Spanish Turks
İspanya'daki Türkler
Turkey Spain
Total population
Turkish citizens only: 10,000 (2015 estimate)[1]
(excludes Spanish-born and naturalized citizens of Turkish origin; also excludes Turkish Bulgarians, Turkish Cypriots, Turkish Romanians etc.)
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Spanish, Turkish
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam
Minority Alevism, Christianity, Other religions, or Irreligious
Related ethnic groups
Turks in Italy, Turks in France, Turks in Mexico

Turks in Spain (Turkish: İspanya'daki Türkler), or Spanish Turks, refers to ethnic Turks who have emigrated to Spain as well as the growing Spanish-born community with full or partial Turkish origins. The Turkish Spanish community includes descendants who originate from the Republic of Turkey as well as other post-Ottoman modern nation-states, especially ethnic Turkish communities from the Balkans (e.g. Bulgaria and Romania), and to a lesser extent from the island of Cyprus, and other parts of the Levant.

History

Turkish migration from Turkey

Turkish migration from the Balkans

Bulgaria

See also: Bulgarian Turks and Bulgarians in Spain

The migration waves of Turkish Bulgarians to Spain began as early as the late 1980s. It was a consequence of the ongoing “Revival Process” under communist rule (1984-1989). The aggressive Bulgarisation policies pursued by the communist rule was met with resistance by the Turkish population with many sent to prison or the Belene labour camp and then extradited from Bulgaria; consequently, many Turkish Bulgarians fled to Turkey and Western Europe, including Spain.[2] Since the early 2000s, there has been a significant increase in the number of citizens from Bulgaria who have emigrated to Spain. Among these immigrants are ethnic Turkish Bulgarians who, alongside ethnic Bulgarians (as well as Pomaks, Armenians and other minority groups), have settled in Catalonia, Madrid, Alicante and Valencia.[3]

Romania

See also: Turks of Romania and Romanians in Spain

Between 2002 and 2011 there was a significant decrease in the population of the Turkish Romanian minority group due to the admission of Romania into the European Union and the subsequent relaxation of the travelling and migration regulations. Hence, Turkish Romanians, especially from the Dobruja region, have joined other Romanian citizens (e.g. ethnic Romanians, Tatars, etc.) in migrating mostly to Spain, Germany, Austria, Italy, and the UK.[4]

Turkish migration from the diaspora

See also: British migration to Spain

There has also been ethnic Turkish migration to Spain from the modern Turkish diaspora, most notably British Turks and German Turks who have arrived in Spain as British and German citizens.

Demographics

The majority of Turks in Spain are recent immigrants and mainly live in Catalonia (especially in Barcelona) followed by the Community of Madrid and the Valencian Community (especially in Alicante). Smaller communities have also been formed in Andalusia and the Balearic Islands.[5][6]

Organisations and associations

Notable Turks in Spain

Further information: Category:Spanish people of Turkish descent

See also

References

  1. ^ Especial: una historia de las relaciones hispano-turcas, TRT, 2016, retrieved 3 November 2020, Hay 5.746 ciudadanos turcos en Madrid al cabo de 2015; 3.163 en Barcelona, todos registrados en los consulados de Turquía.
  2. ^ Maeva, Mila (2008), "Modern Migration Waves of Bulgarian Turks", in Marushiakova, Elena (ed.), Dynamics of National Identity and Transnational Identities in the Process of European Integration, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 227–229, ISBN 9781847184719
  3. ^ Gómez-Mestres, Sílvia; Molina, Jose Luis (2010), "Les nouvelles migrations dans l'Europe : chaînes migratoires, établissement et réseaux sociaux des Bulgares en Espagne et en Catalogne", Balkanologie, 12 (2): 9, En ce qui concerne l'ethnie à lequel appartiennent les Bulgares qui viennent en Espagne, on peut dire qu'on trouvera très difficilement d'établissements clairement ethniques en Espagne, à l'exception des Pomaks qui résident à Tafalla. Même si les appartenances sont très variées — Turcs, Pomaks, Rroms, Arméniens — en règle générale les groupes cohabitent sans apparente distinction.
  4. ^ Catalina Andreea, Mihai (2016), Cultural resilience or the Interethnic Dobrujan Model as a Black Sea alternative to EuroIslam in the Romanian Turkish-Tatar community, University of Bergamo, p. 150
  5. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. "Población por Nacionalidad, provincias, sexo y año". Retrieved 2009-05-27.
  6. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. "Población por Nacionalidad, comunidades, sexo y año". Retrieved 2009-05-27.
  7. ^ "Quiénes somos". Casa Turca (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2015-02-13.
  8. ^ Moore, Sarah (2019), The Language of Non-Existence: Ümit Hussein on Translating Burhan Sönmez, Asymptote Journal, retrieved 8 March 2021
  9. ^ Yehia, Karem (2011), Hussein Salem: A businessman from the times of crony capitalism, Al-Ahram, retrieved 7 May 2021, Salem took on the responsibility of working and providing for his mother (Hosnia Tabozada who was of Turkish origins