Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España (Spanish)
Motto: Plus Ultra
"Further Beyond"
Anthem: Marcha Real
"Royal March"
The Kingdom of Spain and its colonies in 1898
The Kingdom of Spain and its colonies in 1898
Common languagesSpanish
Roman Catholicism (state religion)
Demonym(s)Spanish, Spaniard
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• 1874–1885
Alfonso XII
• 1886–1931
Alfonso XIII
• 1885–1902
Maria Christina
Prime Minister 
• 1874–1875 (first)
Antonio Cánovas
• 1931 (last)
Juan B. Aznar
LegislatureCortes Generales
Congress of Deputies
29 December 1874
30 June 1876
25 Apr–12 Aug 1898
17 August 1930
14 April 1931
CurrencySpanish peseta
Preceded by
Succeeded by
First Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic

The Restoration (Spanish: Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Spanish: Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874—after a coup d'état by General Arsenio Martínez Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII—and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.

After almost a century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured stability by the practice of turnismo. This was the deliberate rotation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the government, often achieved through electoral fraud. Opposition to the system came from Republicans, socialists, anarchists, Basque and Catalan nationalists, and Carlists.

The period of Restoration in Spain, from 1874 to 1931, was marked by political instability, economic struggles, and social unrest. Here are some of the main themes that shaped this era in Spanish history:[1][2]

Alfonso XII and the Regency of Maria Christina (1874–1898)

Portrait of Alfonso XII

On 29 December 1874, the pronunciamiento by General Arsenio Martínez Campos overthrew the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy, with Alfonso XII (son of the exiled Isabella II) as king. After this, the Constitution of 1876 was written and enforced during the whole restoration. This constitution established Spain as a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature (Cortes Generales), consisting of an upper house (Senate), and a lower house (Congress of Deputies). This constitution gave the King the power to name Senators and to revoke laws if he wanted to, and he was also given the title of Commander-in-chief of the army.

These years were marked by economic prosperity. Ever since the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, Spain's economy had fallen even further behind those of other European countries. During these years the modernization of the country took place on a large scale. On most fronts domestic production was increased, supported by extreme protectionist measures.

The two parties alternated in the government in a controlled process known as el turno pacífico; the Liberal Party was led by Sagasta and the Conservative Party by Canovas del Castillo. The caciques, powerful local figures, were used to manipulate election results, and as a result resentment of the system slowly built up over time and important nationalist movements in Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, as well as unions, started to form.

Alfonso XII died in November 1885 because of a recurrence in dysentery.[3] His wife Maria Christina was still pregnant of his son Alfonso XIII, who was born on 17 May 1886 and became King upon birth; a regency was formed, led by Queen Mother Maria Christina.

Reign of Alfonso XIII and crisis of the system (1898–1923)

Alfonso XIII

Main article: Reign of Alfonso XIII of Spain

In 1898, Spain lost its last major overseas colonies (Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines) in the Spanish–American War. The rapid collapse was perceived as a disaster in Spain, undermining the credibility of both the government and its associated ideologies and almost leading to a military coup d'état led by General Camilo García de Polavieja. This was the start of the system's decline, giving energy to all manner of conflicting opposition movements at a local and national level.[4]

Alfonso XIII came of age in May 1902 and was enthroned on 17 May 1902, ending the regency of the Queen Mother.[5]

Spain would begin to rehabilitate internationally after the Algeciras Conference of 1906.[6] In 1907 it signed a kind of defensive alliance with France and the United Kingdom, known as the Pact of Cartagena in case of war against the Triple Alliance.[7] Spain improved economically due to its neutrality in the First World War.[8] Spanish flu killed 200,000 Spaniards (1% of the population).[9][10]

The failed attempts to conquer Morocco (Melilla War) caused great discontent at home and ended in a revolt in Barcelona, known as the Semana Tragica, in which the lower classes of Barcelona, backed by the anarchists, communists, and republicans, revolted against what they considered the unjust methods for recruiting soldiers. The government declared a state of war and sent the army to crush the revolt, causing over a hundred deaths and the execution of Francisco Ferrer. The socialist Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) and the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) decided to initiate a general strike across the country, but it failed because the unions could only mobilize urban workers.

The problems in Morocco worsened as an army of natives attacked the Spanish army. They achieved surprise and, due to the skill of the Moroccan chieftain, Abd-Al-Krim, virtually annihilated the Spanish army, advancing almost as far as Melilla in the Battle of Annual. This Spanish defeat was due to improper planning and was blamed on the top military officers, causing great discontent among the military, who felt misunderstood, because they had been directed to advance into the interior without adequate resources to occupy the difficult territory.

Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923–1930)

Main article: Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera

Miguel Primo de Rivera

The military discontent, the fear of anarchist terrorism or a proletarian revolution, and the rise of nationalist movements ultimately caused great agitation amongst the civilians and the military. On 13 September 1923, Miguel Primo de Rivera, Captain General of Catalonia, orchestrated a coup d'état and deposed Prime Minister Manuel García Prieto, after issuing a manifesto blaming the problems of Spain on the parliamentary system. Alfonso XIII backed the General and named him Prime Minister. Primo de Rivera proceeded to suspend the Constitution and assume absolute powers as a dictator. He created the Unión Patriótica Española, which was meant to be the sole legal party, abolishing all other parties. During this time, he greatly increased government spending on business and public services, which caused his government to go bankrupt. He lost the support of the military and faced serious health problems. Opposition to his regime was so great that Alfonso XIII stopped supporting him and forced him to resign in January 1930.[11]

Final year (1930–1931)

Main articles: Dictablanda of Dámaso Berenguer and 1931 Spanish local elections

Alfonso XIII, in an attempt to return gradually to the previous system and restore his prestige, called on General Dámaso Berenguer to form a government. This failed utterly, as the King was considered a supporter of the dictatorship, and more and more political forces called for the establishment of a republic. Berenguer resigned and the King gave the government to Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar. Aznar called for local elections on 12 April 1931 in order to satisfy the democrats and republicans, to replace the dictatorship's local governments and to gradually re-introduce the restoration.

Although the monarchists had not lost all their support, the republican and socialist parties won an overwhelming victory. Street riots ensued, calling for the removal of the monarchy. The army declared that they would not defend the King and on 14 April he fled Spain. The Second Spanish Republic was immediately established under a provisional government led by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora.


  1. ^ Raymond Carr, Spain, 1808-1975 (1982) pp. 347–602. online
  2. ^ Stanley G. Payne, A History of Spain and Portugal. Vol. 2 After 1700 (1973) pp 488-512, 578-629. online.
  3. ^ "Death of the King of Spain", The Times (26 November 1885): 7.
  4. ^ Earl Ray Beck, Time of Triumph & Sorrow: Spanish Politics during the Reign of Alfonso XII, 1874–1885 (1979)
  5. ^ "ALFONSO'S REIGN BEGINS MAY 17.; He Will Take the Oath on That Day -- Festivities to Last a Week". The New York Times. 29 March 1902.
  6. ^ Antonio Ñíguez Bernal .p. 94. Las relaciones políticas, económicas y culturales entre España y los Estados Unidos en los siglos XIX y XX
  7. ^ By which, with the transfer of technology from the United Kingdom and France, the Spanish government was able to begin to rebuild the fleet and built the España-class battleship and projected the Reina Victoria Eugenia-class battleship that were canceled by the beginning of the First World War. When the Great War broke out in 1914, the Italian government declared its neutrality so that the Spanish government had scope to also declare its neutrality in the conflict.
  8. ^ McEvoy, William P. (2003). "Spain During the First World War". Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  9. ^ "La gripe del siglo". La opinión de Zamora. 22 December 2012.
  10. ^ "Cien años de la pandemia de la "gripe española"". La opinión de Zamora. 22 October 2018.
  11. ^ Shlomo Ben-Ami, "The Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera: A Political Reassessment," Journal of Contemporary History, Jan 1977, Vol. 12 Issue 1, pp 65–84