Gendarmerie General Command
Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Emblem of the Gendarmerie General Command
Emblem of the Gendarmerie General Command
Flag of the Gendarmerie General Commander
Flag of the Gendarmerie General Commander
Agency overview
Formed1839[1]
Preceding agencies
Employees182,000 active personnel[2]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionTurkey
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersAnkara
Elected officer responsible
Agency executives
  • General Arif Çetin, Commander
  • General Ali Çardakçı, Deputy Commander
  • Lt. General Halis Zafer KOÇ, Deputy Commander
  • Lt. General İsmail BALIBEK, Deputy Commander
  • Lt. General Hüseyin KURTOĞLU, Deputy Commander
Parent agencyMinistry of the Interior, Turkish Armed Forces,[3] (in wartime until 2016)
Notables
Significant operations
Website
jandarma.gov.tr/

The Gendarmerie General Command (Turkish: Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) is the national gendarmerie force of the Republic of Turkey. It is a service branch of the Turkish Ministry of Interior responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. In wartime, some of its elements can be subordinated to Turkish Land Forces by the President of Turkey.

The Commander of the Gendarmerie reports to the Minister of the Interior.

The Gendarmerie has its roots in the Ottoman Empire military law enforcement organization "Subaşı" (later known as the "Zaptiye"). A similar, earlier force called "Şurta" existed during the medieval Seljuq Empire.

History

Ottoman Gendarmerie Cavalry in Macedonia.

Ottoman era

Main article: Ottoman Gendarmerie

After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established for security and public order in Anatolia and in some provinces of Rumelia.[citation needed]

British officers in the Ottoman Gendarmerie, 1904

As the first use of the term Gendarmerie was in the Assignment Decrees published in the years following the 1839 Edict of Gülhane, it is assumed that the Gendarmerie organization was founded after that year, but the exact date of foundation has not yet been determined. Therefore, the date on which the name Asâkir-i Zaptiye Nizâmnâmesi was adopted, June 14, 1839, is usually considered the foundation date of the Turkish Gendarmerie.[4]

After the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, Ottoman prime minister Mehmed Said Pasha decided to bring police officers from Britain and France to establish a modern law enforcement organization. The Gendarmerie was used to great effect after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, particularly in Rumelia. In 1909, the Gendarmerie was affiliated with the Ministry of War, and its name was changed to the Gendarmerie General Command (Ottoman Turkish: Umûm Jandarma Kumandanlığı).

Gendarmerie units continued their internal security duties as well as taking part in the conflict at various fronts as a part of the Armed Forces during World War I and the Turkish War of Independence.[citation needed]

Republic of Turkey

20th century

A Turkish conscript gendarme on guard at Topkapı Palace in Istanbul

The Gendarmerie organization achieved its current legal status on June 10, 1930. In 1939, the Gendarmerie organization was restructured, having three groups: Fixed Gendarmerie Units, Mobile Gendarmerie Units, and Gendarmerie Training Units and Schools.[citation needed]

In 1956, the Gendarmerie General Command was assigned the duties of protecting borders, coasts and territorial waters, and fighting smuggling, which had been previously carried out by the Gümrük Umum Kumandanlığı, under the Ministry of Customs and Monopoly. In 1957, Gendarmerie Border Units were transformed into brigades, and Gendarmerie Training Brigades were established.[citation needed]

In 1961, Gendarmerie Regional Commands were established. In 1968, the first Gendarmerie Aviation Unit was established in Diyarbakır under the name of Light Helicopter Company Command.[citation needed]

In 1974, Gendarmerie Commando Units and Gendarmerie Aviation Units took part in the Turkish military operations in Cyprus.[citation needed]

In 1988, the duty of protecting the land borders and ensuring their security was assigned to the Land Forces Command, but Gendarmerie General Command still holds the responsibility for some parts of the Iranian and Syrian borders and the whole Iraqi border.[citation needed]

The Gendarmerie Criminal Department was founded in Ankara in 1993 and from 1994, Gendarmerie Regional Criminal Laboratory Superiorities? were founded. Crime Scene Examination Teams, Explosive Material Disposal Units, Fingerprints and Palm Prints Branches and Crime Scene Examination Units were also established.[citation needed]

21st century

In 2016, the Gendarmerie General Command was affiliated to the Ministry of Interior.[5]

In 2018, Gendarmerie Special Operations participated in Operation Olive Branch, part of the Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War.[citation needed] According to the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights, Turkish Gendarmerie killed 500 Syrian civilians at the turkish-syrian border.[6]

The Gendarmerie General Command currently has a total of 3,600 units, including 3,056 Internal Security Units, 218 Commando Units, 162 Prison Units, 160 Protection Units and four Aviation Units.[citation needed]

Duties

The duties of the gendarmerie according to the Law No. 2803 on the Organization, Duties and Powers of the Gendarmerie; It is categorized under four main titles as judicial, military, civil and other duties.[7]

Judicial duties

Civil duties

Military duties

Other duties

Structure

Gendarmerie General Command Headquarters

Commands

Gendarmerie General Command Headquarters (Ankara)

Criminal units

Other units

Ranks

Officers

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkish Gendarmerie
Various
[a]
Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen

Other Ranks

NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkish Gendarmerie[16][17]
Uzman Jandarma VIII Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma VII Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma VI Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma V Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma IV Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma III Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma II Kademeli Çavuş Uzman Jandarma I Kademeli Çavuş
Uzman Çavuş IV Uzman Çavuş III Uzman Çavuş II Uzman Çavuş I
Astsubay kıdemli başçavuş Astsubay başçavuş Astsubay kıdemli üstçavuş Astsubay üstçavuş Astsubay kıdemli çavuş Astsubay çavuş Uzman onbaşı

The Gendarmerie Museum

Museum

The Gendarmerie Museum is established in order to reflect the developments in periodical order beginning with the foundation of the Gendarmerie organization; to exhibit its activities, heroic deeds, services in the history; to protect all kinds of military cultural assets related to the Gendarmerie by collecting them and to transfer them to the future generations. The Gendarmerie Museum in the Beytepe Lieutenant General İsmail SELEN Quarters in Ankara and is open to public.[18]

Equipment

Handguns

Shotguns

Submachine guns

Assault and battle rifles

Machine guns

Sniper rifles

Rocket and grenade launchers

Mortars

Directed energy weapon

Anti-drone system

Vehicles and Aerial vehicles

Model Image Origin/Assembly Type Variant Quantity Details
Patrol vehicles
TOGG[50]  Turkey Electric Patrol vehicle SUV N/A
BMC Tulga Armoured patrol vehicle SUV Expected to enter the inventory of Gendarmerie 2025.It will be produced 300 in total.[51][52]
Isuzu D-Max[53]  Japan
 Turkey
Patrol vehicle Pick-up N/A
Dacia Duster[54]  France
 Romania
 Turkey
SUV
Fiat Egea[55]  Italy
 Turkey
Sedan 50
Fiat Doblo[55] Bus 50
Reanult Megane[56]  France
 Turkey
Traffic patrol vehicle Sedan N/A
Renault Fluence[56]
Toyota Corolla[57]  Japan
 Turkey
Mitsubishi Triton[58] Pick-up
Nisan Navara[53]
Ford Ranger[59]  United States
 Turkey
Patrol vehicle
Ford Transit Custom[60] Van
Ford Transit[61]
Honda Africa Twin[56]  Japan
 Turkey
Patrol Motorbike CRF1000L
BMW R1200[56]  Germany
 Turkey
R1200 GS
Armoured vehicles
Sisu Nasu  Finland Tracked All-Terrain Vehicle NA-140 BT 47
BMC Kirpi  Turkey MRAP Kirpi

Kirpi II[62]

200

200[63][64]

Integrated JARMOL Directed energy weapon on Kirpi 1.[65]It can be combined with IHTAR KARTAL-2 anti-drone system.[66]
BMC Vuran[67]  Turkey MRAP Vuran 4x4

Vuran Alkar

200 BMC Vuran armored vehicle with Mobile Adjustable Ramp System.[68] The Gendarmerie took delivery of the VURAN vehicles mounted on the ALKAR 120mm Mortar Weapon System. Mobile mortar capability will be gained with ALKAR-mounted VURAN vehicles.[47]
Nurol Ejder[67]  Turkey MRAP Ejder Yalçın 4x4 400+[69]
Otokar Cobra  Turkey Infantry Mobility Vehicle Cobra I

Cobra II[67]

200

100[63]

Otokar Ural -  Turkey Armoured patrol vehicle N/A[70]
Otokar Akrep  Turkey Armoured reconnaissance vehicle Akrep I Turkish Land Forces as new models enter the equipment slowly giving the old equipment to the gendarmerie.
Otokar APV  Turkey

 United Kingdom

Armoured Patrol vehicle Based on Shorland S55.[71]
FNSS PARS III  Turkey Armoured personnel carrier Expected to be delivered 6x6 and 8x8 vehicles in 5 different variants.[72]
BTR-80  Soviet Union BTR-80M 180[73] Bought from ex-GDR surplus. Modernized with ASELSAN thermal suite. In storage.
BTR-60 BTR-60PB 295[73] Bought from ex-GDR surplus. Modernized with BMC powertrains. In storage.
Community Incident Intervention Vehicle
TOMA[67]  Turkey Armoured vehicle N/A
Condor  Germany Armoured personnel carrier Condor 1 25[74]
Dragoon  United States Amphibious Armoured fighting vehicle Dragoon 300 150[75]
Engineering vehicle
MEMATT -  Turkey Demining vehicle 2 on order[76]
Aircraft
Beechcraft Super King Air[77][78]  United States Light transport/

Reconnaissance aircraft

B350[79] N/A Used by Gendarmerie Aviation Command[78]
Cessna C-680  United States Light transport aircraft C-680[80]
AQUILA A212  Germany Light aircraft/Trainer aircraft A212 1[81] New variant in use.[82]
Helicopters
TAI/AgustaWestland T129 ATAK  Turkey
 Italy
Attack helicopter Phase I

Phase II

13[83] 3 on order.
Sikorsky-S70 Black Hawk  United States
 Turkey
Medium Transport/Utility helicopter S-70A
S-70i
T-70
12[84]
N/A
3[85][86]
Avionics upgraded by ASELSAN.

30 T-70 on order.[87]

TAI T625 Gökbey  Turkey Light Transport/Utility Helicopter T625 It will replace UH-1 Huey helicopters.

20 on order.[88][89]

UH-1 Huey  United States Utility helicopter/Transport AB-204B/

AB-205A[90]

14[91] Avionics upgraded by ASELSAN.
Mil Mi-17  Russia Transport/Utility helicopter Mi-17 IVA 19[92] Avionics upgraded by ASELSAN. Upgraded with night vision system.[93]
Gyrocopter
Autogyro Cavalon  Germany Reconnaissance/Surveillance 3[94] In the first stage 3 gyrocopters will be put into service. In the agreement, the number of gyrocopters to be purchased will be up to 8.[95]
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
TAI Anka  Turkey UCAV Anka S 6[96] Elazig Gendarmerie UAV command[97][98]
Bayraktar TB2 TB2 18[99]
STM KARGU[100] Loitering munition Kargu-2 N/A
Baykar Bayraktar Mini Miniature UAV C
UÇBEY[101] - VTOL UAV
Black Hornet Nano[102]  Norway Micro-UAV PD-100 Black Hornet

Surface Combatant

Boat
Name Origin Quantity Type Details
ASBOT KN-35  Turkey 10[103] Security Boat ASBOT KN-35 boats were designed and developed by ASFAT A.Ş. for the units belonging to the Gendarmerie General Command.[104]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Student officer insignia designates school grade rather than military seniority.

References

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