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Eenadu
Eenadu front page logo new.png
Eenadu telugu newspaper front page.png
Front page of Eenadu, 2020
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBroadsheet
Owner(s)Ramoji Rao[1]
PublisherEenadu Publications
Editor-in-chiefM.Nageswara Rao (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, New Delhi editions)
D.N. Prasad (Telangana edition)[2]
Founded1974; 48 years ago (1974), Vishakapatnam Andhra Pradesh
LanguageTelugu
HeadquartersSomajiguda, Hyderabad, India
Circulation1,614,105 [3] (as of Dec 2019)
Websitewww.eenadu.net

Eenadu (transl. Today/This Land) is the largest[4] circulated Telugu-language daily newspaper of India sold mostly in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.[5] According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) Q2 2019, Eenadu ranks eighth among the most circulated Indian-language dailies with a total readership (TR) of 1,614,105.[4] It was founded by Ramoji Rao in 1974.

Editions

Various editions of Eenadu exist throughout the Telugu-speaking region of India constituting the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana.

History

Early days in Visakhapatnam

Eenadu was launched from Visakhapatnam on 10 August 1974 by Ramoji Rao, a businessman who had previously achieved success with Priya Pickles and Margadarsi Chitfunds.[6] At that time, the Andhra Prabha, owned by the Indian Express Group, was the leading regional newspaper.

Initially, the circulation of Eenadu was limited. When launched in the city of Visakhapatnam, it wasn't able to sell more than 3,000 copies a week.[7] Eenadu found itself struggling to become a daily publication among publication. However, it was popular in certain regions and rivalry was still an issue. Eenadu hired a new set of directors to be part of its key decision and management group which drove it towards what it is today: the most highly circulated newspaper in the region.

Expansion to other regions

Eenadu began with a print order of 4,000 copies, composed by hand and produced using a second-hand printing press. But by the time it was admitted into the Audit Bureau of Circulations in 1976, its circulation had already reached a readership of 48,000. By 1978, Eenadu surpassed Andhra Prabha's circulation and, by 1995, two other rivals Andhra Patrika and Udayam folded, leaving Eenadu with over seventy-five percent of the audited circulation of Telugu dailies.

When Eenadu expanded to Hyderabad in 1975, it divided the city into target areas, recruited delivery boys three months in advance and handed out the paper freely for a week. During the 1980s, technology enabled Eenadu to spread over larger areas beyond only the main cities. Earlier, it was difficult to manage even the three editions of the 1970s (the Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Hyderabad editions) because the only communication facilities available to the publication at the time were the telegram, telephone, and teleprinter, all of which had limited presence in rural Andhra Pradesh.

Political impact and TDP support

Support of the Telugu Desham Party (TDP) by Eenadu has been recorded since the party's foundation in 1982.[8] This has been attributed to Ramoji Rao's disdain for the Congress government, to the point that he planned to create a regional party on his own accord, and a personal rapport he formed with party founder and leader N. T. Rama Rao, who he had first doubted but eventually saw political potential in.[9][10] Another factor that has been cited is caste politics, with both Eenadu and the TDP being perceived as Kamma-oriented organisations and both Raos being Kammas themselves,[11][12] although this view has been challenged.[13] During the 1983 elections, the party and the paper formed a symbiotic relationship as Eenadu not only publicised, promoted and ran positive stories on Rama Rao's campaign, but also gave more direct support, such as utilising its network of journalists to inform and advise Rama Rao on local issues for his stops and designing party advertisements through Ramoji Rao's marketing agency. This coverage led to a massive increase in subscriptions, with Eenadu going from a circulation of 230,000 copies to 350,000 in the six months of Rama Rao's electoral campaign and becoming one of the state's most popular newspapers.[13][14] The TDP would go on to successfully sweep the election, making Rama Rao the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, and over half a million copies were printed of Eenadu to declare this victory.[14] Reportedly, Ramoji Rao sent a bill to Rama Rao for 3 million (30 lakh) rupees for the assistance he had given to the campaign.[9] In response, film personality Dasari Narayana Rao and industrialist Gireesh Kumar Sanghi would launch pro-Congress newspapers of their own and eventually become members of the Rajya Sabha on the Congress ticket.[11][15]

When Rama Rao and his government faced crises and parliamentary revolts in the 1980s, Eenadu continually supported him and clamored for his restoration to power. Despite Rama Rao's growing unpopularity in the later part of the decade due to perceptions of failed promises, the paper refrained from criticising him before expressing some concerns about his leadership in response to his continued loss of public support and the Congress victory in the 1989 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election.[16] In the 1990s, as fissures developed between Rama Rao and his son-in-law and prominent party leader Chandrababu Naidu, Eenadu ultimately took Naidu's side, publishing mocking portrayals of Rama Rao depicting him as being manipulated by his new wife Lakshmi Parvathi, and eventually played a key role in the internal party coup by supporting Naidu's power grab. This paved the way for Naidu to become the next Chief Minister and ensured a friendly relationship between the paper and ihs administration.[17] During the reign of Congress governments, Eenadu went on the offensive and became their "chief critic"; both Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy and his son Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy would "fight back" during their time in power.[18] This took on multiple forms, from the 2004 investigation of Margadarsi for irregular financial practices to the launch of Sakshi in 2008 under Jagan Mohan Reddy's ownership as a "counter" to what his father, the CM at the time, claimed was "biased news" from traditionally TDP-supporting papers.[19][20]

Further publications

With the introduction of offset printing, photocomposing software and computers, Eenadu was able to launch editions in smaller towns like Tirupathi in 1982. From the 1980s, the news editor of Eenadu oversaw an enormous local-based news gathering and disseminating organization from his Hyderabad office.

By the end of the 1980s, there were six substantial Telugu dailies running, and the business was highly competitive. In 1989 Eenadu introduced "district dailies (tabloid edition)" to carry its presence not only into district towns like Rajamahendravaram, Karimnagar, Guntur and Adilabad, but also taluka towns like Suryapet and Tadepalligudem. Each publication center required forty engineers to run its printing presses. Eenadu's district dailies were based on market research asserting that heavy local content would generate new groups of readers and boost advertising revenue. Currently, the district dailies print local news specifically for each major location in the area, thereby negating the need for any separate local daily. Few special sections are published every day of the week.[21]Eenadu later ventured into other markets such as finance and chit funds (e.g. Margadarsi chits), foods (Priya Foods), film production (Ushakiran Movies), film distribution (Mayuri Films), and television (ETV). All the businesses are organized under the Ramoji Group.

References

  1. ^ "India - World Newspapers and Magazines - Worldpress.org". www.worldpress.org.
  2. ^ 'ఈనాడు' నుంచి తప్పుకున్న రామోజీరావు. Samayam Telugu (in Telugu). 14 December 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Highest Circulated Daily Newspapers (language wise)" (PDF). Audit Bureau of Circulations. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Highest Circulated Dailies, Weeklies & Magazines amongst Member Publications (across languages)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2020.
  5. ^ IRS 2012 Q1 Topline Findings p. 11 Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Gundimeda 2017, pp. 193–194.
  7. ^ "Eenadu Classified Ad Booking Online". www.bookmyadvertisement.com. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  8. ^ Gundimeda 2017, p. 192.
  9. ^ a b Donthi, Praveen (30 November 2014). "How Ramoji Rao of Eenadu wrested control of power and politics in Andhra Pradesh". The Caravan. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  10. ^ Kandula 2021, p. 37.
  11. ^ a b "Telugu news media: The beginnings and growth". The Routledge handbook of the other backward classes in India: thought, movements and development. Abingdon, Oxon. 2022. ISBN 978-1-003-15287-3. OCLC 1266207904.
  12. ^ Gundimeda 2017, p. 194.
  13. ^ a b Kandula 2021, pp. 39–40.
  14. ^ a b Menon, Amarnath K. (15 February 1983). "Of Cherukuri Ramoji Rao, Eenadu and Telugu Desam". India Today. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  15. ^ Amarnath K. Menon (2 December 2013). "In one month, Telugu daily Udayam touches remarkable circulation figure of 2,24,000". India Today. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  16. ^ Gundimeda 2017, p. 196.
  17. ^ Gundimeda 2017, p. 198.
  18. ^ Gundimeda 2017, p. 199.
  19. ^ Inukonda, Sumanth (23 September 2019). Media, Nationalism and Globalization: The Telangana Movement and Indian Politics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-429-53564-2.
  20. ^ Tata, Madhavi (7 April 2008). "We Are The News: YSR's son storms Andhra Pradesh with a 23-edition Telugu daily". Outlook. Outlook Publishing. pp. 8–9.
  21. ^ "Eenadu Epaper".

Bibliography