President of the Republic of Türkiye
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı
Emblem of the Presidency of Turkey.svg
Flag of the President of Turkey.svg
Presidential Standard
Meeting between the President of the Republic of Turkey and President of Ukraine in 2022 (7) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

since 28 August 2014
Style
StatusHead of state
Head of government
ResidenceÇankaya Mansion
(1923-2007)
Presidential Complex
AppointerDirect popular vote
Term lengthFive years, renewable once
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Turkey
Inaugural holderMustafa Kemal Atatürk
Formation29 October 1923; 98 years ago (1923-10-29)
DeputyVice President
Salary100,750 (2022)[1] 5,472 (Euro)
Websitewww.tccb.gov.tr

The President of Turkey, officially the President of the Republic of Türkiye (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı), is the head of state and head of government of Turkey. The president directs the executive branch of the national government and is the commander-in-chief of the Turkish military. The president also heads the National Security Council.

The office of the president of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923, with the first president and founder being Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[2][3]

The president of Turkey is referred to as Cumhurbaşkanı (Republic leader), and previously archaically as Cumhurreisi or Reis-i Cumhur, also meaning "head of the republic", or “people” too.[4][5] Insulting the Turkish president is prohibited by Article 299 of the Turkish Penal Code, including founder Atatürk which has its own separate law.[6][7]

Traditionally, the presidency was mostly a ceremonial position, with real executive authority being exercised by the Prime Minister of Turkey. However, constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 constitutional referendum abolished the office of Prime Minister, and vested the presidency with full executive powers, effective upon the 2018 general election.[8][9]

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the 12th and current president of Turkey, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first president under the new executive system of government. The president is directly elected by eligible Turkish voters for a five-year term, renewable once.[10][11]

Qualifications

In order to become the president of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, and be of at least forty years of age. If they are a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, they must resign their seat.[12]

In the past, Turkish presidents were required to sever all relations, if any, with their political party.[13] This convention existed to ensure the president's impartiality in presiding over the Turkish constitutional system. However, the presidency's reorientation in 2017 into a chief executive office abolished this convention, given a president's assumption of office as winners of a partisan electoral contest.

Election

After the 2007 constitutional amendment

According to the constitutional amendments approved in the 2007 referendum, the president is elected by the public, among candidates who are at least forty years old, have completed higher education, and are eligible to be elected as a member of the Grand National Assembly.[14] The election of the president must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election.

Before the 2007 constitutional amendment

Before the constitutional amendments approved in the 2007 referendum, the Grand National Assembly would elect one of its members as the President.[15]

Term of office

The president is elected for a term of office of five years and is eligible for one re-election. An exception exists when a president's term ends with a parliamentary decision (i.e., impeachment and removal from office). In this case, the president may be re-elected for an additional term, with the incomplete term not counting against the two-term limit.[16] The term of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office. Before the constitutional amendment approved in the 2007 referendum, the President used to be elected for a single seven-year term.

On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the Grand National Assembly:

I swear upon my honor and integrity, before the great Turkish Nation, to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of the country and the nation, and the absolute sovereignty of the nation; to remain loyal to the supremacy of law, to the democratic and secular republic, and to Atatürk’s principles and reforms; not to deviate from the ideal according to which everyone is entitled to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms under the notion of peace and prosperity in society, national solidarity and justice, and loyalty to the Constitution.[17]

The oath is broadcast live on TBMM-TV regardless of it is a regular business day of the Grand National Assembly.[18]

Duties and responsibilities

Presidential Palace is located in Ankara
Presidential Palace is located in Ankara

The president performs also the duties of selection and appointment, and other duties conferred by the Constitution and statutes.

Accountability and non-accountability

After the 2017 constitutional amendment

2017 constitutional referendum extended the president's accountability beyond impeachment due to high treason. According to the constitutional amendments approved in the referendum, the Grand National Assembly may initiate an investigation of the president, the vice president or any member of the Cabinet upon the proposal of simple majority of its total members, and within a period less than a month, the approval of three-fifths of the total members.[14] The investigation would be carried out by a commission of fifteen members of the Assembly, each nominated by the political parties in proportion to their representation therein. The commission would submit its report indicating the outcome of the investigation to the speaker within two months. If the investigation is not completed within this period, the commission's time renewed for another month. Within ten days of its submission to the speaker, the report would be distributed to all members of the Assembly, and ten days after its distribution, the report would be discussed on the floor. Upon the approval of two-thirds of the total number of the Assembly by secret vote, the person or persons, about whom the investigation was conducted, may be tried before the Constitutional Court. The trial would be finalized within three months, and if not, a one-time additional period of three months shall be granted.

A president about whom an investigation has been initiated may not call for an election. A president who is convicted by the Court would be removed from office.

The provision of this Article shall also apply to the offenses for which the president allegedly worked during his term of office.

Before the 2017 constitutional amendment

Before the 2017 constitutional referendum, the president was not accountable for its actions and orders, except for impeachment due to high treason. All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own, had to be signed by the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws. Thus, the prime minister and the concerned ministers were accountable for these decrees, not the president. The decisions and orders signed by the president on his own initiatives may not be appealed to any judicial authority, including the Constitutional Court. The only accountability the president had was impeachment for high treason on the proposal of at least one-third of the total number of the members of the parliament and by the decision of at least three-fourths of the total number of the members.[19]

Acting President

The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents.
The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents.

After the 2017 constitutional referendum

According to the constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 referendum, in the event of a temporary absence of the president on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the vice president of Turkey serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the president until the president comes back.[14] If the office of the presidency becomes vacant for any reason, the presidential election shall be held within forty-five days and in the meantime, the vice president shall act as and exercise the powers of the president until the next president is elected. If one year or less remains for the general election, the parliamentary election will be conducted at the same time. If more than a year remains, the newly elected president will continue to serve until the next general election.[20][21]

Before the 2017 constitutional referendum

Before the constitutional amendments approved in the 2017 referendum, the speaker of the Grand National Assembly served as Acting President in cases where the presidency is temporarily or permanently vacant and exercises presidential powers until the president returns to duty or the new president is elected within 45 days.[22]

Latest election

Main article: 2018 Turkish presidential election

See also

References

  1. ^ "Erdoğan'ın 2022 yılında alacağı maaş belli oldu" (in Turkish). T24. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  2. ^ cdn-acikogretim.istanbul.edu.tr https://cdn-acikogretim.istanbul.edu.tr/auzefcontent/19_20_Bahar/ataturk_ilkeleri_ve_inkilap_tarihi_2/3/index.html. Retrieved 21 October 2021. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "Cumhuriyet'in Kuruluşu..." www.cumhuriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  4. ^ Kemal Çiçek; Ercüment Kuran; Nejat Göyünç; İlber Ortaylı (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Yeni Türkiye. p. 226.
  5. ^ Jacob M. Landau (2004). Exploring Ottoman and Turkish History. p. 117.
  6. ^ "Turkey: End Prosecutions For 'Insulting President'". Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
  7. ^ "The problem with insulting Turkey's President Erdogan". BBC News. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  8. ^ "Erdogan loyalist Yildirim: happy to become Turkey's last prime minister". Reuters. 19 June 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  9. ^ "Turkey's Ex-PM Made Parliament Speaker After Office Abolished". VOA. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  10. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Constitution of the Republic of Turkey". Refworld. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  11. ^ SABAH, DAILY (2 August 2021). "Turkey's new constitution to allow citizens to introduce laws". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  12. ^ "Turkey's Constitution of 1982 with Amendments through 2017" (PDF). Constitute Project. p. 43. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  13. ^ Shaheen, Kareem (2 May 2017). "Erdoğan rejoins Turkey's ruling party in wake of referendum on new powers". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  14. ^ a b c "Grand National Assembly of Turkey" (PDF). tbmmgov.tr. 2018.
  15. ^ https://cdn.istanbul.edu.tr/statics/hukuk.istanbul.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Constitutional-Changes-of-Turkey-in-2001-Saadet-Yuksel.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  16. ^ KABOĞLU, İBRAHİM Ö. "Bir kimse en fazla iki defa cumhurbaşkanı seçilebilir". birgun.net (in Turkish). Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  17. ^ "Constitution" (PDF). global.tbmm.gov.tr. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Turkish lawmakers take oath for parliament under new system". Trtworld.com. 7 July 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  19. ^ "Turkish referendum: all you need to know | Recep Tayyip Erdoğan". The Guardian. London. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  20. ^ "Turkey's new presidential system and a changing west". 30 November 2001.
  21. ^ "What happens now following the 'yes' vote in the Turkish referendum? | DW | 18.04.2017". Deutsche Welle.
  22. ^ "Why did Turkey hold a referendum?". BBC News. 16 April 2017.