Immigration to Spain (2023)[1]
Total population
8,307,497 born abroad (17.23%)
6,227,092 foreign citizenship (12.92%)
48,196,693 Total population of Spain (2023)
Immigration to Spain by country (2008)

Immigration to Spain increased significantly in the beginning of the 21st century. In 1998, immigrants accounted for 1.6% of the population, and by 2009, that number had jumped to above 12% — one of the highest in Europe at the time.[citation needed] Until 2014, the numbers were decreasing due to the economic crisis, but since then, immigration to Spain has increased again since 2015,[2] especially after 2021.[3]

As of 2023, there were 8,307,497 foreign-born people in Spain, making up to 17.23% of the Spanish population, including 5,308,314 (11.14%) born in a non-European country. Of these, 6,227,092 (12.92%) didn't have Spanish citizenship.[4] This makes Spain one of the world's preferred destinations to immigrate to, being the 4th country in Europe by immigration numbers and the 10th worldwide. Spain attracts significant immigration from Latin America and Eastern Europe. The fastest-growing immigrant groups in 2017 were Venezuelans, Colombians, Italians, Ukrainians, and Argentines.[5]

The population of Spain doubled during the 20th century due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. The birth rate then plunged by the 1980s, and Spain's population became stagnant, its demographics showing one of the lowest sub-replacement fertility rate in the world.[citation needed].

During the early 21st century, the average year-on-year demographic growth set a new record with its 2003 peak variation of 2.1%, doubling the previous record reached back in the 1960s when a mean year on year growth of 1% was experienced.[6] This trend is far from being reversed at the present moment and, in 2005 alone, the immigrant population of Spain increased by 700,000 people.[7]

Spain accepted 478,990 new immigrant residents in the first six months of 2022 alone. During these first six months, 220,443 people also emigrated from Spain, leaving a record-breaking net migration figure of 258,547.[8] The data shows that more women than men chose to move to Spain during 2022, this is due to higher rates of emigration from Latin America.[8]

Currently

Impact of immigration on the Spanish population pyramid
Foreign population in Spain[9][10][11]
Year Population % total
1981 198,042 0.52%
1986 241,971 0.63%
1991 360,655 0.91%
1996 542,314 1.37%
1998 637,085 1.60%
2000 923,879 2.28%
2001 1,370,657 3.33%
2002 1,977,946 4.73%
2003 2,664,168 6.24%
2004 3,034,326 7.02%
2005 3,730,610 8.46%
2006 4,144,166 9.27%
2007 4,519,554 9.9%
2008 5,268,762 11.4%
2009 5,648,671 12.1%
2010 5,747,734 12.2%
2011 5,751,487 12.2%
2012 5,736,258 12.1%
2013 5,546,238 11.8%
2014 5,023,487 10.7%
2015 4,729,644 10.1%
2016 4,618,581 9.9%
2017 4,572,807 9.8%
2018 4,663,726 10.0%
2019 5,023,279 10.7%
2020 5,434,153 11.5%

According to the United Nations, there were 5,947,106 immigrants in Spain in early 2018, 12.8% of population of Spain.[12] According to the Spanish government, there were 5.6 million foreign residents in Spain in 2010; independent estimates put the figure 14% of total population (Red Cross, World Disasters Report 2006). According to the official 2011 census data, almost 800,000 were Romanian, 774,000 were Moroccan, 317,000 were Ecuadorian, 312,000 were British and 250,000 were Colombian [11]. Other important foreign communities are Bolivian (4.1%), German (3.4%), Italian (3.1%), Bulgarian (2.9%), Chinese (2.6%) and Argentine (2.5%). In 2005, a regularization programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half of the replacement level.

According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 6.4 million foreign-born residents in Spain, corresponding to 14.0% of the total population. Of these, 4.1 million (8.9%) were born outside the EU and 2.3 million (5.1%) were born in another EU Member State.[13]

As of 2005 Spain had the second highest immigration rates within the EU, just after Cyprus, and the second highest absolute net migration in the World (after the USA).[14] This can be explained by a number of reasons including its strong economic growth at the time, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce, as well as business opportunities for immigrants coming from other developed countries. In fact, booming Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.[citation needed]

Over 920,000 immigrants arrived in Spain during 2007, on top of the 802,971 new arrivals in 2006, 682,711 new arrivals in 2005, and 645,844 new arrivals in 2004.[15]

Although the number of immigrants in Spain, officially, is smaller than that of other countries in the EU, the following data should be taken into consideration:

Sneakers with nails in the soles and a metal hook, that illegal migrants use to jump the fences of Ceuta and Melilla.

In the same way the majority of children born in Spain between 2000 and 2010 are children of immigrants despite not counting as such. Considering these data, there are sectors of Spanish society who oppose immigration that affirm the real number of immigrants in Spain is 10–11 million, or about 25% of the total population.

As for nationalities outside of this category, in order to stay in Spain for more than 3 months, a residence card, residence visa or work permit is required.[16]

In all, two distinct groups can be identified: those immigrants (mostly in working age) originating from countries mostly located in Eastern Europe, South America or Africa, with lower GDP per capita than Spain, comprising most of the immigrating population, and those (whom many are retired) immigrants originating from northern European or another western countries with a higher GDP per capita than Spain.[17]

Immigrants from Europe

Immigrants from Europe make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. The main countries of origin are Romania, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria.

The British authorities estimate that the real population of British citizens living in Spain is much bigger than Spanish official figures suggest, establishing them at about 1,000,000, about 800,000 being permanent residents.[18] Of these, according to the BBC and contrary to popular belief, only about 21.5% are over the age of 65.[19]

In fact, according to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favoured destination for West Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs elsewhere in the EU.[20]

Social attitudes to immigration

Unlike other countries in the EU, Spain has not recorded any relevant anti-immigration about until fairly recently.[21] According to some analysts, the causes behind this are multiple. Drawing from the experience of many Spaniards during the 1960s and then again in the beginning of the 21st century when the crisis struck the country, there may be also a collective understanding that hardships force people to seek work abroad.[21]

A January 2004 survey by Spanish newspaper El País showed that the "majority" of Spaniards believe immigration was too high.[22] Small parties, such as Movimiento Social Español, openly campaign using nationalist or anti-immigrant rhetoric as do other small far-right parties such as National Democracy (Spain) and España 2000. These parties have never won national or regional parliamentary seats. However, since its foundation in recent years, the far-right political party Vox has managed to disrupt mainstream politics, favouring tough stance against immigration.[23]

Immigration by country of origin

Population by country of birth as of 2021:[24]

Country Population
 Morocco 556,204
European Union Romania 539.418
 Ecuador 514,110
 Colombia 416,527
 Venezuela 413,662
 Argentina 302,406
European Union France 268,957
 Peru 244,827
 United Kingdom 210,529
 Cuba 208,788
 Ukraine 186,395
European Union Germany 178,829
European Union Portugal 167,388
European Union Italy 164,853
  Switzerland 156,499
 Honduras 143,151
European Union Belgium 133,297
 Dominican Republic 116,155
European Union Netherlands 113,194
European Union Austria 107,354
 Russia 101,406
 Paraguay 97,447
European Union Bulgaria 95,221
 Uruguay 82,353
 Chile 79,903
 Algeria 71,474
European Union Sweden 63,375
 China 62,410
 Brazil 61,276
 Dominican Republic 60,637
 Nicaragua 58,458
 USA 56,847
 Philippines 52,426

Recent trends

Countries with at least 10,000 people, immigrating each year.[25]
Country 2016 2017 2018 2019
Venezuela 31,553 52,385 71,666 73,932
Romania 30,097 40,372 61,715 73,560
Colombia 24,844 36,678 56,253 80,054
United Kingdom United Kingdom 23,876 28,875 31,276 37,617
Morocco 27,860 30,235 28,030 25,675
Honduras 11,074 18,573 23,671 29,185
 Italy 18,526 22,203 22,002 21,517
 Peru 9,711 15,945 21,463 31,307
 Argentina 10,852 14,904 19,166 31,132
 Brazil 11,954 14,816 17,863 18,703
 France 13,341 16,290 16,210 16,543
 Ecuador 12,349 15,600 15,893 17,635
 Cuba 8,122 10,280 14,265 17,588
 United States 9,942 12,719 13,853 15,050
 Germany 10,505 12,714 13,314 13,262
 China 10,552 11,779 12,182 12,757
 Nicaragua 4,250 6,330 11,732 17,410
 Dominican Republic 9,709 11,324 10,813 11,037
Total 414,746 532,132 643,684 748,759
Place of Birth Year
2011[26][27]
Number %
Place of Birth in Reporting Country (Spain) 41,153,550
Place of Birth Not in Reporting Country 5,648,995
Other EU Member State 1,890,605
Outside EU but within Europe 239,880
Outside Europe/ Non-European 3,758,390
Africa 945,905
Asia 259,345
North America 41,220
Caribbean, South or Central America 2,265,685
Oceania 6,360
Total 46,815,910 100%
Foreign Population by Nationality[28] Number %
2022
TOTAL FOREIGNERS 5,542,932
Europe 2,205,961
European Union 1,617,911
Other Europe 588,050
Africa 1,217,706
South America 1,173,900
Central America 368,461
North America 76,628
Asia 493,065
Oceania 3,580
Instituto Nacional de Estadística

Major immigration

This chart shows the numbers and difference of foreign nationals in Spain after 2000. European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions. The number of Latin American immigrants decreased massively after 2009 mostly due to the naturalization of hundreds of thousands of these citizens who achieved the Spanish citizenship and therefore do not count as immigrants anymore on the official statistics.[29] See the chart from below from the "Naturalizations" paragraph for further information.

Origin 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020[30] Article
European Union Romania 6,410 317,366 754,080 750,883 865,945 Romanians in Spain
 Morocco 173,158 511,294 831,235 752,268 667,378 Moroccans in Spain
 Colombia 25,247 271,239 292,641 151,258 273,050 Colombians in Spain
 United Kingdom 99,017 227,187 387,677 283,243 262,885 British migration to Spain
European Union Italy 27,874 95,377 184,277 179,363 252,008 Italians in Spain
 China 19,191 87,731 158,244 191,638 232,807 Chinese people in Spain
 Venezuela 12,119 49,206 60,399 48,421 189,110 Venezuelans in Spain
 Ecuador 20,481 497,799 399,586 176,397 130,919 Ecuadorians in Spain
European Union Bulgaria 3,031 93,037 169,552 142,328 122,375 Bulgarians in Spain
 Honduras 1,293 7,017 27,363 43,283 121,963 -
 Ukraine 1,646 65,667 83,313 91,004 115,186 Ukrainians in Spain
European Union Germany 88,651 133,588 195,824 130,911 111,937 Germans in Spain
European Union France 46,375 77,791 123,870 99,598 108,275 French in Spain
 Peru 27,422 85,029 140,182 71,112 106,712 Peruvians in Spain
 Brazil 11,126 54,115 117,808 73,863 98,655 -
 Pakistan 4,195 31,913 56,877 77,695 97,705 Pakistanis in Spain
European Union Portugal 43,339 66,236 142,520 98,751 97,628 Portuguese in Spain
 Bolivia 2,117 97,947 213,169 126,375 92,630 Bolivians in Spain
 Argentina 23,351 152,975 132,249 75,313 89,029 Argentines in Spain
 Paraguay 711 16,295 85,687 69,451 87,045 Paraguayans in Spain
 Russia 5,199 36,319 49,820 68,387 82,788 Russians in Spain
 Senegal 7,526 29,608 61,970 61,798 76,973 -
 Dominican Republic 24,847 57,134 91,212 75,315 75,261 Dominicans in Spain
 Algeria 10,759 46,278 58,743 62,398 66,893 -
 Cuba 17,814 45,009 54,954 46,397 64,634 -
 Nicaragua 700 1,953 12,190 20,941 57,530 -
 India 6,807 17,558 32,947 36,724 54,387 Indians in Spain
European Union Poland 8,164 36,477 86,324 63,324 53,418 Poles in Spain
European Union Netherlands 21,763 33,845 53,983 45,844 46,891 -
 United States 15,720 25,831 25,771 30,183 40,712 Americans in Spain
TOTAL 923,879 3,730,610 5,747,734 4,729,644 5,036,878

From other countries

Europe

European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions.

Origin 2007 2006 Ref.
 Albania 1,353 1,316 [31]
 Andorra 1,022 1,075
European Union Austria 8,651 7,776
 Belarus 3,135 3,262
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,659 1,827
European Union Croatia 1,649 1,788
European Union Cyprus 146 130
European Union Czech Republic 6,423 5,160
European Union Denmark 10,906 9,977
European Union Estonia 984 784
European Union Finland 9,990 9,313
 Georgia 7,355 6,284
European Union Greece 3,567 3,027
European Union Hungary 4,597 3,344
 Iceland 1,083 920
European Union Ireland 13,279 11,495
European Union Latvia 2,128 1,741
 Liechtenstein 48 117
European Union Lithuania 18,528 15,200
European Union Luxembourg 562 1,336
 North Macedonia 407 440
European Union Malta 152 129
 Moldova 12,801 11,330
 Norway 15,630 14,154
 Serbia 3,133 3,474
European Union Slovakia 5,999 4,515
European Union Slovenia 799 619
European Union Sweden 20,058 18,096
 Switzerland 16,361 15,385
Rest of European countries 66 83
TOTAL EUROPE 1,895,727 1,609,856

Africa

Origin 2007 2006 Article
 Angola 2,114 3,698
 Cape Verde 2,998 3,611
 Cameroon 4,029 3,955
 Republic of the Congo 1,801 1,888
 Ivory Coast 1,636 1,759
 Egypt 2,566 3,634 Egyptians in Spain
 Gambia 17,393 13,627
 Ghana 12,699 13,133
 Guinea 9,159 9,901
 Equatorial Guinea 13,129 19,456 Spanish Equatoguineans
 Guinea-Bissau 5,229 5,274
 Liberia 581 1,167
 Mali 17,094 14,497
 Mauritania 9,271 9,308
 DR Congo 1,008 1,548
 Sierra Leone 989 1,487
 South Africa 704 2,086
 Tunisia 1,544 2,194 Tunisians in Spain
Rest of African countries 5,041 8,679
TOTAL 806.795

Central America

Origin 2007 2006
Costa Rica Costa Rica 1,320 2,373
El Salvador El Salvador 3,795 5,102
Guatemala Guatemala 2,417 4,321
Honduras Honduras 14,253 10,652
Nicaragua Nicaragua 4,547 4,204
Panama Panama 1,794 3,520
Rest of Central America countries 1,002 2,517
TOTAL 139.945

North America

Origin 2007 2006
Canada Canada 2,419 5,420
United States United States 22,082 32,626
Mexico Mexico 21,107 40,574
TOTAL 45.608

Asia

Origin 2007 2006 Article
 Armenia 9,582 9,365 Armenians in Spain
 Philippines 54,385 51,368 Filipinos in Spain
South Korea South Korea 22,465 13,144 Koreans in Spain
India India 21,296 23,296 Indians in Spain
Bangladesh Bangladesh 6,480 6,130
Iran Iran 12,334 4,568 Iranians in Spain
Iraq Iraq 880 1,706 Iraqi people in Spain
Israel Israel 1,713 2,427
Japan Japan 11,636 7,684 Japanese Spaniards
Jordan Jordan 1,088 2,082 Jordanian people in Spain
Lebanon Lebanon 6,250 2,750 Lebanese people in Spain
Syria Syria 6,129 4,575 Syrian people in Spain
 Turkey 1,758 1,656 Turks in Spain
Rest of Asian countries 6,430 2,517
TOTAL 219.843

Oceania

Origin 2007 2006
Australia Australia 1,455 5,131
New Zealand New Zealand 301 298
Rest of Oceanian countries 494 1,099
TOTAL 2.271

Comparison with other countries from European Union

According to Eurostat 47.3 million people lived in the European Union in 2010 who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[13]

Country Total population (millions) Total Foreign-born (millions) % Born in other EU state (millions) % Born in a non EU state (millions) %
Germany 81.802 9.812 12.0 3.396 4.2 6.415 7.8
France 64.716 7.196 11.1 2.118 3.3 5.078 7.8
United Kingdom 62.008 7.012 11.3 2.245 3.6 4.767 7.7
Spain 45.989 6.422 14.0 2.328 5.1 4.094 8.9
Italy 60.343 4.798 8.0 1.592 2.6 3.205 5.3
Netherlands 16.575 1.832 11.1 0.428 2.6 1.404 8.5
Greece 11.305 1.256 11.1 0.315 2.8 0.940 8.3
Sweden 9.340 1.337 14.3 0.477 5.1 0.859 9.2
Austria 8.367 1.276 15.2 0.512 6.1 0.764 9.1
Belgium 10.666 1.380 12.9 0.695 6.5 0.685 6.4
Portugal 10.637 0.793 7.5 0.191 1.8 0.602 5.7
Denmark 5.534 0.500 9.0 0.152 2.8 0.348 6.3
EU 27 501.098 47.348 9.4 15.980 3.2 31.368 6.3

Irregular migration

The concept of an "irregular", "undocumented", or "illegal" migrant did not become meaningful in Spain's social imaginary until the passing of the Ley de Extranjería in 1985, a year before Spain's entry into the European Communities.[32]

Even though the main paths for the entry of clandestine migration have traditionally been airports and land borders, the sea route has proven to have a "profound impact at the social level" owing to qualitative, rather than quantitative, reasons.[33]

Regarding the governance of the migration of Sub-Saharan people from Morocco (and Western Sahara) into Spain (which include crossings into the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, as well as a sea route to the Canary Islands), the Moroccan and Spanish authorities follow necropolitical forms of border control which are complemented with the favouring of the idea of "advancing borders" by reaching deals with origin or transit countries such as Guinea Conakry, Mali, Ivory Coast, and Gambia.[34]

See also: External border of the European Union

Naturalizations

From 2005 to 2022 alone, more than 2.2 million foreigners were granted with the Spanish citizenship through naturalization.[35]

Since the end of the 20th century the number of foreigners who have obtained Spanish nationality has grown steadily, as Spain has been the EU country with the biggest number of approved naturalizations since 2010 until 2015. 1 out of 4 naturalizations made in the European Union in 2014 were belonging to Spain. Most of these naturalizations went to citizens coming from Latin America (which explains the massive decrease of these citizens counting as immigrants in Spain) mainly from Colombia, Ecuador and Perú, although Morocco was amongst the top 3 as well.[36] After 4 years being the first, Spain dropped to the 3rd position in 2015 due to the stricter laws to naturalize citizens. Still, 114.351 foreigners became Spanish citizens in 2015, the majority being Latin Americans.[37]

New Spanish nationals by naturalization, 2005-2021[38][39][40]
Year
Naturalizations
2005 42,829
2006 62,339
2007 71,810
2008 84,170
2009 79,597
2010 123,721
2011 114,599
2012 115,557
2013 261,295
2014 205,880
2015 114,351
2016 150,944
2017 66,498
2018 90,774
2019 98,954
2020 126,266
2021 202,336
2022 181,581

Immigration detention

There are nine detention centers in Spain, known as CIEs (Centro de Internamiento de Extranjeros), run by the Ministry of the Interior, which can be found in the cities of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Algeciras, Tarifa, Malaga, and in the islands of Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Tenerife.[41]

Expulsion paperwork can be initiated when a foreign person is in one of the following situations:[42]

  1. Lacking documentation in Spanish territory.
  2. Working without a work permit, even if they have a valid resident permit.
  3. Be involved in activities that violate public order or interior or exterior state security or any activity contrary to Spanish interests or that could put in danger Spain's relations with other countries.
  4. Be convicted inside or outside of Spain of a crime punishable by incarceration for greater than one year.
  5. Hiding or falsifying their situation from the Ministry of the Interior.
  6. Lacking a legal livelihood or taking part in illegal activity.
Various civil organizations (e.g. APDHA, SOS Racismo, and Andalucía Acoge) have appealed to the Supreme Court of Spain, declaring the regulations behind the CIEs null and void for violating several human rights.[43]

Crime rates

A 2008 study finds that the rates of crimes committed by immigrants are substantially higher than nationals.[44] The study finds that "the arrival of immigrants has resulted in a lack of progress in the reduction of offences against property and in a minor increase in the number of offences against Collective Security (i.e. drugs and trafficking). In the case of nationals, their contribution to the increase in the crime rate is primarily concentrated in offences against persons."[44] By controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, the gap between immigrants and natives is reduced but not fully. The authors also find "that a higher proportions of American, non-UE European, and African immigrants tend to widen the crime differential, the effect being larger for the latter ones".[44] The same paper provides supports for the notion that labour market conditions impact the relationship between crime and immigration. Cultural differences were also statistically detected.[44] This study has been criticized for not using strong instruments for identifying causality: the "instruments (lagged values of the covariates and measures of the service share of GDP in a province) are not convincing in dealing with the endogeneity of migrant location choice."[45]

Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE) published a study that analyzes records in the Register of Convicted in 2008. The data show that immigrants are overrepresented in the crime statistics: 70% of all crimes were committed by Spaniards and 30% by foreigners.[46] Foreigners make up 15% of the population.[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Estadística Continua de Población (ECP) a 1 de abril de 2023. Datos provisionales" (PDF). ine.es (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
  2. ^ "Sube el número de inmigrantes que viven en España". Datosmacro (in Spanish). 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Estadística del Padrón Continuo". ine.es. Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
  4. ^ "Estadística Continua de Población (ECP) a 1 de abril de 2023. Datos provisionales" (PDF). ine.es (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
  5. ^ R. Sanmartín, Olga (25 June 2018). "La llegada de inmigrantes a España aumenta un 28% y hace crecer la población por segundo año consecutivo". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid: Unidad Editorial. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Official report on Spanish recent Macroeconomics, including data and comments on immigration" (PDF). La Moncloa: 13–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  7. ^ "Evolution of the foreign population in Spain since 1998". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  8. ^ a b Betty Henderson (26 January 2023). "Immigration resumes to pre-pandemic levels in Spain with more women immigrants than men". EuroWeekly News.
  9. ^ Fuente: para los años 1981, 1986 y 1991, los datos se refieren tan sólo a extranjeros con permiso de residencia a 31 de diciembre y proceden del Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, citado en [1][permanent dead link] (tomando, para el porcentaje de 1986, la población española de hecho según la estimación intercensal del INE para el 1 de julio [2]). Para los datos de 1996 y posteriores, todos los datos proceden del INE [3]
  10. ^ "For 2013 and 2014" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  11. ^ "Población por comunidades, edad (grupos quinquenales), Españoles/Extranjeros, Sexo y Año". INE.
  12. ^ "España - Inmigración 2019". Datosmacro.com.
  13. ^ a b 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad Archived August 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
  14. ^ Eurostat – Population in Europe in 2005 Archived August 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-11-14.
  15. ^ Kern, Soeren (13 May 2009), "Immigration Policy a Casualty of Unemployment in Spain", World Politics Review, archived from the original on 1 June 2020, retrieved 29 June 2009
  16. ^ Zelmenis, Artis (11 September 2013), "Spanish Immigration Policy", Baltic Legal
  17. ^ Membrado, Joan Carles (21 May 2014). "Pensioners' Coast. Migration of Elderly North Europeans to the Costa Blanca". Mètode (in Catalan). University of Valencia (81). doi:10.7203/metode.81.3111. hdl:10550/50912. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  18. ^ [4] Archived 15 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine [5] Archived 8 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine [6] Archived 4 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine [7] Archived 20 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine "British Immigrants Swamping Spanish Villages?". Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2011. [8] Archived 4 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine [9] Archived 4 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine [10] Archived 4 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Special Reports | Brits Abroad Archived 15 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. Retrieved on 2011-11-14.
  20. ^ News.bg – Europeans Favour Spain for Expat Jobs Archived 10 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. International.ibox.bg. Retrieved on 2011-11-14.
  21. ^ a b Buck, Tobias (17 January 2017). "No right turn for Spanish politics". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  22. ^ Staff writer (23 June 2004). "Immigration time-bomb". Expatica. Archived from the original on 28 May 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  23. ^ "Vox party puts 'menace' of migrant children at centre of election drive". The Guardian. 10 November 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  24. ^ "Población (españoles/extranjeros) por País de Nacimiento, sexo y año". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  25. ^ Immigration flow from abroad by year, sex and age Archived 28 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine at INE (Spanish Bureau Office).
  26. ^ "CensusHub2". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  27. ^ "CensusHub2". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  28. ^ "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, comunidades, Sexo y Año". INE (in European Spanish). Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  29. ^ "Uno de cada cuatro extranjeros que obtuvieron la nacionalidad en la UE en 2014 la lograron en España". 13 June 2016.
  30. ^ "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, comunidades, Sexo y Año".
  31. ^ "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, Sexo y Año". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 June 2019.
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