|Golden Globe Awards|
|Current: 80th Golden Globe Awards|
|Awarded for||Excellence in film and television|
|First awarded||January 20, 1944|
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed, for excellence in both American and international film and television, by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA), an organization representing international journalists who reported on the American entertainment industry. It is an annual award ceremony held since 1944 to honor artists and professionals and their work.
The ceremony is normally held every January, and has been a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards. The eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year (from January 1 through December 31). Revenue from the ceremony was used by the HFPA to fund entertainment-related charities and scholarships, such as the Young Artist Awards.
Since the late 1950s, the HFPA has been racked by scandals, including charges that Golden Globe Awards have been bought or bartered. In the 1960s, the revelation that the input of advertisers determined Golden Globe winners and that the HFPA has pressured nominees to attend the televised award ceremony on pain of a winner's award being given to another nominee if the winning party did not show up for the ceremony led to the Golden Globe Awards broadcast being banned from broadcast television from 1969 through 1974.
In 1982, Pia Zadora's husband Meshulam Riklis was criticized in the press for apparently buying the new movie star of the year award for her, for a performance she received devastating reviews for in a movie that had not been released at the time the award was announced had seen, which led CBS to end its contract to broadcast the Golden Globes. Nearly 30 years later, payola allegations rocked the HFPA in the week of the 68th Golden Globe Awards, which were held on January 16, 2011. The HPFA was also buffeted by charges that lobbying by producers and stars had resulted in appropriate best movie nominations. The poorly reviewed films Burlesque and The Tourist were nominated for Best Motion Comedy or Musical. The producers of Burlesque had flown HFPA members to Las Vegas to a concert by Cher, one of the stars of the film. The Best Comedy or Musical nomination of The Tourist was criticized as the movie was a romantic spy drama and star Angelina Jolie reportedly had personally lobbied HFPA members, resulting in a nomination in a category the film didn't belong in.
The HFPA has been criticized for the small size of its membership, the quality of the members, its exclusion of serious cinema journalists, and their closeness to the movie industry and stars, and for seemingly doling out nominations if not wins to studios, production companies and stars who wooed HFPA members with gifts, press junkets and personal attention.
In the 2020s, the HFPA began to face criticism for the ethical standards of its operations—including allegations that the organization lacked accountability, and that there was a lack of Black representation among its members. Calls for reform in response to these issues resulted in the 79th Golden Globe Awards being boycotted by its broadcaster and other production companies; as a result, the ceremony was held as a non-televised, private event. A televised ceremony returned the following year.
In June 2022, the HFPA approved a reorganization, under which the Golden Globe Awards' assets and intellectual property would be sold to Todd Boehly's holding company Eldridge Industries, and that a new non-profit would be formed to continue carrying out the HFPA's charitable activities. The transition of the Golden Globes to a for-profit event was finalized the following year, with the ceremony's assets being acquired by the Eldridge-owned Dick Clark Productions (which has produced the Golden Globes telecast since 1993), and the Golden Globes Foundation being established as a successor to the HFPA.
The Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) was founded in 1943 as the Hollywood Foreign Correspondent Association (HFCA) by Los Angeles-based foreign journalists seeking to develop a better-organized process of gathering and distributing cinema news to non-U.S. markets. One of the organization's first major endeavors was to establish a ceremony similar to the Academy Awards to honor film achievements. The 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, were held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at various venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel and the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1950, some of the journalists in the HFCA broke away to form the Foreign Press Association of Hollywood (FPAH). It was the FPAH that instituted the Henrietta Award for World Film Favorite, which subsequently given out by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, the new name for the organization when the FPAH and HFCA merged in 1955, minus the "Henrietta" name through 1980 (for the 1979 movie year).
The FPAH held its first World Film Favorite Festival on January 27, 1951, giving out Henrietta Awards in various categories. The award, an angel above a globe raised on four tall pillars, was named for the president of the FPAH, Henry Gris. Winners of the Henrietta for World Film Favorite were Gregory Peck and Jane Wyman. At the FPAH's second World Film Favorite Festival held January 26, 1952, the Henrietta was a large statuette of a naked woman holding a flower. Based on an international poll of 900 newspapers, magazines and radio stations, Alan Ladd and Esther Williams were presented the gold Henrietta for World Favorites. while silver Henriettas for “Best Young Box Office Personality” were presented to Leslie Caron, Tony Curtis, John Derek, Mitzi Gaynor, Marilyn Monroe and Patrice Wymore. At the third festival held on February 14, 1953, John Wayne and Susan Hayward won the gold Henriettas.
The HFCA continued to hold their Golden Globe Awards. In 1950, the HFCA had established a special honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer Cecil B. DeMille. The official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award.
On January 1954, the two organizations held a joint ceremony, and the following year, they merged under the new Hollywood Foreign Press Association name. The Henrietta Award was terminated, but the HFPA instituted a special award called World Film Favorite, a Golden Globe surmounted by an angel. Similar to the Henrietta Award for World Film Favorite, the winner of the new HFPA Golden Globe was determined by a worldwide poll conducted by Reuters. This award, sometimes referred to as The Henrietta Award, was given out through 1980 for the 1979, movie year, when it was terminated.
Roger Moore and Jane Fonda were the last two recipients of the World Film Favorite Award.
The 13th Golden Globe Awards held in February 1956 saw the first Golden Globe in Television Achievement. The first three permanent television award categories, Best TV Series, Best TV Actor, and Best TV Actress, then made their debuts during the 19th Golden Globe Awards held in March 1962.
Beginning in 1963, the trophies commenced to be handed out by one or more persons referred to as "Miss Golden Globe", a title renamed on January 5, 2018, to "Golden Globe Ambassador". The holders of the position were, traditionally, the daughters or sometimes the sons of a celebrity, and as a point of pride, these often continued to be contested among celebrity parents.
In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned (but not for the first time in its history). The New York firm Society Awards collaborated for a year with the HFPA to produce a statuette that included a unique marble and enhanced the statuette's quality and gold content. It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show.
The Carol Burnett Award was created as a television counterpart to the Cecil B. DeMille Award, named after its first recipient in 2019, actress and comedian Carol Burnett.
Revenues generated from the annual ceremony have enabled the HFPA to donate millions of dollars to entertainment-related charities, as well as funding scholarships and other programs for future film and television professionals. The most prominent beneficiary is the Young Artist Awards, presented annually by the Young Artist Foundation, established in 1978 by Hollywood Foreign Press member Maureen Dragone, to recognize and award excellence of young Hollywood performers under the age of 21 and to provide scholarships for young artists who may be physically or financially challenged.
In 2021, the HFPA faced criticism for the lack of Black representation among its members. On May 3, 2021, the HFPA announced plans for a reform package, including a 50% increase in members over the next 18 months, as well as new positions, term limits, and practices to improve its accountability. However, Time's Up and a group of 100 PR firms criticized the lack of given timelines for filling some of the new management positions, arguing that they would not be completed soon enough to have any material impact on the cycle of the upcoming 79th Golden Globe Awards in January 2022. Time's Up further argued that the package "largely contains no specifics" nor "commitments to real accountability or change".
On May 7, 2021, both Amazon Studios and Netflix announced that they would stop their activities with the HFPA until sufficient actions on reforms are made. Other media companies followed suit on May 10, including NBC, who announced that it would not televise the 79th Golden Globe Awards, but that it would be open to televising the ceremony in 2023 if the HFPA were successful in its efforts to reform. WarnerMedia also boycotted the HFPA, while Tom Cruise returned the awards he had won for Born on the Fourth of July, Jerry Maguire and Magnolia in solidarity.
Following these events, the HFPA released a timeline for its reforms, which would see the process completed by the week of August 2. On October 1, the HFPA released a list of 21 new members that it had recruited under these reforms. The HFPA then announced on October 15 that it still planned to hold the 79th Golden Globe Awards on January 9, 2022, with or without another media partner. With the televised absence of the Golden Globe Awards from NBC, the Critics Choice Association attempted to shift their Critics' Choice Movie Awards ceremony up a week in order to fill the void and increase their overall prestige, though it was later delayed due to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. The 79th ceremony was conducted as a non-televised, private presentation, with limited guests (particularly beneficiaries of the HFPA's philanthropic activities) and strict COVID-19 protocol due to Omicron variant.
In July 2022, the HFPA approved a major restructuring, under which interim CEO Todd Boehly agreed to establish a for-profit entity via his holding company Eldridge Industries (owner of Dick Clark Productions—which has produced the Golden Globes' telecast since 1993, as well as the entertainment trade publication The Hollywood Reporter) that will hold the Golden Globe Awards' intellectual property and oversee the "professionalization and modernization" of the ceremony, including "[increasing] the size and diversity of the available voters for the annual awards". The HFPA's philanthropic activities were to continue separately as a non-profit entity. NBC subsequently agreed to a one-year contract to air the 80th Golden Globe Awards on January 10, 2023, having been moved to a Tuesday evening to avoid conflicting with the National Football League (whose regular season was recently extended into January) and the College Football Playoff National Championship (which was being hosted at SoFi Stadium in Inglewood).
On June 12, 2023, the HFPA was wound down, and all Golden Globe Awards assets and intellectual property were acquired by DCP (whose ownership includes Penske Media Corporation, owner of fellow entertainment publications Deadline Hollywood and Variety) and Eldridge; the financial details of the purchase were not disclosed. The HFPA's philanthropic activities will be transitioned to a new non-profit known as the Golden Globes Foundation.
The qualifying eligibility period for all nominations is the calendar year from January 1 through December 31.
Voice-over performances and cameo appearances in which persons play themselves are not eligible from all of the film and TV acting categories.
Films must be at least 70 minutes and released for at least a seven-day run in the Greater Los Angeles area, starting prior to midnight on December 31. Films can be released in theaters, on pay-per-view, or by digital delivery.
For the Best Foreign Language Film category, films do not need to be released in the United States. At least 51 percent of the dialogue must be in a language other than English, and they must first be released in their country of origin during a 14-month period from November 1 to December 31 prior to the Awards. However, if a film was not released in its country of origin due to censorship, it can still qualify if it had a one-week release in the United States during the qualifying calendar year. There is no limit to the number of submitted films from a given country.
A TV program must air in the United States between the prime time hours of 8 p.m. and 11 p.m (or 7 p.m. and 11 p.m on Sundays). A show can air on broadcast television, on basic or premium cable, or by digital delivery; it does not qualify if it is only on pay-per-view or via digital delivery of film. Also, a TV show must either be made in the United States or be a co-production financially and creatively between an American and a foreign production company. Furthermore, reality and non-scripted shows are disqualified.
A film cannot be entered in both the film and TV categories, and instead should be entered based on its original release format. If it was first aired on American television, then it can be entered into the TV categories. If it was released in theaters or on pay-per-view, then it should instead be entered into the film categories. A film festival showing does not count towards disqualifying what would otherwise be a TV program.
Actors in a TV series must appear in at least six episodes during the qualifying calendar year. Actors in a TV film or miniseries must appear in at least five percent of the time in that TV film or miniseries.
Active HFPA members need to be invited to an official screening of each eligible film directly by its respective distributor or publicist. The screening must take place in the Greater Los Angeles area, either before the film's release or up to one week afterwards. The screening can be a regular screening in a theater with the public or a press screening; it does not need to be an HFPA member-only event. The screening must also be cleared with the Motion Picture Association so there are no scheduling conflicts with other official screenings.
For TV programs, they must merely be available to be seen by HFPA members in any common format, including the original TV broadcast.
Entry forms for films need to be received by the HFPA within ten days of the official screening. TV programs should be submitted "as early as possible" before the deadline.
As part of their regular journalistic jobs, active HFPA members will participate in covering the press conferences, and interviewing cast members, of selected films and TV programs. The film press conferences need to take place either before the film's release in the Greater Los Angeles area or up to one week afterwards.
Ballots to select the nominations are sent to HFPA members in November, along with a "Reminder List" of eligible film and TV programs. Each HFPA member then votes for their top five choices in each category, numbering them 5 to 1, with 5 being their top choice. The nominees in each category are then the five selections that receive the most votes. The ranked voting is only used to break ties, with number 5 worth 5 points, number 4 worth 4 points, and so on.
After the nominations are announced in mid-December, HFPA members receive the final ballots. The winner in each category is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting. In case of a tie, the winner is the one that had the most votes on the nomination ballot.
|Award show||Institution||Voting members|
|Golden Globes||Hollywood Foreign Press Association||310|
|Academy Awards (Oscars)||Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences||10000|
|Emmys||Academy of Television Arts and Sciences||20000|
|BAFTAs||British Academy of Film and Television Arts||6000|
Main article: List of Golden Globe Awards ceremonies
The broadcast of the Golden Globe Awards, telecast to 167 countries worldwide, generally ranks as the third most-watched awards show each year, behind only the Oscars and the Grammy Awards. Since 2010, it was televised live in all United States time zones. Until Ricky Gervais hosted in 2010, the award ceremony was one of two major Hollywood award ceremonies (the other being the Screen Actors Guild Awards) that did not have a regular host; every year a different presenter introduced the ceremony at the beginning of the broadcast. Gervais returned to host the 68th and 69th Golden Globe Awards the next two years. Tina Fey and Amy Poehler hosted the 70th, 71st and 72nd Golden Globe Awards in 2013 through 2015. The Golden Globe Awards' theme song, which debuted in 2012, was written by Japanese musician and songwriter Yoshiki Hayashi.
Due to threats of writers picketing the event as part of the ongoing Writers Guild of America strike, the 65th Golden Globe Awards ceremony was cancelled and replaced by an hour-long press conference to announce the winners. While NBC, who normally airs the ceremony, was initially intended to be the exclusive broadcaster of the press conference, the network faced conflicts with the HFPA and Dick Clark Productions over the plan. The HFPA subsequently announced that it would not restrict coverage of the press conference by other broadcasters.
E! (several years before the NBCUniversal merger) and TV Guide Network (who were typically known for red carpet coverage from major awards shows) both aired coverage of the press conference, as well as CNN. NBC declined to air the conference itself; the ceremony timeslot was filled by a Dateline NBC preview special, an hour-long results special hosted by Access Hollywood's Billy Bush and Nancy O'Dell, and an Access Hollywood post-show also hosted by Bush and O'Dell.
The HFPA has had a lucrative contract with NBC, which began broadcasting the award ceremony locally in Los Angeles in 1958, then nationally in 1964. However, in 1968, the Federal Communications Commission claimed the show "misled the public as to how the winners were determined" (allegations included that winners were determined by lobby; to motivate winners to show up to the awards ceremony winners were informed if they did not attend another winner would be named). The FCC admonished NBC for participating in the scandal. Subsequently, NBC refused to broadcast the ceremony from 1968 until after 1974.
Since 1993, Dick Clark Productions (DCP) has produced the ceremony with NBC as a broadcaster; DCP's involvement came at a time of instability for the Golden Globes, including reduced credibility and having lost its contract with CBS (the interim period saw it contract with cable network TBS to air the ceremony). Enthusiastic over Clark's commitment, the HFPA's contract contained an unusual provision granting Dick Clark Productions the role of producer in perpetuity, as long as it continued to maintain broadcast rights with NBC.
In 2010, Dick Clark Productions reached an extension with NBC through 2018. However, the deal was negotiated without the HFPA's knowledge. The HFPA sued DCP over the deal, as well as claims that the company was attempting to sell digital rights that it did not hold; the HFPA had wanted a new contract that would grant them a larger share of revenue from the telecast.
In April 2012, judge Howard Matz upheld the NBC perpetuity clause and ruled in favor of DCP, noting that the HFPA had a history of "unbusinesslike display[s] of misplaced priorities" and "[succumbing] to bouts of pronounced turmoil and personal feuds", in contrast to DCP, which had been "represented by one experienced executive who was adept at dealing fairly and effectively with the often amateurish conduct of HFPA." Matz pointed out examples of the HFPA's enthusiasm over the relationship and their desire to "not get cancelled", such as having disregarded its own bylaws by approving an extension in 2001 without a formal vote. The case was taken to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.
In 2014, Dick Clark Productions and the HFPA reached a settlement; details were not released, but DCP committed to continue its role as producer through at least the end of its current contract with NBC, and to work with the HFPA to "expand the brand with unique and exciting entertainment experiences". NBC held a right of first refusal to renew its contract beyond 2018, but bidding was to be open to other broadcasters; in September 2018, NBC agreed to renew its rights to the Golden Globes through 2027, maintaining the current broadcast arrangement and the involvement of Dick Clark Productions.
In 2019 and 2020, NBC televised the late Sunday afternoon National Football League (NFL) playoff game (which had historically gone to another NFL broadcaster) as a lead-in to the Golden Globes. Because of the large viewership of NFL playoff games, this was intended to boost the Golden Globes' TV ratings, which dropped 11% between 2017 and 2018. If the game ever went long, NBC planned to still air the Golden Globes in its entirety on a broadcast delay.
In acting categories, Meryl Streep holds the record for the most competitive wins with eight, followed by Alan Alda, Angela Lansbury, Shirley MacLaine, Jack Nicholson who have six awards each. Behind them are Ed Asner, Carol Burnett, Laura Dern, Nicole Kidman, Jessica Lange, Rosalind Russell, and Kate Winslet with five.
At the 46th Golden Globe Awards an anomaly occurred: a three-way tie for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama (Jodie Foster for The Accused, Shirley MacLaine for Madame Sousatzka, and Sigourney Weaver for Gorillas in the Mist).
In the category for Best Director, Elia Kazan leads with four wins, followed by Clint Eastwood, Miloš Forman, David Lean, Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg, and Oliver Stone with three wins each. Spielberg holds the record for most nominations with twelve. Francis Ford Coppola, Eastwood, and Steven Soderbergh are the only directors to receive two nominations in the same year. Barbra Streisand is the first woman to have won the award.
Barbra Streisand holds the record for most Golden Globes earned by an individual with ten awards, including with both competitive and honorary categories, followed by Tom Hanks, and Meryl Streep with nine awards each. Hanks winning as an actor and producer; all Streep wins were for acting; while Streisand prevails as an actress (3 times), composer, director, producer, as well as the non-competitive Henrietta Award (3 times). In addition, all three of them also received an honorary Cecil B. DeMille Award.
Meryl Streep also holds the record for most nominations with 32. Composer John Williams is second with 27.
|Network||Household rating||18–49 rating||Viewers
|2008||Bulk press conference due to WGA strike|
Former HFPA president Henry Gris resigned from the board in 1958 claiming that "certain awards are being given more or less as favors" with others querying why so many winners were represented by one public relations firm.
The FCC imposed a ban on NBC's broadcast of the Golden Globes after the February 1968 ceremony. Movie critic Rex Reed, in a contemporary article about the broadcast, wrote:
NBC's telcast of the Foreign Press Association's 25th annual Golden Globe Awards had to be seen to be disbelieved. The Federal Communications Commission have sent laywers to have it investigated. But award-giving, pointless as it is, is still big business, and it also gives viewers a chance to see their favorite stars make fools of themselves in public, so the Golden Globes were back, minus some of their sponsors, who backed out at the last minute....
Just last week Newsweek reported denials from the Foreign Press Association that its members give awards to the stars who throw the biggest feeds. "We are not influenced by a glass of champagne," snapped [HFPA President Howard] Luft, "Kirk Douglas threw a party last year, and what did he win? Nothing."
This year there was even a special category called the Cecil B. DeMille Humanitarian Award. Who won? You guessed it. Kirk Douglas.
The FCC was spurred to action because the public had been misled as to how the awards were actually made. Golden Globe broadcast advertisers determined Golden Globe winners and the HFPA pressured nominees to attend the award ceremony by threatening to award the Golden Globe won by a non-attendee to a losing nominee who was at the ceremony. The ban lasted until 1974.
After the ban, NBC once again broadcast the awards ceremony, but it terminated its contract with the HFPA after the Pia Zadora scandal of 1982.
In 1982, Pia Zadora won a Golden Globe in the category "New Star of the Year in a Motion Picture" for her performance in Butterfly, over such competition as Elizabeth McGovern (Ragtime) and Kathleen Turner (Body Heat). Accusations were made that the Foreign Press Association members had been bought off. Zadora's husband, multimillionaire Meshulam Riklis, flew voting members to his casino, the Riviera Hotel in Las Vegas, which gave the appearance that they voted for Zadora to repay this. Riklis also invited voting members to his house for a lavish lunch and a showing of the film. He also spent a great deal on advertising. Furthermore, Zadora had made her film debut some 17 years earlier as a child performer in Santa Claus Conquers the Martians.
In 2011, three days before the Golden Globe Awards telecast, publicist Michael Russell filed a $2 million lawsuit alleging that HFPA President Philip Berk terminated Russell and his partner's contract after the 2010 broadcast because they raised ethical concerns over payola with him, including allegations that HFPA members took bribes for nominations and awards. "abuse their positions and engage in unethical and potentially unlawful deals and arrangements which amount to a 'payola' The lawsuit alleged that HFPA members "abuse their positions and engage in unethical and potentially unlawful deals and arrangements which amount to a 'payola' scheme" scheme." The HFPA denied the allegations, claiming they were fabrications made up by a disgruntled ex-employee The lawsuit was later settled.
Ironically, the 2011 Golden Globe Awards were hit by their own scandal.
The nominations for the 2011 Golden Globes drew initial skepticism, as the Hollywood Foreign Press Association nominated The Tourist in its Best Musical/Comedy categories, even though it was originally advertised as a spy thriller, along with being one of the most panned films of the season. Host Ricky Gervais even jokingly asked the main star of the film, Johnny Depp, if he had seen it. Depp's co-star Angelina Jolie reportedly had personally lobbied HFPA members, resulting in a nomination in a category the film didn't belong in. Rumors then surfaced that Sony, the distributor of The Tourist, had influenced Globes voters with an all-expenses-paid trip to Las Vegas, culminating in a concert by Cher. The lobbying by Sony also resulted in a Best Musical/Comedy nod for Cher's badly-reviwed movie Burlseque.
In 2020, the HFPA received widespread criticism for nominating Asian and Asian American films, such as The Farewell, Parasite, and Minari, for Best Foreign Language Film while excluding them from the Best Motion Picture categories. The decision to categorize Minari as a foreign language film, despite having an exclusively American production team and setting, was heavily condemned by many actors and filmmakers of Asian descent. While HFPA rules stipulate that a film must have at least 50% English dialogue to be nominated for the Best Drama or Comedy/Musical categories, critics noted that the films Inglourious Basterds and Babel did not meet the 50% threshold but were still nominated for the Best Motion Picture categories, prompting accusations of anti-Asian racism.
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And the HFPA has no problem paying for it; a lucrative contract with NBC makes the organization rich.
The HFPA's seemingly cozy relationship with the stars they cover has occasionally led to scandal. From 1968 to 1974, the Globes were booted off NBC after the Federal Communications Commission claimed the show "misled the public as to how the winners were determined." The government report suggested winners were required to show up at the ceremony, otherwise, another name would be chosen.
In 1968, the Federal Communications Commission accused the HFPA of misleading the public, alleging that Globe winners were determined by lobby rather than a blind poll. NBC subsequently pulled the awards ceremony from its broadcast until 1974.
This will mark the first time the gilt-edged affair has been telecast.