanandam, and Mohan Babu

Chittoor Nagayya was one of the most influential method actors of Indian cinema during crown rule.[173] Vemuri Gaggaiah, Kalyanam Raghuramaiah, R. Nageswara Rao, C.S.R. Anjaneyulu, Yadavalli Suryanarayana, C. H. Narayana Rao, Mudigonda Lingamurthy etc., are some of the finest method actors during the golden era.[174] S. V. Ranga Rao won Best Actor Award for his portrayal of Kichaka in Nartanasala at the third Afro-Asian Film Festival held in Jakarta.[175][176]

Adurthi Subba Rao, garnered seven National Film Awards, for his pioneering work on drama films.[177] K. N. T. Sastry and Pattabhirama Reddy have garnered international recognition for their works in neo-realistic cinema.[178][179] A. Kutumba Rao is known for directing childrens films such as Bhadram Koduko, Thodu, and Paatha Nagaramlo Pasivadu the latter winning Cairo International Film Festival's, Merit Certificate for best feature.[180][181] Jandhyala, and Trivikram Srinivas are known for screwball comedy, and action comedy.[182] A. Sreekar Prasad garnered pan-India recognition for film editing across multiple languages.[183]

Krishna Ghattamaneni is credited with producing many technological firsts such as the first cinemascope film Alluri Seetarama Raju, first 70mm film Simhasanam, first DTS film Telugu Veera Levara (1988) and introducing cowboy and bond movie styles to the Telugu screen.[184] Sharada, Archana, Vijayashanti, Rohini, Keerthy Suresh, P. L. Narayana, and Nagarjuna received the National Film Award for acting. Chiranjeevi, was listed among "The men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema" by IBN-live India.[185][186] Brahmanandam, holds a Guinness World Record for acting in the most films in the same language.[187][188] Vijayachander acted and produced hagiographical films, he esaayed "Jesus of Nazareth" in Karunamayudu (1978), "Sai Baba of Shirdi" in Sri Shirdi Saibaba Mahathyam (1986), "Vemana" in Vemana Charithra (1986), and "Saint Paul" in Dayamayudu (1987).[189] Mohan Babu is starred in more than 500 feature films in a variety of antagonist roles.[190]

Cinematography and visual effects

From left to right: Cinematographer turned mainstream director Teja at a shooting location, 1994; and Chota K. Naidu on location, 2019

V. N. Reddy, K. S. Prasad, Jaya Gummadi, Sudhakar Yakkanti, and C. Rajendra Prasad garnered pan India recognition for their cinematographic works.[191][192][193] Enhanced technology among live action animation, digital compositing, and special effects paved the way for upgrading from established cinematic norms. Visual effects based high fantasy works have tasted success.[194] Pete Draper, P. C. Sanath, Chakri Toleti and V. Srinivas Mohan supervise visual effects.[194][195]

Film critics and jury members

Vasiraju Prakasam and K. N. T. Sastry are one of the noted Indian film critics from the state.[196][197] B. S. Narayana was a member of the Indian delegation to the Tashkent Film Festival in 1974, and the Moscow International Film Festival in 1975.[198] Gummadi, served as official member of the Indian delegation from South India to the Tashkent Film Festival in 1978 and 1982.[64] He served as the Jury Member thrice for the 28th, 33rd, and 39th National Film Awards. Chandra Siddhartha served in South Jury at the 57th, 61st and 65th National Film Awards, as well as the 49th IFFI.[199][200]

Film Score

S. P. Balasubrahmanyam performing in Singapore (2017)
S. P. Balasubrahmanyam performing in Singapore (2017)
S. Janaki in 2007
S. Janaki in 2007

Sri Sri was one of the influential film lyricists of his time, who garnered national honors such as Sahitya Akademi Award, Best Lyricist and Soviet Land Nehru Award for his pioneering work.[201][202] Susarla Dakshinamurthi, Parupalli Ramakrishnaiah Pantulu, Ogirala Ramachandra Rao, Pithapuram Nageswara Rao, Tanguturi Suryakumari, and Mangalampalli Balamuralikrishna are some of the influential music composers of Southern Indian cinema.[203][204][205] Music composers such as Pendyala Nageswara Rao, R. Sudarshanam and R. Goverdhanam made contributions to folklore and mythological films.[206][207]

Madhavapeddi Satyam, P. Adinarayana Rao, Gali Penchala Narasimha Rao, Chellapilla Satyam, P. B. Sreenivas, S. P. Kodandapani, G. K. Venkatesh, S. Hanumantha Rao, have contributed their work extensively for films containing themes of social relevance.[208] S.P. Balasubrahmanyam is a multilingual playback singer from Telugu cinema to win National Film Awards across four languages. He holds the record of having recorded more songs than any other male playback singer and has received 25 state Nandi Awards.[209]

S. Rajeswara Rao pioneered the use of light music in Telugu cinema; Rao's most rewarding assignments came from Gemini Studios, which he joined in 1940 and with which he remained for a decade.[210] Ghantasala, performed in the United States, England, and Germany. According to The Hindu, and The Indian Express he was "Such a divine talent and with his songs he could move the hearts of the people. Ghantasala's blending of classical improvisations to the art of light music combined with his virtuosity and sensitivity puts him a class apart, above all others in the field of playback singing".[211][212]

P. Susheela, has been recognized by both the Guinness Book of World Records and the Asia Book of Records for singing most songs in Indian languages.[213] She is also the recipient of five National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer and numerous state awards.[214] Works by S. Janaki, M. M. Keeravani, and Ramesh Naidu have received national recognition. K. S. Chitra has received highest Nandi awards for best female playback singer. Multi-instrumentalists duo Raj–Koti holds a notable career spanning a decade, the duo has garnered particular acclaim for redefining contemporary music.[215][216] R. P. Patnaik is the current president of the Telugu Cine Music Association.[217]

Nandi Awards

The Nandi Awards is the most prominent government funded award ceremony for excellence in the production of Telugu film, theatre and television. It is presented annually at Lalitha Kala Thoranam in Hyderabad previously,[218] by the Film, Television and Theatre Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh.[219] "Nandi" means "bull", the awards being named after the big granite bull at Lepakshi — a cultural and historical symbol of the Telugu culture.

Guinness records

Dubbed films

The 1949 film Keelu Gurram was the first Telugu film to be dubbed into the Tamil language, being subsequently released under the name Maya Kudhirai.[52] According to the Andhra Pradesh Film Chamber of Commerce, "as per the Judgement of Supreme Court in Ashirwad Films in W.P.(Civil) No.709 there will be no difference in taxation of films between the dubbed films coming in from other states and the films produced in the Telugu States".[229] Aarya movie was later dubbed to Malayalam.

Distribution

The Telugu-speaking areas are broadly divided into three areas for the purposes of Film Distribution, namely, Nizam, Ceded and Andhra. Nizam alone contributes to nearly 45% of the revenue.[230][231]

Telugu film distribution territories

Territory Areas Included
Nizam State of Telangana, along with two districts of Karnataka viz., Raichur and Koppal
Ceded Eight districts of Rayalaseema region along with Bellary of Karnataka and Markapur revenue division of Prakasam district
Uttarandhra Visakhapatnam district, Vizianagaram district, Srikakulam district, Anakapalli district and parts of Alluri Sitharama Raju district
East East Godavari district, Kakinada district, Konaseema district, Yanam district of Puducherry and parts of Alluri Sitharama Raju district
West West Godavari district, Parts of Eluru district
Krishna Krishna district, NTR district, Parts of Eluru district
Guntur Guntur district, Bapatla district, Palnadu district and Ongole revenue division of Prakasam district
Nellore Nellore district and Kandukur revenue division of Prakasam district
Karnataka State of Karnataka excluding districts of Raichur, Koppal and Bellary, along with Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu State of Tamil Nadu excluding Krishnagiri district and Puducherry (excluding Yanam district)
Kerala State of Kerala
ROI Rest of India including the Hindi Belt

Apart from the above, there is also an emerging Overseas territory, especially United States which accounts for a significant amount of revenue.[232]

Awards

National Film Award for Best Feature Film Recipients

Year Film Producer Note(s)
2015 Baahubali: The Beginning Shobu Yarlagadda National Film Award for Best Feature Film
1992 Bhagavad Gita T. Subbarami Reddy National Film Award for Best Feature Film
1963 Nartanasala Lakshmi Rajyam National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film[233]
1956 Tenali Ramakrishna B. S. Ranga All India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film[18]

Dadasaheb Phalke awardees

Year Recipient Note(s)
1974 B. N. Reddy[234] Director and producer
1980 Paidi Jairaj[234] Actor and thespian
1982 L. V. Prasad[234] Director and producer
1986 B. Nagi Reddy[234] Director and producer
1990 Akkineni Nageswara Rao[234] Actor
2009 D. Ramanaidu[234] Producer
2016 K. Viswanath[235] Director and actor

State awards

Other major film awards

Regional awards

Studios

Major Filmmaking studios

Visual effects and animation studios

See also

References

  1. ^ "Statewise Number of Single Screens". Film Federation of India. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  2. ^ a b "The Digital March Media & Entertainment in South India" (PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  3. ^ "Indian Feature Films Certified During The Year 2017". Film Federation of India. 31 March 2017. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  4. ^ "Telugu Movies in Theatres". BookMyShow.
  5. ^ Kavoori, Anandam P.; Punathambekar, Aswin (1 August 2008). "Global Bollywood". 95. NYU Press.
  6. ^ "Tollywood | ఆ విషయంలో బాలీవుడ్‌ను వెనక్కి నెట్టేసిన టాలీవుడ్." Namasthe Telangana. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  7. ^ S, Srivatsan (7 January 2022). "The 'pan-Indian' strategy of Telugu cinema". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  8. ^ "Box Office 2021: Tollywood Surpasses Bollywood, Creates All-Time Record With Rs 1070 Crore Gross!". filmibeat.com. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  9. ^ Mukherjee, Nairita; Joshi, Tushar (23 December 2021). "Is South cinema the new Bollywood?". India Today. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  10. ^ "Telugu News - Sakshi". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Telugu Cinema Celebrity – Raghupati Venkaiah Naidu". idlebrain.com.
  12. ^ "Friday Review Hyderabad : Nijam cheppamantara, abaddham cheppamantara...". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 May 2007.
  13. ^ "Paul Muni of India – Chittoor V.Nagayya". Bharatjanani.com. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  14. ^ Narasimham, M. L. (7 November 2010). "SATI SAVITHRI (1933)". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  15. ^ Narasimham, M. L. (7 November 2010). "SATI SAVITHRI (1933)". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  16. ^ Bhagwan Das Garg (1996). So many cinemas: the motion picture in India. Eminence Designs. p. 86. ISBN 81-900602-1-X.
  17. ^ "::Directorate Of Film Festivals". dff.nic.in. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  18. ^ a b "4th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
  19. ^ "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". IBNLive. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  20. ^ "Narsing Rao's films regale Delhi" (Press release). webindia123.com. 21 December 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Metro Plus Hyderabad / Travel : Unsung moments". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 March 2005.
  22. ^ "Awards". Busan International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  23. ^ "How Kamli came alive onscreen". Rediff.com (Press release). 31 December 2004. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  24. ^ "Vanaja Best First Feature". 57th Berlinale. 22 February 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  25. ^ Ebert, Roger. "The year's ten best films and other shenanigans | Roger Ebert's Journal". Roger Ebert. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  26. ^ McNary, Dave (27 June 2018). "'Black Panther' Leads Saturn Awards; 'Better Call Saul,' 'Twin Peaks' Top TV Trophies". Variety. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  27. ^ Sudhir, TS (May 2017). "Is Baahubali 2 a Hindu film? Dissecting religion, folklore, mythology in Rajamouli's epic saga". FirstPost. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  28. ^ Chauhan, Gaurang (13 August 2022). "RRR, Saturn Awards USA". MensXP. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  29. ^ Narasimham, M. L. (10 September 2011). "Eighty glorious years of Telugu talkie". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  30. ^ Guy, Randor (22 August 2003). "A revolutionary filmmaker". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  31. ^ "Paul Muni of India – Chittoor V.Nagayya". Bharatjanani.com. 6 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  32. ^ Encyclopaedia of early cinema, by Richard Abel, pp. 677, Bhishma Pratigya, 1921 film
  33. ^ "Telugu Cinema Biography". kiwibox.com. 3 May 1913. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  34. ^ "CineGoer.com – Articles – History Of Birth And Growth Of Telugu Cinema". cinegoer.com. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007.
  35. ^ "The Hindu News". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 May 2005. Archived from the original on 6 May 2005.
  36. ^ "Picture perfect!". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 22 July 2012.
  37. ^ "'Bhaktha Prahladha': First Telugu talkie completes 81 years". CNN-IBN. 7 February 2013. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  38. ^ Special Correspondent (11 September 2011). "Today's Paper / NATIONAL : Telugu Cinema Day on September 15". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  39. ^ Narasimham, M.L. (9 September 2012). "Wake up, industry". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  40. ^ "Telugu Cinema turns a grand 82!". The Hans India. 7 February 2013. p. 10. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  41. ^ a b "Reliving the reel and the real". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 1 May 2007.
  42. ^ "Articles – History of Birth And Growth of Telugu Cinema". CineGoer.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  43. ^ Naati 101 Chitralu, S. V. Rama Rao, Kinnera Publications, Hyderabad, 2006, pp.14.
  44. ^ "Nostalgia Mala Pilla (1938) at Cinegoer.com". cinegoer.com. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012.
  45. ^ "Celebrating 100 Years of Indian Cinema: www.indiancinema100.in". indiancinema100.in. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  46. ^ "A revolutionary filmmaker". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 22 August 2003. Archived from the original on 17 January 2004.
  47. ^ "Y. V. Rao Fimograph". Indiancine.ma.
  48. ^ "Articles – History of Birth And Growth of Telugu Cinema". CineGoer.com. 17 July 1943. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  49. ^ "Articles – History of Birth And Growth of Telugu Cinema". CineGoer.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  50. ^ "Articles – History of Birth And Growth of Telugu Cinema". CineGoer.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  51. ^ "Ghantasala Balaramaiah: The Legend who created Legends". 26lettersto24frames.wordpress.com. 26lettersto24frames. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  52. ^ a b Eenadu Daily, Eenadu Sunday – 28 April 2013, 100 years of Indian Cinema, Early Tollywood, Page 9
  53. ^ a b "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). iffi.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  54. ^ "'Maya Bazaar' forever!". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 21 April 2006. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006.
  55. ^ "Mythological characters, a hit in T-town". The Times of India. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012.
  56. ^ "I feel blessed to play Sita: Nayanthara". The Times of India on Mobile. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  57. ^ "A new Jaganmohini". The Times of India. 22 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012.
  58. ^ "Ace lensman recalls magic moments". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 14 April 2006. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006.
  59. ^ "'Mayabazar' is India's greatest film ever: IBNLive poll". News18. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  60. ^ M L Narasimham. "Blast from the Past: Mahakavi Kalidasu (1960)". The Hindu.
  61. ^ "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Iffi.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  62. ^ a b Eenadu Daily, Eenadu cinema – 17 July 2013, National art theater, Page 10
  63. ^ Guy, Randor (30 November 2013). "Master movie maker". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  64. ^ a b "Profile of Gummadi - Telugu film actor". www.idlebrain.com.
  65. ^ "Director Yoganand is no more – Telugu Movie News". indiaglitz.com.
  66. ^ Collections. Update Video Publication. 1991. p. 387.
  67. ^ Metro Plus Visakhapatnam / Cinema : Mullapudi leaves behind enduring legacy. The Hindu (5 March 2011). Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  68. ^ Shivpprasadh, S. (21 February 2013). "The Hindu article on Bapu". The Hindu.
  69. ^ m.l. narasimham (12 November 2011). "Arts / Cinema : Preview: Epic comes full circle". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  70. ^ Oka Oori Katha (The Outsiders). Mrinal Sen. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  71. ^ "K. Viswanath Film craft Page 6 DFF" (PDF). Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  72. ^ "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013.
  73. ^ "The saga of a lensman". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 June 2003. Archived from the original on 23 October 2003.
  74. ^ "Gollapudi Maruti Rao, Raghu M.V. in city today". The Hindu. 29 December 2017.
  75. ^ S. Muthiah (6 December 2009). "Arts / History & Culture : Madras Miscellany – 'The First Family' gets together". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  76. ^ "Stage set for technical excellence". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 April 2003. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  77. ^ "Film producer D.V.S. Raju passes away". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 14 November 2010.
  78. ^ a b "Telugu film industry enters new era". Blonnet.com. 6 November 2007. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  79. ^ "Great role reversal of Tollywood". The New Indian Express. 18 November 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  80. ^ "Telugu film industry turns 81". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 September 2011.
  81. ^ "Telugu film industry, Ind: msg#00117". Osdir.com. 31 January 2007. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  82. ^ "B-town grabs Dookudu – The Times of India". The Times of India.
  83. ^ "UFO Moviez to digitize 1000 theatres in Telangana & Andhra Pradesh". businessofcinema.com. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  84. ^ "100 New IMAX Screens | Film". Slashfilm.com. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  85. ^ "Annapurna Studios' film, media school to offer course on iPhone, iPad apps". The Hindu. Hyderabad, India. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  86. ^ "FTIA". The Hindu. Hyderabad, India. 6 April 2012. Archived from the original on 17 September 2004. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  87. ^ "Economic times indiatimes.com". The Times of India. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  88. ^ "Tamil, Telugu film industries outshine Bollywood". Business Standard India. 25 January 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  89. ^ a b "Official Site of Guinnessworldrecords.com Largest Film studio in the world". Archived from the original on 19 January 2014.
  90. ^ "CNN Travel". CNN.
  91. ^ "Thehindu.com King of Good times Prasad's Imax". Chennai, India: The Hindu Newspaper. 7 August 2011.
  92. ^ Dan Nosowitz (30 May 2009). "The Seven IMAX Wonders of the World". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  93. ^ Annual report 2011 (PDF) (Report). Central Board of Film Certification, archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130124081428/http://cbfcindia.gov.in/CbfcWeb/fckeditor/editor/images/Uploadedfiles/file/Publications/ANNUAL_2011.pdf |archive-date=24 January 2013 |url-status=dead |Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.
  94. ^ "Reliance Media works digital postproduction facility, Hyderabad" (Press release). Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  95. ^ "UTV distribution market". India Glitz. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  96. ^ "Mou with MPAA". The Hindu Cinema. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  97. ^ "Tollywood loses to Bollywood on numbers". The Times of India. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
  98. ^ AS, Sashidhar (17 August 2012). "First Telugu film to gross 100 million". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  99. ^ "Nuvve Kavali's budget was originally 75 lakhs". The Times of India. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  100. ^ "rediff.com, Movies: The bigger picture". Rediff.com. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  101. ^ Kumar, K. Naresh (14 July 2022). "Nuvve Kavali: Romantic start to the new millennium". The Hans India. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  102. ^ "All Time Long Run (In Direct Centers) List". www.cinegoer.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  103. ^ "To the camera born!". Rediff.com. 7 December 2000. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  104. ^ "56th Filmfare Awards South". The Times of India. 8 December 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  105. ^ "Idea Filmfare awards ceremony on July 2". The Times of India. 11 June 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
  106. ^ "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  107. ^ "Tollywood extends birthday wishes to K Raghavendra Rao - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  108. ^ Narasimham, M. L. (12 October 2018). "The story behind the song ' Nerajaanavule' from the movie Aditya 369". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  109. ^ "Singeetam Srinivasa Rao Interview: "The Golden Rule Of Cinema Is That There Is No Golden Rule"". Silverscreen.in. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  110. ^ Srinivasan, Pavithra (7 September 2010). "Singeetham Srinivasa Rao's gems before Christ". Rediff.com. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  111. ^ "Sudeep's excited about film with Ram Gopal Varma". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
  112. ^ Pasupulate, Karthik (20 February 2013). "Power of the tongue". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  113. ^ Raghavan, Nikhil (4 October 2010). "A saga in the making?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  114. ^ Pasupulate, Karthik (29 October 2015). "Raj Tarun to star in a silent film by RGV". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  115. ^ Varma 2015, pp. 138–139.
  116. ^ Chinnarayana 2007, p. 53.
  117. ^ "Nagarjuna's Shiva completes 25 years". The Times of India. 5 October 2014. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  118. ^ "telugu cinema – Good Films – Kshanakshanam – Venkatesh, Sridevi – Ram Gopal Varma – S Gopal Reddy – MM Keeravani". idlebrain.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  119. ^ "The Indian Express – Google News Archive Search".
  120. ^ Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (10 July 2014). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-94325-7 – via Google Books.
  121. ^ "Edouard Waintrop on the New Indian Cinema : UP Front – India Today". India Today. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  122. ^ "Kondaveeti Donga (1990)". IMDb.
  123. ^ Gopalan, Krishna (30 August 2008). "Southern movie stars & politics: A long love affair". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  124. ^ "Software engineer turned director wins National Award". reachouthyderabad.com.
  125. ^ Gangadhar, V (17 July 2000). "rediff.com, Movies: The Dollar Dreams review". Rediff.com. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  126. ^ "2007's MediaBridge Award Winners". Chicago International Children's Film Festival. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  127. ^ "2013 Official Selections". canadafilmfestival.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013.
  128. ^ Krishnamoorthy, Suresh (4 March 2013). "'Dream' hops to Canada in flying colours". The Hindu.
  129. ^ Eenadu daily, Eenadu Cinema, page 16, 11 April 2013
  130. ^ "Naa Bangaru Talli as Best film at Trinity International Film Festival". gulte.com.
  131. ^ "'The story of Naa Bangaru Talli is quite shocking'". Rediff.com. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  132. ^ "'Naa Bangaru Talli' made it big in the TIFF 2013". alllightsfilmmagazine.com. July 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014.
  133. ^ "'Minugurulu' Grabs Best Indian Film CIICFF – Telugu Movie News". indiaglitz.com.
  134. ^ "O Friend, This Waiting!". magiclanternmovies.in. Magic Lantern Movies LLP. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014.
  135. ^ "International recognition for 'Parampara'". 25 September 2014.
  136. ^ "Mahanati: 100 glorious days of an undisputed classic!". in.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2018.
  137. ^ "The Hindu : Different strokes". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  138. ^ "Telugu Cinema - Review - Aithe - Chandra Sekhar Eleti - Gangaraju Gunna - Kalyani Malik". www.idlebrain.com.
  139. ^ "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  140. ^ "52nd National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  141. ^ a b "Grahanam review: Grahanam (Telugu) Movie Review - fullhyd.com".
  142. ^ "Grahanam: Impressive". www.rediff.com.
  143. ^ "Film Market In India Is Contracting: Shekhar Kapur". Daily News and Analysis. 30 October 2012. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  144. ^ Sashidhar, A. S. (7 October 2012). "Shahrukh Khan praises Rajamouli's Makkhi". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  145. ^ Chowdary, Y. Sunita (30 April 2015). "In a happy space". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  146. ^ "Rajamouli's Eega continues to win awards". The Times of India. 3 November 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  147. ^ Kalyanam, Rajeswari (24 October 2015). "Breaking new grounds". The Hans India. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  148. ^ "65th National Film Awards LIVE: Sridevi Posthumously Awarded Best Actress; Vinod Khanna Honoured With Dada Saheb Phalke Award". News 18date=13 April 2018. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  149. ^ "Arjun Reddy movie review: Intense, raw and unbelievably honest. 5 stars". Hindustan Times. Indo Asian News Service. 26 August 2017. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  150. ^ "Allu Arjun's new film rolls out". The Times of India. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  151. ^ "'Kshanam' most rewarding and stressful film: Adivi Sesh". The Indian Express. Indo-Asian News Service. 22 February 2016. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  152. ^ "Major BO Collections". The Times of India. 16 June 2022. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  153. ^ Dundoo, Sangeetha Devi (3 August 2018). "Goodachari review: Adivi Sesh's coming-of-age story of a spy is a winner". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  154. ^ "Athadu in USA". idlebrain.com. 6 January 2006. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  155. ^ a b "Cycle Stand – Telugu Cinema Trade Story : Mahesh Babu's ATHADU sensation in USA". idlebrain.com. 16 September 2005. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  156. ^ "The experience of watching Athadu in New Jersey". idlebrain.com. 12 August 2005. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  157. ^ "The experience of watching Athadu in CT". idlebrain.com. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  158. ^ a b c "Trade Story: Bommarillu rocks". Idlebrain.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
  159. ^ "Trade Story: Bommarillu rocks". Idlebrain.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
  160. ^ Narasimhan, M. L. (29 December 2006). "A few hits and many flops". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
  161. ^ "Showcase: IIFA 2006 – Dubai | Film Festival". IIFA. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  162. ^ "Disney fantasy film in Telugu, Tamil". The Hindu. 2010. Archived from the original on 28 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  163. ^ "Walt Disney picks Shruti, Siddharth!". The Times of India. 17 March 2010. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  164. ^ "'Dookudu,' the biggest hit you've never heard of". Los Angeles Times. 27 September 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  165. ^ "Winning combo". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  166. ^ "'Oosaravelli' takes competition to the US". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  167. ^ "Dookudu touches the one billion mark". The Times of India. 20 November 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  168. ^ Karthik Paspulatte, TNN (20 November 2011). "Dookudu touches the one billion mark". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  169. ^ "DCHL bankruptcy threat: PVP Ventures in fray to buy IPL team Deccan Chargers". The Economic Times. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  170. ^ "Indian action blockbuster 'RRR' roars back to theaters for one-night event". Los Angeles Times. 14 May 2022.
  171. ^ Goldsmith, Jill (10 June 2022). "Blockbuster 'RRR' Is Back, This Time At Arthouses In A New Move For Indian Film – Specialty Preview". Deadline. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  172. ^ Shawhan, Jason. "The Outsized RRR Engages With History on Its Own Terms". Nashville Scene. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  173. ^ "Nagaiah – noble, humble and kind-hearted". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 April 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
  174. ^ Early tollywood, Telugu Cinema Vythalikulu, (2002) by B. Venkateshwarlu
  175. ^ "Directorate of Film Festival" (PDF). iffi.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  176. ^ Mahabhinishkramana, Viswa Nata Chakravarti, M. Sanjay Kishore, Sangam Akademy, Hyderabad, 2005, pp: 69–70.
  177. ^ "Stars : Star Profiles : Adurti Subbarao: A Tribute". Telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  178. ^ "Arts / Cinema : Conscientious filmmaker". The Hindu (Press release). 7 May 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  179. ^ "Tikkavarapu Pattabhirama Reddy – Poet, Film maker of international fame from NelloreOne Nellore". 1nellore.com. One Nellore. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  180. ^ "Long journey sans fun". The Hindu (Press release). 19 November 2002. Archived from the original on 22 October 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  181. ^ "Children's Film Society, India | Page 14" (Press release). cfsindia. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  182. ^ "8 decades of laughter". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013.
  183. ^ Sudhish Kamath (18 March 2011). "Life & Style / Metroplus : The Saturday Interview – A cut above". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  184. ^ Pasupulate, Karthik (25 December 2012). "Super Star Krishna retires from movies". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  185. ^ "100 Years of Cinema: The men who changed the face of Indian films". ibnlive.in.com. CNN-IBN. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
  186. ^ "AU confers honorary degrees on Chiru, others". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 November 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  187. ^ a b "Guinness record for Brahmanandam". The Times of India. 15 December 2007. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  188. ^ a b "Home of the Longest, Shortest, Fastest, Tallest facts and feats". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  189. ^ Y. Sunita Chowdhary (12 November 2011). "Arts: Stalwart Vijaya Chander". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  190. ^ "Mohan Babu's Hollywood guest". The Hindu. 25 October 2005. p. 4. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2010 – via The Hindu (old).
  191. ^ "Cinema – The Era Of Talking Movies – 1940–1950". Windows on Asia. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  192. ^ Bamzai, Kaveree (18 July 1999). "Back To The Future". The Indian Express.
  193. ^ "16th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  194. ^ a b Borah, Prabalika M. (25 October 2012). "The animated lot". The Hindu.
  195. ^ "60th National Film Awards Announced" (PDF) (Press release). Press Information Bureau (PIB), India. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  196. ^ "48th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  197. ^ "54TH NATIONAL FILM AWARDS" (PDF). dff.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  198. ^ "Twenty Sixth National Film Festival" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  199. ^ "Jury-Chandra Siddhartha" (PDF). 57th NFA. New Delhi, India.
  200. ^ "Jury-Chandra Siddhartha" (PDF). 61st NFA. New Delhi, India.
  201. ^ Chaso Dolls Wedding & Other Stories – Page xii introduction by Renee David Shulman, 194, Cāsō – 2012 "But Vizianagaram in the mid-twentieth century was also home to other literati including the most famous poet in modern Telugu, Sri Sri (Srirangam Srinivasa Rao); Arudra, historian of Telugu literature, literary critic and poet; and Racakonda Visvanatha Sastri, the short-story writer whose statue you can find on the Visakhapatnam beach...."
  202. ^ Dictionary of Hindu Literature Kuśa Satyendra – 2000 – Page 175 "Sriniwasaraw Srirangam (b 1910 Visakhapatnam). Telugu poet. Sri Sri, as he is popularly known, wrote his first poem at ..."
  203. ^ "National : French honour for Balamuralikrishna". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 May 2005.
  204. ^ Ramnarayan, Gowri (26 June 2010). "Maestro in many moods". The Hindu.
  205. ^ "Susarla's work". uiowa.edu. University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013.
  206. ^ "cinegoer.net – Nostalgia – AVM's Bhookailas". cinegoer.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.
  207. ^ "Special story on veteran music director Susarla Dakshinamurthy – Etv2, Susarla Dakshinamurthy, Music". telugism.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
  208. ^ "Friday Review Hyderabad / Music : Melodious tribute". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
  209. ^ DC Correspondent New Delhi (26 January 2011). "SPB wins Padma Bhushan, no Bharat Ratna this year". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 2 May 2011
  210. ^ "A Tribute to (Ra)Saluri Rajeshwara Rao". Telugucinema.com. 27 October 2007. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  211. ^ "Honouring a legend". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 February 2003. Archived from the original on 19 October 2003.
  212. ^ "Ghantasala". www.ghantasala.info.
  213. ^ Naig, Udhav (29 March 2016). "P. Susheela enters Guinness World Records". The Hindu.
  214. ^ "Happy Birthday PSusheela". IndiaGlitz.com. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 13 August 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  215. ^ "Music duo Rajkoti will be honoured-News, Telugu movie news, latest news". myfirstshow.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  216. ^ "Raj–Koti Reunited : Special Live show – ap7am". Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  217. ^ "No more Telugu music recording in Chennai". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013.
  218. ^ TNN 24 March 2012, 12.26AM IST (24 March 2012). "Clean films necessary to promote family values: CM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
  219. ^ "Government announces Nandi Awards committee members". Ragalahari.com. 23 December 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  220. ^ "Ramoji Film City sets Guinness record". The Hindu. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  221. ^ "Press Information Bureau English Releases". Pib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  222. ^ "Dasari Narayana Rao, pillar of Telugu film industry, passes away in Hyderabad". The News Minute. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  223. ^ "Most screen credits for a living actor". Guinnessworldrecords.com. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  224. ^ "BBC Asian Network - Gagan Grewal, SP Balasubramaniam". BBC.
  225. ^ "Singing his way to the guinness". Spbala.com. 5 March 1999. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  226. ^ Vijayasarathy, R. G (19 November 2009). "Make way for SPB, the TV host!". Rediff.com. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  227. ^ "Guinness Record for Vijaya Nirmala". The Hindu. Chennai, India.[dead link]
  228. ^ Naig, Udhav (29 March 2016). "P. Susheela enters Guinness World Records". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  229. ^ "GOVERNMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH: Andhra Pradesh Entertainment Tax Act, 1939" (PDF).
  230. ^ Kanth, K. Rajani (31 July 2013). "Telangana casts its shadow on Telugu film industry prospects". Business Standard India. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  231. ^ "Nizam territory will remain indispensable for Tollywood". The Times of India. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  232. ^ Dundoo, Sangeetha Devi (11 July 2016). "Million dollar films". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  233. ^ "11th National Film Awards". International Film Festival of India. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  234. ^ a b c d e f "::DIRECTORATE OF FILM FESTIVALS". dff.nic.in.
  235. ^ "64th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. p. 183. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  236. ^ ""Shri B. Nagi Reddy" award for "Eega" movie". idlebrain.com. 6 April 2013. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  237. ^ "TSR-TV9 film awards function in city today". The Times of India. 10 April 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.
  238. ^ "Pre-visualisation". The Hindu.
  239. ^ "Sanath fire fly, digital lab, Hyderabad". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2005.
  240. ^ Suresh Krishnamoorthy. "Cities / Hyderabad : With technology, 'Eega' takes wings". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 19 September 2012.

Further reading