Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder usually retains the right to that courtesy throughout their lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, and is held only for the duration of that office.
Generally people addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, Roman Catholic bishops, high-ranking ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank, such as heads of international organizations. Members of royal families generally have distinct addresses such as Majesty, Highness, etc.
While not a title of office itself, the honorific Excellency precedes various titles held by the holder, both in speech and in writing. In reference to such an official, it takes the form His or Her Excellency; in direct address, Your Excellency, or, less formally, simply Excellency. The abbreviation HE is often used instead of His/Her Excellency; alternatively it may stand for His Eminence.
In most republican nation states, the head of state is formally addressed as His or Her Excellency.
If a republic has a separate head of government, that official is almost always addressed as Excellency as well. If the nation is a monarchy, however, the customs may vary. For example, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners, state governors and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency.
Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency and this remains the position for the governors of what are now known as British Overseas Territories.
In various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government. It is often granted to the organization's head as well, and to those chiefs of UN diplomatic missions, such as Resident Coordinators (who are the designated representatives of the Secretary-General), who are accredited at the Head of State level (like an Ambassador), or at the lower Head of Government level.
In recent years, some international organizations, such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or the European Union, have designated their permanent representatives in third countries as ambassadors, although they do not represent sovereign entities. This is now largely accepted, and because these ambassadors rank after the UN representative in the orders of precedence of representatives of international organizations, the UN coming naturally first as pre-eminent, the UN Resident Coordinators are now also commonly but informally referred to in diplomatic circles as ambassadors, although the UN itself does not refer to them in this way.
Judges of the International Court of Justice are also called Your Excellency.
In some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, if not accorded a higher style.
Former members of a royal house or family, who have forfeited a royal title, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a royal prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg, following her divorce from Prince Joachim of Denmark. Likewise, Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg, who lost his succession rights to the Swedish throne and discontinued use of his royal titles in 1946 when he married the commoner Elin Kerstin Margaretha Wijkmark, was accorded the style.
In some emirates, such as Kuwait and Qatar, the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness. Their children are styled with His/Her Excellency unless they possess a higher honorific.
In Spain members of the high nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady.
In Denmark, some counts (lensgrever), historically those related by blood or marriage to the Danish monarch, who have entered a morganatic marriage or otherwise left the Royal Family have the right to be styled as Your Excellency, e.g., the Counts of Danneskiold-Samsøe, some of the counts of Rosenborg and the Countess of Frederiksborg (ad personam).
In the Sultanate of Sulu, senior nobility and holders of royal offices that are granted the title of Datu Sadja are addressed as His/Her Excellency.
Excellency can also attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. For example, in the Empire of Brazil, it was attached to the highest classes, each time called Grand Cross, of all three imperial orders: Imperial Order of Pedro I, Imperial Order of the Southern Cross with the military honours of a Lieutenant general and Order of the Rose.
Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Spanish Orders of Chivalry, such as the Order of Charles III, Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of Civil Merit, Order of Alfonso X the Wise, Royal Order of Sports Merit, Civil Order of Health, as well as recipients of the Grand Cross of Military, Naval, and Aeronautical Merit are addressed as such. Furthermore, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great and the Order of St. Sylvester of the Holy See, and Grand Cross of The Lion, Crested Crane, Crown, and The Drum of Rwanda, and Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece, and Knights Grand Cross of several other orders of high prestige, are often addressed as Excellency.
By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency or Excellentia Reverendissima in Latin. In the years following the First World War, the ambassadorial title of Excellency, previously given to nuncios, had already begun to be used by other Catholic bishops. The adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the religious title from that of Excellency given to civil officials.
The instruction Ut sive sollicite of the Holy See's Secretariat of State, dated 28 March 1969, made the addition of Most Reverend optional, sanctioning what had always been the practice, except possibly for the beginnings of letters and the like.
According to the letter of the decree of 31 December 1930, titular patriarchs too were to be addressed with the title of (Most Reverend) Excellency, but in practice the Holy See continued to address them with the title of Beatitude, which was formally sanctioned for them with the motu proprio Cleri sanctitati of 2 June 1957.
Cardinals, even those who were bishops, continued to use the title of Eminence.
Eastern Orthodox titular metropolitans are addressed with the style of Excellency.
In some English-speaking countries, the honorific of Excellency does not apply to bishops other than the nuncio. In English law, Anglican archbishops are granted the title of His/Her Grace, similar to a duke, and bishops are granted the title of Lord. The same titles are extended by courtesy to their Catholic counterparts, and continue in use in most countries that are or have been members of the Commonwealth, with the exception of the former British East African countries of Kenya, Uganda of Tanzania.
In Afghanistan the title Jalalat Mahab is used for Sardars, or Princes of the former Muhammadzai Dynasty, who are descendants of the Afghan King Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai. Although Jalalat Mahab is derived from the Arabic term Jalalat literally meaning His Majesty, it is regarded as equal to His Excellency or His Royal Highness internationally.
The descendants of King Nadir Shah held the title Alaa Hazrat in which context Hazrat is Turkish and means Majesty or Highness and thus literally translated means Higher Majesty or Higher Highness and is internationally also equal to His Royal Highness. The King himself held the title Alaa Hazrat Humayoon which literally translated means His Most Noble Majesty, and can be equalized with His Majesty internationally. President Daoud Khan, the Cousin of the last Afghan King Zahir Shah, who acted as Prime Minister under his cousin held the address Jalalat Mahab Aali Qadr Sardari Alaa during his term as Prime Minister.
The president, the chairman of the Parliament and the prime minister are addressed as His/Her Excellency.
The president, the prime minister, the chairman of the Parliament, as well as ministers and ambassadors of Armenia are addressed as Excellency, which in Armenian is Ձերդ գերազանցութիւն, Romanized Dzerd gerazancutiwn. The members of the traditional Armenian nobility are also addressed as Excellency, which in Armenian it is Ձերդ պայծառութիւն Romanized as Dzerd paytzarrowtiwn, literally Your Brightness.
In Bangladesh the president prime minister, the speaker of the Parliament and international diplomats are styled with His/Her Excellency.
Members of the Council of Ministers of Belgium, consisting of the prime minister, deputy prime minister(s), other ministers, and Secretaries of state, and also honorary ministers of state, are entitled to the style of His/Her Excellency.
The style is also used for the governors of Belgium, which are governors of the ten provinces of Belgium, governor of Brussels, governor of the national bank of Belgium and both foreign ambassadors in Belgium and Belgian ambassadors to other countries.
Moreover, within the Catholic Church in Belgium, the (arch-)bishops and (pro-)nuntia are addressed as His Excellency Monsignor or Zijne Excellentie Monseigneur in Dutch.
In 1991, the Brazilian Presidential Office issued a composition manual to establish the appropriate usage of the Portuguese language for all government agencies. The manual states that the title of Excelência (Excellency) is the proper form used to address the president and vice president, all members of parliament and judges, among other officials.
In the Kingdom of Cambodia, deputy prime ministers, senior ministers, members of the Council of Ministers, secretary of state, and members of Parliament are addressed as "His/Her Excellency" (Khmer: ឯកឧត្ដម, Êk Ŏtdâm/លោកជំទាវ, Loŭk Chumtéav).
Within the Commonwealth of Nations, the following officials usually use the style His or Her Excellency:
While reference may be made to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, the style Excellency is not used with reference to the King.
The president of Chile and the president of the Chamber of Deputies of Chile are addressed by the style "His/Her Excellency".
The president of Germany and chancellor of Germany are both addressed by the style "Excellency" in international diplomacy, albeit not domestically.
The president of India and governors of Indian states are addressed as Rāshtrapati Mahoday (राष्ट्रपति महोदय/ महोदया, Honourable President) and Rājyapāl Mahoday or Rājyapāl Mahodaya (if lady) (राज्यपाल महोदय/Honourable Governor) respectively.
His/Her Excellency, a custom dating from the ancient times wherein the Samrāt and Sāmrājñi (सम्राट, साम्राज्ञी/Emperor, Empress), Generals, Kings, Ambassadors were addressed. A classic example is addressing Devvrat (Bhishma) as महामहिम भीष्म (His/Your Excellency Bhishma) in Mahabharat.
However the Constitution makers[clarification needed] approved will discontinue "ancient era" styles of Mahāmahim. The same release states that in English (which is the other language in which subsidiary official communications are released in the Central Government of India in its capacity of Sahāyak Rājabhāśhā: Subsidiary Officiating language) the style Honourable shall replace the erstwhile His/Her/Your Excellency. The newer style will be Honourable.
The corresponding changes in releases from the President's Secretariat shall be from Mahāmahim to Rāshtrapatiji. The release also talks about the styles of other dignitaries, like governors. "Hon'ble" will be used before the titles "president" and "governor", while the traditional honorifics Shri or Smt. (Shrimati) should precede the name.
However, "Excellency" will continue to be used, only for interaction of leaders with foreign dignitaries and foreign dignitaries with Indian leaders as is customary international practice.
The president of Ireland is addressed as Your Excellency or in the Irish language, a Shoilse (literally, "brightness (VOC)". Alternatively, one may address the president simply as President or in the Irish language a Uachtaráin.
The president of Italy and the prime minister of Italy (officially called President of the Council of Ministers) are addressed as “His/Her Excellency” in international diplomacy. Furthermore, the terms “president” and “premier” are used as well. This latter is an informal and common address for the prime minister of Italy. For both institutional charges, the term “president” is usually exploited in formal and informal situations.
Like many countries that once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, His/Her Excellency is used as the style for those with the title of Bey or Pasha. In Arabic the latter titles are often included between the first and last names of the holder, while in English the titles are not usually included and the style of His/Her Excellency is used on its own. Those styled this way include government ministers, senior military officers, and the husbands and children of Princesses.
The president of Kenya is addressed as "His/Her Excellency".
The governors of the counties and diplomats are also addressed as "His/Her Excellency".
The governors (Yang di-Pertua Negeri) of Melaka, Penang, Sabah, and Sarawak are addressed as "His Excellency" (Tuan Yang Terutama). High commissioners and ambassadors are also addressed as "His/Her Excellency" (Tuan/Puan Yang Terutama).
The president of Myanmar, first lady, state counsellor, vice-presidents of Myanmar, speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, speaker of the House of Nationalities, speaker of the House of Representatives of Myanmar, governor of the Central Bank of Myanmar, members of the Cabinet of Myanmar, chief ministers of states and regions of Myanmar, mayors and ambassadors are addressed as "His/Her Excellency" while justices of the Supreme Court of Myanmar are addressed as "The Honourable".
Members of the cabinet of the Netherlands (prime minister, deputy prime minister(s), other ministers, and state secretaries), but also honorary ministers of state, are entitled to the style of "His/Her Excellency".
The style is also used for the executive officers of the Dutch royal court (great officers of the Royal House, hofmarschall, equerrys), governors of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten), ambassadors (both foreign ambassadors in the Netherlands and Dutch ambassadors to other countries), judges of the International Court of Justice, and flag- and general officers of three-star rank and above (generals, lieutenant-generals, lieutenant-admirals, and vice-admirals).
Moreover, within the Catholic Church in the Netherlands, the (arch-)bishops and (pro-)nuntia are addressed as "His Most Reverend Excellency" (i.e. in Dutch as Zijne Hoogwaardige Excellentie).
The president of Nigeria and vice-president of Nigeria shares the style "His/Her Excellency" with the various governors and their deputies of the country's regional states as well as their wives.
The prime minister of Pakistan and the president of Pakistan, are both addressed as "His/Her Excellency".
The president of Peru is addressed as "His/Her Excellency" (In Spanish: Su Excelencia) if in diplomatic context.
The president (Filipino: pangulo; Spanish and colloquially: presidente) is addressed in English as "Your Excellency" and "Sir" or "Ma'am" thereafter, and is referred to "His/Her Excellency". The president can also less formally be addressed as "Mister/Madam President". In Filipino, the president may be referred to with the more formal title of "Ang Mahál na Pangulo", with "mahál" connoting greatness and high social importance.[nb 1]
Populist president Rodrigo Duterte has expressed dislike for the traditional title. After assuming office in June 2016, he ordered that the title, along with all honorifics, be dropped from official communications, events, and materials but instead, he be addressed only as "Mayor" since people are already used to calling him as such due to Duterte being the longest-serving mayor of Davao City and that his cabinet officials only be addressed as "Secretary". Other government officials followed suit by abandoning use of "The Honorable". However, despite the prior unofficial abandonment, the president continues to be addressed as "Excellency" in formal correspondences and petitions, either verbally or written.
All other local and national government officials are styled "The Honorable"; both titles, however, may be glossed in Filipino as Ang Kagalang-galang.
In Portugal, the proper style of the president is "His/Her Excellency" (Portuguese: Sua Excelência).
The president of Somalia is addressed as "His/Her Excellency" or "Jaale". Jaale was also a title used by armed forces staff officers of all branches, especially in the Aden Adde-Shermarke Era, and the Barre Era but has now is rare and has become a title for civil servants and senior government secretaries.
The president of South Africa (and historically the state president of the South African Republic), is (and was) addressed as "His/Her Excellency" if in a formal context.
The president of South Korea is addressed as "His/Her Excellency" (Korean: 각하, romanized: gagha) if in a formal context both inside and outside of South Korea.
Spain uses the title "The Most Excellent" extensively as a formal address to high officers of the state. The following officials receive the treatment:
The style "His Excellency", which has a higher connotation than "The Most Excellent", is instead reserved for the children of an Infante or Infanta, who have the rank (but not the title) of Grandees.
The president of Sri Lanka was addressed as His/Her Excellency. This was until 2022, when President Ranil Wickremesinghe banned the use. However, it is still used diplomatically.
The Swedish language title and forms of address are Hans/Hennes Excellens (His/Her Excellency) and Ers Excellens (Your Excellency).
During most of the 20th century in Sweden, only three officials (other than foreign ambassadors accredited in Sweden and Swedish ambassadors at their post) were granted to the style of Excellency: the prime minister, the minister for foreign affairs and the marshal of the realm (the highest ranking courtier). They were indeed collectively referred to as "the three excellencies" (Swedish: de tre excellenserna) In the 1970s it fell out of custom in Sweden to address the prime minister and the minister of foreign affairs as such, although they continue to be addressed as such in United Nations protocol and in other diplomatic writing.
Prior to the 19th century, a Lord of the Realm (Swedish: En af Rikets Herrar) and a member of the Council of the Realm were also entitled to the style as Excellency.
The prime Minister of Thailand, deputy prime ministers, other cabinet members, governors and ambassadors are addressed as "His/Her Excellency".
The president of Turkey is addressed as "His/Her Excellency", as well as ambassadors of Turkey.
In the United States, the form Excellency was commonly used for George Washington during his service as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and later when president of the United States, but it began to fall out of use with his successor John Adams, and today is sometimes replaced in direct address with the simple Mr. President or the Honorable.
Nevertheless, in the protocol of many foreign countries and United Nations, the president and the secretary of state are usually referred to as Excellency. Diplomatic correspondence to President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, as during the Trent Affair, for instance, frequently referred to him as His Excellency.
The form Excellency was used for the governors of most of the original Thirteen Colonies, and the practice formally continued after independence. For example, the term was formerly used in Georgia on the state governor's letterhead, the text of executive orders, any document that requires the governor's signature, and informal settings. However, in most states the practice fell out of use (or was never introduced) and the title Honorable is now used instead.
Though the U.S. president and U.S. ambassadors are traditionally accorded the style elsewhere, the U.S. government does not usually use Excellency for its own chiefs of missions, preferring Honorable instead.
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Por su parte, el Decreto de las Cortes de Cádiz de 8 de junio de 1812 establece que los Secretarios de Estado y del Despacho, que lo fueren en propiedad, y mientras permanecieren en el empleo, tendrán el mismo tratamiento que los consejeros de Estado. Mediante Real Decreto de 19 de noviembre de 1823, se creó el Consejo de Ministros, formado por los Secretarios de Estado y del Despacho.
"Para evitar la variedad con que se ha procedido por diversas personas y secretarías en quanto (sic) a tratamientos, después de vista y examinada la materia en mi Suprema Junta de Estado, he venido en declarar que el tratamiento de excelencia se dé enteramente poniendo encima de los escritos excelentísimo señor a los grandes y consejeros de Estado, o que tienen honores de tales, como hasta aquí se ha hecho [...]"