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Cinema of Spain
No. of screens3,618 (2017)[1]
 • Per capita9.7 per 100,000 (2011)[2]
Main distributorsWarner Bros. E. España, S.L. 16.0%
Paramount Spain 13.0%
Sony Pictures 12.0%[3]
Produced feature films (2011)[4]
Total199
Fictional122 (61.3%)
Animated9 (4.5%)
Documentary68 (34.2%)
Number of admissions (2017)[1]
Total99,803,801
National films17,353,734 (17.39%)
Gross box office (2017)[1]
Total€591 million
National films€103 million (17.41%)

The art of motion-picture making within Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is collectively known as Spanish Cinema.

In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition.[citation needed]

Only a small portion of box office sales in Spain are generated by domestic films. The different Spanish governments have therefore implemented measures aimed at supporting local film production and the movie theaters, which currently include the assurance of funding from the main television broadcasters. Nowadays, the Instituto de la Cinematografía y de las Artes Audiovisuales (ICAA) is the State agency in charge of regulating the allocation of public funds to the domestic film industry.

History

Excerpt from El hotel eléctrico (Segundo de Chomón, 1908).

The first Spanish film exhibition took place on 5 May 1895, in Barcelona. Exhibitions of Lumière films were screened in Madrid, Málaga and Barcelona in May and December 1896, respectively.

The matter of which Spanish film came first is in dispute.[5] The first was either Salida de la misa de doce de la Iglesia del Pilar de ZaragozaExit of the Twelve O'Clock Mass from the Church of El Pilar of Zaragoza– (Eduardo Jimeno Peromarta), Plaza del puerto en BarcelonaPlaza of the Port of Barcelona– (Alexandre Promio) or Llegada de un tren de Teruel a SegorbeArrival of a Train from Teruel in Segorbe– (anonymous). It is also possible that the first film was Riña en un café (Fructuós Gelabert). These films were all released in 1897.

The first Spanish film director to achieve great success internationally was Segundo de Chomón, who worked in France and Italy but made several famous fantasy films in Spain, such as El hotel eléctrico (1908).

The height of silent cinema

Luis Buñuel pioneering Spanish filmmaker, is renowned for his surreal and provocative cinematic works.

In 1914, Barcelona was the center of the nation's film industry. The españoladas (historical Spanish epics) predominated until the 1960s. Prominent among these were the films of Florián Rey, starring Imperio Argentina, and the first version of Nobleza Baturra (Juan Vila Vilamala, 1925). Historical dramas such as Vida de Cristóbal Colón y su Descubrimiento de AméricaThe Life of Christopher Columbus and His Discovery of America– (Gérard Bourgeois, 1917), adaptations of newspaper serials such as Los misterios de BarcelonaThe Mysteries of Barcelona– (starring Joan Maria Codina, 1916), and of stage plays such as Don Juan Tenorio (Ricardo de Baños [es], 1922) and zarzuelas (comedic operettas), were also produced. Even the Nobel Prize-winning playwright Jacinto Benavente, who said that "in film they pay me the scraps," would shoot film versions of his theatrical works.

In 1928, Ernesto Giménez Caballero and Luis Buñuel founded the first cine-club, in Madrid. By that point, Madrid was already the primary center of the industry; forty-four of the fifty-eight films released up until that point had been produced there.

The rural drama La aldea malditaThe Cursed Village– (Florian Rey, 1929) was a hit in Paris, where, at the same time, Buñuel and Salvador Dalí premiered Un chien andalou. Un chien andalou has become one of the most well-known avant-garde films of that era.

The crisis of sound

By 1931, the introduction of foreign sound films had hurt the Spanish film industry to the point where only a single title was released that year.

In 1935, Manuel Casanova founded the Compañía Industrial Film Española S.A. (Cifesa) and introduced sound to Spanish film-making. Cifesa would grow to become the biggest production company to ever exist in Spain. Sometimes criticized as an instrument of the right wing, it nevertheless supported young filmmakers such as Buñuel and his pseudo-documentary Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan (1933). In 1933 it was responsible for filming seventeen motion pictures and in 1934, twenty-one. The most notable success was Paloma Fair (Benito Perojo, 1935). They were also responsible for Don Quijote de la Mancha (Rafael Gil, 1947), the most elaborate version of the Cervantes classic up to that time. By 1935 production had risen to thirty-seven films.

The Civil War and its aftermath

Sara Montiel captivated audiences worldwide during the 1950s and 1960s

The Civil War devastated the silent film era: only ten per cent of all silent films made before 1936 survived the war. Films were also destroyed for their celluloid content and made into goods.[6]

Around 1936, both sides of the Civil War began to use cinema as a means of propaganda. A typical example of this is España 1936 (Buñuel, 1937), which also contains much rare newsreel footage. The pro-Franco side founded the National Department of Cinematography, causing many actors to go into exile.

The new regime then began to impose censorship and the obligatory dubbing to Spanish to all films released. Highlights in this era are El difunto es un vivo (Ignacio F. Iquino, 1941), Traces of Light (Rafael Gil, 1941), Madness for Love (Juan de Orduña, 1948), Last Stand in the Philippines (Antonio Román, 1945), Raza (José Luis Sáenz de Heredia with screenplay by Franco himself, 1942), and The Tower of the Seven Hunchbacks (Edgar Neville, 1944). Cifesa produced Ella, él y sus millones (de Orduña, 1944) as well as Fedra (Manuel Mur Oti, 1956).

A policy of autarky tried to keep foreign currency in the country and establish a domestic film industry. If the distributors wanted licences to import and dub foreign films (audiences preferred American films), they would have to acquire them from producers of local films. The number of licences depended on the merits (artistic, moral, cultural, political) acknowledged by the government to each local film. The American distributors of the MPAA tried to open the market removing the local producers. To that end, they embargoed Spain since May 1951. The embargo goes into 1952 due to complications with American studios outside MPAA and reorganizations within the Spanish government. Spanish producers, lacking the income from the dubbing licences and with an uncertain future, greatly diminished their production as well. An agreement between Spain and the United States was finally reached.[7]

Marisol was a popular wunderkind during Francoism.[8]

On the other hand, Miracle of Marcelino (Ladislao Vajda, 1955) is the first Spanish film to obtain worldwide recognition from critics and public, winning the Silver Bear award at the 5th Berlin International Film Festival. This film would trigger a trend of child actors, such as Joselito, Marisol, Rocío Dúrcal or Pili y Mili starring in popular musical films.

In 1951, the regime instituted the Ministry of Information and Tourism to safeguard and develop the Spanish brand, the social imagery and the public image under the slogan "Spain is different" which was launched in the 1920s and then internationally spread in the 1960s.[9] Its main purpose was to promote the Spanish tourist industry and a massive inflow of people who came from all the Europe towards the Andalusia, looking for what they saw in the Spanish films: sun and sea, comfortable transports and hotels, good ethnic cuisine, passion and adventure, and the so called españoladas (bulls, castanets, flamenco, Gitano culture and folklore).[9] Fog and Sun (José María Forqué, 1951) was the first movies belonging to the genre of the "touristic cinema". It was followed by Veraneo en España (Miguel Iglesias, 1958) and by Spain Again (Jaime Camino, 1969).[9]

Musical films The Last Torch Song (de Orduña, 1957) and The Violet Seller (Luis César Amadori, 1958), both starring Sara Montiel, were huge international commercial successes, making Montiel the first worldwide famous film star –and the highest paid– of Spanish cinema.[10]

Social criticism

In the 1950s, the influence of neorealism became evident in the works of a number of rather young film directors, such as Furrows (José Antonio Nieves Conde, 1951), Reckless (Nieves Conde, 1951), We're All Necessary (Nieves Conde, 1956), Pride (Mur Oti, 1955), Death of a Cyclist (Juan Antonio Bardem, 1955), Calle Mayor (Bardem, 1956), El pisito (Marco Ferreri, 1959), El cochecito (Ferreri, 1960), Welcome Mr. Marshall! (Luis García Berlanga, 1953), or Plácido (García Berlanga, 1961), ranged from melodrama to esperpento or black comedy, but all of them showed a strong social criticism, unexpected under a political censorship, like the one featured by Franco`s regime. From the amorality and selfishness of the upper middle class or the ridiculousness and mediocrity of the small town people to the hopelessness of the impoverished working class, every social stratum of the contemporary Spain was shown up.

Luis Buñuel in turn returned to Spain to film the shocking Viridiana (1961) and Tristana (1970).

Co-productions and foreign productions

Several international blockbusters were shot in Spain in the 1950s and 1960s. An example is the Italian-American Samuel Bronston-produced epic historical drama El Cid. In the image, shooting of the film in the Castle of Belmonte.

A 1954 report by Eduardo Moya from the Ministry of Trade remarked that the Spanish cinema industry had to become competitive at home and abroad. Co-productions with France and Italy could bring the equipment and skills needed.[7]

Numerous co-productions with France and, most of all, Italy along the 1950s–1970s invigorated Spanish cinema both industrially and artistically. Actually the just mentioned Buñuel's movies were co-productions: Viridiana (1961) was Spanish-Mexican, and Tristana (1970) Spanish-French-Italian. Also, the hundreds of Spaghetti-westerns and sword and sandal films shot in southern Spain by mixed Spanish-Italian teams were co-productions.

Under the Spanish-American agreements, part of the foreign profits locked in Spain since the war were invested in runaway productions to be distributed abroad. Several American epic-scale superproductions or blockbusters were shot in Spain, produced either by Samuel Bronston, such as King of Kings (Nicholas Ray, 1961), El Cid (Anthony Mann, 1961), 55 Days at Peking (Ray, 1963), The Fall of the Roman Empire (Mann, 1964), and Circus World (Henry Hathaway, 1964); or by others, such as Alexander the Great (Robert Rossen, 1956), The Pride and the Passion (Stanley Kramer, 1957), Solomon and Sheba (King Vidor, 1959), Lawrence of Arabia (David Lean, 1962), Doctor Zhivago (Lean, 1965), The Trojan Women (Michael Cacoyannis, 1971). These movies employed many Spanish technical professionals, and as a byproduct caused that some film stars, like Ava Gardner and Orson Welles lived in Spain for years. Actually Welles, with Mr. Arkadin (1955), in fact a French-Spanish-Swiss co-production, was one of the first American filmmakers to devise Spain as location for his shootings, and he did it again for Chimes at Midnight (1966), this time a Spanish-Swiss co-production.

Pedro Almodóvar in 1988. The filmmaker, is known for his vibrant and daring storytelling.

Warner Bros., an American studio had opened its local headquarters in Spain in the early 1970s under the name of Warner Española S.A. Warner Española, alongside releasing Warner Bros. films (as well as films by Disney theatrically in the late 1980s-90s) is also involved in distribution of Spanish films such as Ensalada Baudelaire (1978), Adios Pequeña (1986) and most of 1990s Pedro Almodóvar's films such as High Heels (1991), Kika (1993), and Live Flesh (1997).

Many international actors starred in Spanish films: Italians Vittorio de Sica, Vittorio Gassman and Rossano Brazzi with Mexican María Félix in The Black Crown (Luis Saslavsky, 1951); Italian couple Raf Vallone and Elena Varzi in The Eyes Leave a Trace (Sáenz de Heredia, 1952), Mexican Arturo de Córdova in The Red Fish (Nieves Conde, 1955), Americans Betsy Blair in Calle Mayor (Bardem, 1956); Edmund Gwenn in Calabuch (García Berlanga, 1956), or Richard Basehart in Miracles of Thursday (García Berlanga, 1957) among many others. All the foreign actors were dubbed into Spanish. Mexican actor Gael García Bernal has also recently received international notoriety in films by Spanish directors.

The new Spanish cinema

The Hunt (1966) by Carlos Saura. "The Hunt" delves into the consequences of false accusations and mob mentality, emphasizing the vulnerability of innocence.

In 1962, José María García Escudero [es] became the Director General of Cinematography and Theatre, propelling forward state efforts and the Official Cinema School, from which emerged the majority of new directors, generally from the political left and those opposed to the Franco government. Among these were Mario Camus, Miguel Picazo, Francisco Regueiro, Manuel Summers, and, above all, Carlos Saura. Apart from this line of directors, Fernando Fernán Gómez made El extraño viaje (1964)[11][12] and Life Goes On (1965),[13] Víctor Erice The Spirit of the Beehive (1973), and Jaime de Armiñan My Dearest Senorita (1971).

From the so-called Escuela de Barcelona, originally more experimentalist and cosmopolitan, come Jacinto Esteva, Pere Portabella, Joaquin Jordan, Vicente Aranda, Jaime Camino, and Gonzalo Suárez, who made their master works in the 1980s.

In the Basque country the directors Fernando Larruquert, Nestor Basterretxea, José María Zabalza and the producer Elías Querejeta stood out.

The 1968–1980 period saw the golden age of Spanish B-Movie horror, underpinning the term fantaterror [es] to convey the set of films blending supernatural and horror themes that originated as an answer to European and American exploitation titles.[14]

In the 1960s (and 1970s), a new sort of españolada different from the previous one brought the formulation of an "Iberian" model of masculininity associated to casticismo [es], represented by a male star system consisting of the likes of José Luis López Vázquez, Alfredo Landa, Andrés Pajares, and Fernando Esteso.[15] A new wave of popular and reactionary mainstream comedy films came to be collectively known as landismo [es] –after Alfredo Landa, a recurring appearance in many of those films playing foreign-women-preying "Latin lover" types–,[16] which was a cultural phenomenon in the 1970s.[17]

The cinema of the democratic era

Juan Molina, Quique San Francisco (a prominent cine quinqui actor), Polo Aledo, Enrique Viciano and Óscar Ladoire in 1978

With the end of dictatorship in the mid 1970s, censorship was greatly loosened and cultural works were permitted in other languages spoken in Spain besides Spanish, resulting in the founding of the Centro Galego de Artes da Imaxe or the Institut del Cinema Català [ca], among others. Also with the end of censorship and repression, a commercial cinema –of low quality and minimal cost– with a high erotic content and gratuitous nudity –mostly feminine– appeared, which was called cine de destape [es] and which lasted until the early 1980s.[18]

Shooting of Alatriste (Agustín Díaz Yanes, 2005) in Cádiz. At the time of its release, Alatriste became the most expensive Spanish film ever.[19]

In the context of the Transition, the so-called cine quinqui –of which Eloy de la Iglesia and José Antonio de la Loma [es] were prominent representatives–, particularly popular from 1977 to 1987,[20] approached taboo issues from a sensationalist angle, criminalizing the lumpenproletariat.[21] These films (whose lead performers sometimes were delinquent themselves)[22] also ended up contributing to the promotion of an imaginary of symbolic violence associated to the naturalization of the punitive and non-rehabilitating function of the prison system.[23] In the view of Germán Labrador Méndez [es], many of the quinqui films underpinned a true allegory of the Transition, conveying "the mythical domestication of the non-consensual socio-political forces embodied by the quinquis, as children of the working class and, above all, as young people".[24]

During the democracy, a whole new series of directors base their films either on controversial topics or on revising the country's history. Jaime Chávarri, Víctor Erice, José Luis Garci, Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón, Eloy de la Iglesia, Pilar Miró and Pedro Olea were some of these who directed great films. Montxo Armendáriz or Juanma Bajo Ulloa's "new Basque cinema" has also been outstanding; another prominent Basque director is Julio Médem.

The Spanish cinema, however, depends on the great hits of the so-called comedia madrileña by Fernando Colomo or Fernando Trueba, the sophisticated melodramas by Pedro Almodóvar, Alex de la Iglesia and Santiago Segura's black humour or Alejandro Amenábar's works, in such a manner that, according to producer José Antonio Félez [es], "fifty per cent of total box office revenues comes from five titles, and between eight and ten films give eighty per cent of the total" during the year 2004.

Foreign films often dominate box offices in Spain, with average monthly receipts of €35–50 million, making Spain the tenth largest country in the world for international theatrical release, with a total gross of USD 193,304,925 in 2020, thus giving Spain a worldwide market share of 1.8%.[25]

Film Festivals

Carmen Maura holds record for most Goya Awards for Best Leading Actress.

The San Sebastian International Film Festival is a major film festival supervised by the FIAPF. It was started in 1953, and it takes place in San Sebastián every year. Alfred Hitchcock, Audrey Hepburn, Steven Spielberg, Gregory Peck, Elizabeth Taylor are some of the stars that have participated in this festival, the most important in Spain.

The Sitges Film Festival, now known as the Sitges International Fantastic Film Festival of Catalonia, was started in 1967. It is considered one of the best cinematographic contests in Europe, and is the best in the specialty of science fiction film.

There are several other film festivals with important prizes for the industry such as the Valladolid International Film Festival, and the Seville European Film Festival from September to November, –Autumn has become the season par excellence for the debut of Spanish films in the domestic commercial circuit–.[26] Meanwhile the Málaga Film Festival, focused on Spanish and Ibero-American films, is generally held in early Spring.[27]

Film Awards

Meeting of nominees to the 32nd Goya Awards in 2018

The Goya Awards are the main film awards in Spain. They were established in 1987,[28] a year after the founding of the Academy of Cinematographic Arts and Sciences of Spain, and recognize excellence in many aspects of Spanish motion picture making such as acting, directing and screenwriting. The first ceremony took place on 16 March 1987 at the Lope de Vega Theatre, Madrid. The ceremony continues to take place annually around the end of January, and awards are given to films produced during the previous year. The award itself is a small bronze bust of Francisco de Goya created by the sculptor José Luis Fernández.

In 2013,[29] the Feroz Awards were established as the Spanish counterpart of the Golden Globe Awards.

Awards recognising the excellence in the regional cinema (and/or wider audiovisual industry) include the Mestre Mateo Awards (from Galicia; presented by the Academia Galega do Audiovisual [gl]),[30] the Gaudí Awards (from Catalonia; presented by the Catalan Film Academy),[31] the Berlanga Awards (from the Valencian Community, presented by the Institut Valencià de Cultura and the Acadèmia Valenciana de l'Audiovisual)[32] or the Carmen Awards (from Andalusia, presented by the Academia de Cine de Andalucía).[33]

English-language Spanish films

Penélope Cruz and Javier Bardem at the 32nd Goya Awards in 2018.

English-language films produced by Spanish companies include Two Much (Fernando Trueba, 1995), The Others (Alejandro Amenábar, 2001), The Machinist (Brad Anderson, 2004), Basic Instinct 2 (Michael Caton-Jones, 2006, produced by KanZaman Spain), Goya's Ghosts (Miloš Forman, 2006, produced by Xuxa Produciones), Buried (Rodrigo Cortés, 2010, produced by Versus Entertainment) or The Impossible (Juan Antonio Bayona, 2012, produced by Apaches Entertainment and Telecinco Cinema).

Sexy Beast (Jonathan Glazer, 2000, co-produced by KanZaman –Spain– and Recorded Picture Company –UK–). Films co-produced by KanZaman include The Reckoning (Paul McGuigan, 2003), The Bridge of San Luis Rey (Mary McGuckian, 2004) –based on the Pulitzer prize winning Thornton Wilder novel of the same name and featuring an ensemble cast consisting of Robert De Niro, Harvey Keitel, Kathy Bates and Spanish actress Pilar López de Ayala–, A Good Woman (Mike Barker, 2004), and Sahara (Breck Eisner, 2005). In 2004, KanZaman co-produced Ridley Scott's epic film Kingdom of Heaven, making it the biggest production in the history of Spanish cinema.

Funding

Antonio Banderas in 2007. Captivates with his charisma and talent.

A large part of the funding of Spanish-produced films is covered in advance of the theatrical window by pre-sales to public (RTVE) or private (Atresmedia or Mediaset) broadcasters, subsidies (from ICAA, from regional or provincial administrations, or from tax rebates) and from pre-sales to streaming platforms.[34] Pre-sales may cover up to a 60–70% of the budget of a film with an average budget of 2.5 million.[34] This system, which favours the attempt to approach the break-even point before the first window of theatrical exhibition, has received criticism from within the industry because it might discourage the pursuit of "commercial success".[34] The AIE (agrupación de interés económico; transl. 'economic interest grouping') legal form is used as a tax vehicle to take advantage of rebates.[34]

Box office

Highest-grossing films of all-time in Spain

Main article: List of highest-grossing films in Spain

The ten highest-grossing Spanish films of all time (1965–2023)[a] by domestic box office gross revenue are listed as follows:[36][37]

Highest-grossing films of all time in Spain
Rank Year Title Domestic gross
(million )
1 2014 Spanish Affair 56.2
2 2012 The Impossible 42.4
3 2015 Spanish Affair 2 36.1
4 2001 The Others 27.3
5 2016 A Monster Calls 26.5
6 2007 The Orphanage 25.1
7 2003 Mortadelo & Filemon: The Big Adventure 22.8
8 2001 Torrente 2: Mission in Marbella 22.1
9 2009 Agora 21.4
10 2017 Perfect Strangers 21.3

See also

Notes

  1. ^ It was not made mandatory to officially communicate the number of tickets sold until 1 January 1965.[35] Before that, box office grosses were a secret kept by exhibitors for tax reasons. The only guide to estimate them was the length of the first-run and the capacity of the venue.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Datos cinematográficos del mercado español" (PDF). Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  2. ^ "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  3. ^ "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  4. ^ "Feature Film Production - Method of shooting". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Salida de misa de doce del Pilar de Zaragoza" : la fraudulenta creación de un mito franquista (in Spanish)
  6. ^ Pavlovi, p. 1
  7. ^ a b González García, Fernando (2007). "La adaptación de textos literarios como práctica industrial en la década de 1950" [The Adaptation of Literary Texts as an Industrial Practice in the 1950s]. Latente (in Spanish) (5): 217–236. ISSN 1697-459X. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  8. ^ Castilla, Amelia (14 April 2015). "Las fotos de Marisol, niña prodigio del franquismo". El País.
  9. ^ a b c Rocío Liáñez Andrades; María del Carmen Puche Ruiz (2016). "Cinema, paesaggio e turismo "andaluzadas": la Spagna andalusizzata, patrimonio retroproiettato" [Cinema, landscape and “andaluzadas” tourism: the Andalusian Spain, a rear-projected heritage] (PDF). Il Capitale Culturale: Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage (in Italian and English) (4). University of Macerata: 381–382. doi:10.13138/2039-2362/1432. ISSN 2039-2362. OCLC 7180010972. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. . Also mirrored on researchgate.net.
  10. ^ "Spain's Sarita Montiel Global Allure Makes Her Trading Item With Yanks". Variety. 13 May 1959. p. 21. Retrieved 29 July 2023.
  11. ^ Marsh, Steven. “The Pueblo Travestied in Fernán Gómez’s El Extraño Viaje (1964).” Hispanic Research Journal 4, no. 2 (2003): 133–49.
  12. ^ British Film Institute. "Pedro Almodóvar: 13 great Spanish films that inspire me".
  13. ^ Sally Faulkner (9 January 2017). "Delayed Cinema and Feminist Discourse in Fernando Fernán-Gómez's El mundo sigue (1963/1965/2015)".
  14. ^ Aldana Reyes, Xavier (2018). ""Fantaterror": Gothic Monsters in the Golden Age of Spanish B-Movie Horror, 1968–80". In Edwards, Justin D.; Höglund, Johan (eds.). B-Movie Gothic. International Perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-1-4744-2344-1.
  15. ^ Ortega, María Luisa (2012). "De la españolada al fake. Estereotipos de la españolidad, identidad y diálogos transnacionales" (PDF). In Lie, Nadia; Vandebosch, Dagmar (eds.). El juego con los estereotipos: la redefinición de la identidad hispánica en la literatura y el cine postnacionales. P.I.E. Peter Lang. p. 109. ISBN 9789052018492.
  16. ^ Marsh, Steven; Perriam, Chris; Woods Peiró, Eva; Zunzunegui, Santos (2013). "Comedy and Musicals". In Labanyi, Jo; Pavlović, Tatjana (eds.). A Companion to Spanish Cinema. Wiley Blackwell. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4051-9438-9.
  17. ^ Pavlović, Tatjana; Perriam, Chris; Triana Toribio, Nuria (2013). "Stars, Modernity, and Celebrity Culture". In Labanyi, Jo; Pavlović, Tatjana (eds.). A Companion to Spanish Cinema. Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-9438-9.
  18. ^ Barker, Jesse (4 Jul 2018). "Destape: How Spain's erotic cinema of the 1970s shaped its modern society". Scroll.in. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
  19. ^ Calleja, Pedro (30 August 2006). "El héroe más canalla del Siglo de Oro". Metropoli. El Mundo.
  20. ^ Castelló Segarra 2018, p. 115.
  21. ^ Castelló Segarra 2018, pp. 122, 125.
  22. ^ Imbert, Gérard (2015). "Cine quinqui e imaginarios sociales. Cuerpo e identidades de género". Área Abierta. 15 (3). Madrid: Ediciones Complutense: 65. doi:10.5209/rev_ARAB.2015.v15.n3.48937. hdl:10016/28606.
  23. ^ Castelló Segarra, Jorge (2018). "Cine quinqui. La pobreza como espectáculo de masas". Filmhistoria Online. 28 (1–2). Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona: 126.
  24. ^ Labrador Méndez, German (2020). "El mito quinqui. Memoria y represión de las culturas juveniles en la transición postfranquista". Kamchatka. Revista de análisis cultural (16). Valencia: Universitat de València: 17. doi:10.7203/KAM.16.19340. S2CID 234456586.
  25. ^ Zannoni, David (26 March 2021). "The Spanish Film Industry for Foreign Producers". Stage 32. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  26. ^ Belinchón, Gregorio (27 August 2022). "El otoño del cine en España navega a favor de la corriente". El País.
  27. ^ G.B (21 March 2018). "A vueltas con lo de la radiografía del cine español". El País.
  28. ^ "La historia de los Premios Goya". www.premiosgoya.com. 5 December 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  29. ^ "Asociación de Informadores Cinematográficos de España". www.informadoresdecine.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  30. ^ Amorós Pons, Anna; Comesaña Comesaña, Patricia (2013). "El audiovisual gallego en los Premios Mestre Mateo. Protocolo en la ceremonia" (PDF). Orbis: Revista de Ciencias Humanas. 9 (26): 74–75. ISSN 1856-1594.
  31. ^ "El cine catalán entregará los Premios Gaudí, con un trofeo inspirado en La Pedrera". Público. 24 November 2008.
  32. ^ Camacho, Noelia (29 September 2021). "Berlanga dará nombre a los Premios del Audiovisual Valenciano". Las Provincias.
  33. ^ "La Academia de Cine de Andalucía presenta los nuevos Premios Carmen del cine andaluz". Audiovisual451. 8 June 2021.
  34. ^ a b c d Cano, Jose A. (12 September 2023). "Manual para hacer rentable una película española". Cine con Ñ.
  35. ^ "ORDER of December 22, 1964 establishing the control system of the performance of the films that are exhibited in Spain" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). 30 December 1964. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  36. ^ González, Yolanda (2 February 2019). "Las películas españolas más taquilleras de todos los tiempos". Invertia – via El Español.
  37. ^ "Las 30 películas españolas más taquilleras de la historia". Fotogramas. 3 August 2023.

Further reading