|Pontifical Equestrian Order of Saint Sylvester Pope and Martyr|
Ordo Sancti Silvestri Papae
|Awarded by Holy See|
|Type||Papal order of knighthood|
|Motto||MULTUM IN PARVO|
|Grades||Knight/Dame Grand Cross|
Knight/Dame Commander with Star
|Next (higher)||Order of St. Gregory the Great|
|Next (lower)||Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice|
Ribbon bar of the order
Pontifical Equestrian Order of Saint Sylvester Pope and Martyr (Latin: Ordo Sancti Silvestri Papae, Italian: Ordine di San Silvestro Papa), sometimes referred to as the Sylvestrine Order, or the Pontifical Order of Pope Saint Sylvester, is one of five orders of knighthood awarded directly by the Pope as Supreme Pontiff and head of the Catholic Church and as the Head of State of Vatican City.
This Order was at one time united with the Order of the Golden Militia. Pope Pius X in his motu proprio of 7 February 1905, entitled Multum ad excitandos, divided the Sylvestrine Order into two Orders of Knighthood, one retaining the name of St. Sylvester and the other taking the ancient name of the Order, i.e. Order of the Golden Militia, or Order of the Golden Spur.
It is intended to honor Roman Catholic lay people who are actively involved in the life of the church, particularly as it is exemplified in the exercise of their professional duties and mastership of the different arts. It is also conferred on non-Catholics and in the UK current recipients include prominent Anglicans, Muslims and Jews.
Awards of the Order are generally made on the recommendation of Diocesan Bishops or of Apostolic Nuncios (nominations may be made by parish priests to their bishop for his consideration). Awards are also granted on recommendation of the Papal Secretary of State. Pope John Paul II extended membership in the Order to ladies as well as gentlemen.
Prior to the year 1841 it was known as the Militia of the Golden Spur or Golden Militia, and though it is not historically established who among the many supposed founders is the true one, yet it undoubtedly is the oldest and, at one time, was one of the most prized of the papal orders. Faculties granted to the Sforza family, to the College of Abbreviators, and to bishops assistant at the throne to create Knights of the Golden Militia resulted in lavish bestowal and diminished prestige of the decoration.
Pope Gregory XVI in his Papal Brief of 31 October 1841, entitled Quod hominum mentes, retained the ancient name of the Order and placed it under the patronage of St. Sylvester (one of its alleged founders). He withdrew all faculties to whom and by whomsoever given, and forbade the use of the title or the decoration to all knights created by any means other than a Papal Brief. To restore the Order to its ancient glory and splendour, he limited the number of Commanders to 150 and knights to 300 (for the Papal States only), and appointed the Cardinal of Apostolic Briefs as Chancellor of the Order, with the duty of preserving the name, grade, number and date of admission of each knight.
Pope Gregory divided the Order into two classes:
The decoration or cross of the Order, according to Pope Gregory's Brief, was an eight-pointed gold cross with an image of St. Sylvester wearing the tiara on its white enameled centre, and around this centre a blue enamelled circle bearing in letters of gold the inscription SANC. SYLVESTER P. M. On the reverse side, in golden characters, was stamped MDCCCXLI GREGORIUS XVI RESTITUIT. A small golden spur hung suspended from the two sides of the foot of the cross of the Order to mark the unity of the Sylvestrine Order with that of the Golden Militia.
The ribbon of the decoration was of silk composed of five strands, three of which were red, and two black. The golden chain worn around the neck by members of both classes had the decoration with its tiny golden spur suspended from it.
The official uniform was a red evening dress coat with two rows of gold buttons with green collar and facing. The gold embroideries of the coat were of a more ornate design for Grand Crosses and less so for Commanders and Knights. White trousers, with gold side bands, hat with white plumes and a sword with a silver hilt and also gilt spurs, completed this rarely used costume.
The Order currently has three classes. In order of seniority they are:
Each recipient may illustrate their Papal knighthood with post nominal lettering as seen above.
The current decoration or cross of the Order is a gold cross of white enamelled surface, in the centre of which is impressed the image of St. Sylvester, surrounded by a blue enamelled circle bearing the inscription in letters of gold SANC. SYLVESTER P. M. On the obverse, in the centre, are the Papal tiara and crossed keys with the date of the Order's restoration under Gregory: MDCCCXXXXR, and that of the Pius X renovation, MDCCCCV, impressed in characters of gold upon a blue circle.
The ribbon of the decoration is black silk with three narrow red stripes.
The star or badge is the cross of the Order attached to a silver star.
The official uniform is a black coat ornamented with one row of gilt buttons, black velvet, gold-embroidered collar and cuffs, black gold-striped trousers, a bicornered cocked silk (bicorne) hat with a cockade of the papal colors to which is added a white plume when worn by a Knight Grand Cross, a black plume when worn by a Commander, and a sword. Knights Grand Cross wear a sash and a badge or star on the left side of the breast; Commanders wear a cross around the neck; and Knights wear a smaller cross on the left breast of the uniform. The uniform is considerably more embroidered for the higher ranks and white gloves are usually worn.
Knight Commander with Star
Knight Grand Cross
In ecclesiastical heraldry, laypersons awarded the rank Grand Cross display a blue enamelled circle bearing the inscription in letters of gold SANC. SYLVESTER P. M around the shield in their coat of arms, while other ranks place an appropriate ribbon below the shield.
Papal knights and dames do not have any specific obligations by virtue of their having been given the personal honour of membership in an Order. However, it is customary for them to be invited to participate in major events of their diocese, such as the consecration of bishops, the ordination of priests, and the introduction of a new bishop into his diocese. On such formal occasions they would wear the uniform of the Order.
There are National Associations of Papal Knights in France, Great Britain, Ireland and the United States, as well as Diocesan Associations such as those in Milan and Los Angeles.