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A supreme leader or supreme ruler typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the most – or complete – authority over it. In a religion, this role is usually satisfied by a person deemed to be the representative or manifestation of a deity or God on Earth. In politics, a supreme leader usually rules over an authoritarian or totalitarian government and has a cult of personality associated with them. Historic examples are Adolf Hitler (Führer) of Nazi Germany, Francisco Franco (Caudillo) of Francoist Spain, Benito Mussolini (Duce) of Fascist Italy and Joseph Stalin (Vozhd (Вождь)) of the Soviet Union.

List of titles

Listed by date of establishment.

1920s/30s and earlier

World War II

Cold War era

Post–Cold War era

Popular media

In the 2012 movie The Dictator, the titular character was referred to as "Supreme Leader."[18]

See also


  1. ^ Yegorov, O. (2019-12-27). "Meet Russian Imperial officers who almost stopped the Bolsheviks". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
  2. ^ Berkofsky, Axel (January 1, 2012). A pacifist constitution for an armed empire. Past and present of Japanese security and defence policies. Franco Angeli. p. 37. ISBN 978-8856845044.
  3. ^ Eddy, Beverley Driver (September 7, 2021). Ritchie Boy Secrets: How a Force of Immigrants and Refugees Helped Win World War II. Stackpole Books. p. 308. ISBN 978-0811769969.
  4. ^ William C. Kirby (ed.), Realms of Freedom in Modern China, p. 121
  5. ^ a b c Tertitskiy, Fyodor (19 January 2015). "Leader, Sun, Mentor, Guide: How North Korean leaders choose their titles". NK*News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  6. ^ Mydans, Seth (17 April 1998). "Death of Pol Pot; Pol Pot, Brutal Dictator Who Forced Cambodians to Killing Fields, Dies at 73". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  7. ^ Carroll, Rory (2013). Commandante: myth and reality in Hugo Chávez's Venezuela. New York: The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-457-9.
  8. ^ "Why China is reviving Mao's grandiose title for Xi Jinping". South China Morning Post. 2017-10-28. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  9. ^ "Xi Jinping is no longer any old leader". The Economist. 2018-02-17. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  10. ^ "Profile: Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei". BBC News. 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  11. ^ Walker, Shaun (2015-04-24). "Kazakhstan election avoids question of Nazarbayev successor". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-09-08.
  12. ^ Cummings, Sally N. (2010). Symbolism and Power in Central Asia: Politics of the Spectacular. Milton, United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0415575676.
  13. ^ Walker, Shaun (2015-05-25). "A horse, a horse… Turkmenistan president honours himself with statue". The Guardian.
  14. ^ "Teflon Rahmon: Tajik President Getting 'Leader' Title, Lifelong Immunity". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. RFE/RL's Tajik Service. 10 December 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  15. ^ Bhatti, Haseeb (2018-02-21). "Nawaz Sharif removed as PML-N head after SC rules disqualified person cannot lead a party". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  16. ^ National Leader » AZERBAIJAN » Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan Republic
  17. ^ Heydar Aliyev Foundation - National leader
  18. ^ "Sacha Baron Cohen Won't Talk but the Supreme Leader of Wadiya Has a Lot to Say". New York Times. May 3, 2012.