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Finnish Border Guard
Rajavartiolaitos (Finnish)
Gränsbevakningsväsendet (Swedish)
Emblem of the Finnish Border Guard
Emblem of the Finnish Border Guard
Ship racing stripe
AbbreviationFBG
Agency overview
Formed21 March 1919; 105 years ago (1919-03-21)
Employees3,800 career personnel, mobilised strength 12,600
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionFinland
Specialist jurisdictions
  • Immigration
  • National border patrol, security, and integrity.
  • Coastal patrol, marine border protection, marine search and rescue.
Operational structure
Elected officer responsible
Agency executives
  • Lieutenant general Pasi Kostamovaara, Chief of the Border Guard
  • Rear admiral Markku Hassinen, Deputy Chief of the Border Guard
Child agencies
  • 5 District Commands
  • 15 Battalions
Website
raja.fi/en/

The Finnish Border Guard (FBG,[1] Finnish: Rajavartiolaitos, RVL;[2] Swedish: Gränsbevakningsväsendet, GBV)[3] is the agency responsible for enforcing the security of Finland's borders. It is a military organisation, subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior in administrative issues and to the president of Finland in issues pertaining to his authority as Commander-in-Chief (e.g. officer promotions). The agency has police and investigative powers in immigration matters and can independently investigate immigration violations. The Finnish Coast Guard has search and rescue (SAR) duties, both maritime and inland. Missions inland are often carried out in co-operation with local fire and rescue departments or other authorities.

The Finnish Border Guard consists of 3,800 active duty personnel. Upon mobilization, it would be wholly or partly incorporated into the Finnish Defence Forces and its strength increased with reservists who have served their conscription in the branch. The mobilized strength of the Finnish Border Guard is 12,600 servicemen. The Finnish-Russian border is actively monitored. The western sea borders and the western and northern land borders to Sweden and Norway are free to cross under the Nordic passport union, the Border Guard does however maintain personnel in these regions owing to its SAR duties.

There is a separate Finnish Customs agency, and immigration is also handled by the Finnish National Police and the Finnish Directorate of Immigration. PTR (police, customs and border guard) co-operation is well-developed and allows the authorities to conduct each other's duties if necessary.

Duties and jurisdiction

Main duties of the Finnish Border Guard:

For the discharge of its duties, the Border Guard has limited police powers in the areas where it operates. It can, for example, seize and arrest persons and conduct searches in apartments and cars pursuant to same legislation as the police, when investigating a crime. However, the power to arrest a person has been delegated only to the commanding officers of border control detachments and commanders and vice-commanders of larger units.

The Border Guard is not supposed to be used for the keeping of public order under normal circumstances, but it has two readiness platoons that can be used to support the Police in exceptional situations in matters of crowd control and internal security (including incidents involving dangerous armed criminals).[4] The readiness platoons have been used to supplement riot police during high-profile international events where there is a perceived danger of violent demonstrations, e.g. during the "Smash ASEM" demonstration in 2006.[5] However, the main duty of the readiness platoons is to handle the most demanding border security incidents.[4] Border Guard helicopters have also been used to assist police and rescue authorities in various missions.

The Border Guard also has the power to keep public order in its own facilities and in their immediate vicinity. For the execution of its military exercises, any officer with the minimum rank of Captain can close an area temporarily.

The Border Guard is responsible for enforcing the 3–5 km (1.9–3.1 mi) border zone towards Russia and issues the permits to visit the zone.

Organisation

Finnish Border Guard on patrol with a dog

Administrative units are responsible for the functions of the Border Guard. These administrative units are the Border Guard Headquarters, Southeast Finland, North Karelia, Kainuu and Lapland border guard districts, the Gulf of Finland and West Finland coast guard districts, Air Patrol Squadron and Border and Coast Guard Academy.

The Border Guards have two readiness units; the 1st Special Intervention Unit, which operates in South-Eastern Finland, and the 5th Special Intervention Unit, who operates in the Gulf of Finland area.[6]

Training

The basic training of border guard personnel is based in Imatra, while the sea training for coast guards is based in Turku.[7]

Equipment

Watercraft

Patrol vessel Turva
Hovercraft IA-202
Patrol boat PV 281

The Border Guard operates:

Vehicles

Volkswagen Transporter in 2017

The Finnish Border Guard operates by several types of vehicles on soil.

The list of operative vehicles:

Operative personnel's equipment

Officers carry on a daily basis:

Small arms

Light weapons:

Heavy arms

Heavy weapons:

Aircraft

Search and rescue helicopter (Super Puma)
Dornier 228 and Agusta A119 Koala

The Border Guard operates 14 aircraft, including 12 helicopters. The AB 412s are to be replaced by new twin-engined helicopters, while the Super Pumas and Dornier 228s are being modernized.

Aircraft Type Versions In service[12] Notes
AgustaWestland AW119 utility helicopter AW119Ke 4 Built by Agusta
Bell 412 transport helicopter AB 412
AB 412EP
4
1
Built by Agusta
Eurocopter Super Puma transport helicopter AS 332L1
H215
1
4
All helicopters modernized to the H215 standard as of 2022.
Dornier 228 maritime patrol aircraft Dornier 228-212 2 To be replaced.

MVX Programme

The Border Guard has announced that due to increasing problems with Dornier 228's, they are to be replaced by new aircraft. With a budget of 60 million euro, a letter has been sent to around 20 suppliers. Candidates include the Airbus C295 MSA, ATR 42 and ATR 72, and the Bombardier Challenger 650.[13][14] In April 2022, the budget of the Dornier 228 MVX replacement program was increased to 163 million euros, along with other defence spending boosts in wake of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[15]

The MVX programme has received a total of 14 different offers. During the selection process the types were reduced, and consists currently of three jet-powered aircraft:[16]

Lighter aircraft

Larger, propeller-driven turbine powered aircraft, either new or used

Used:

New:

Jet-engined aircraft

The final candidates for the complete package are:[18]

History

Finnish border guards chatting with a villager at the Finnish-Russian border at Imatra, on 5 July 1967.

After the Finnish Civil War in 1919, the control of the Finnish borders was given to the former Finnish Russian frontier troops under the command of the Ministry of Interior. Until 1945, only the Russian border was supervised by the Frontier Guard, the Swedish and Norwegian borders having only customs control. In 1929, a separate Sea Guard was founded to prevent the rampant alcohol smuggling caused by the Finnish prohibition of alcohol (1919–1932).

At the start of the Winter War there were nine Border Companies (Rajakomppania) on the Karelian Isthmus. North of Lake Ladoga the Frontier Guards were combined into six Detached Battalions (Erillinen pataljoona). Further north in Petsamo the defence was left to the 10th Detached Company (10. Erillinen komppania). After the war marshal Mannerheim awarded all frontier guards the title "Border jäger" (Rajajääkäri). During the Continuation War, the Frontier Guard companies were combined into 12 Border Jäger battalions (Rajajääkäripataljoona) and later during the Lapland War into a Border Jäger Brigade (Rajajääkäriprikaati).

Ranks

Commissioned officer ranks

The rank insignia of commissioned officers.

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Finland Finnish Border Guard
Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Candidate Officer Student
Kenraali/
Amiraali
Kenraaliluutnantti/
Vara-amiraali
Kenraalimajuri/
Kontra-amiraali
Prikaatikenraali/
Lippueamiraali
Eversti/
Kommodori
Everstiluutnantti/
Komentaja
Majuri/
Komentajakapteeni
Kapteeni/
Kapteeniluutnantti
Yliluutnantti/
Yliluutnantti
Luutnantti/
Luutnantti
Vänrikki/
Aliluutnantti
Upseerikokelas Upseerioppilas
General/
Amiral
Generallöjtnant/
Viceamiral
Generalmajor/
Konteramiral
Brigadgeneral/
Flottiljamiral
Överste/
Kommodor
Överstelöjtnant/
Kommendör
Major/
Kommendörkapten
Kapten/
Kaptenlöjtnant
Premiärlöjtnant Löjtnant Fänrik/
Underlöjtnant
Officersaspirant Officerselev

Other ranks

The rank insignia of non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel.

NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Finland Finnish Border Guard
No insignia
Rajavartiomestari Ylirajavartija Vanhempi rajavartija Nuorempi rajavartija Ylirajajääkäri Rajajääkäri Alokas
Bevakningsmästare Överbevakare Äldrebevakare Yngrebevakare Övergränsjägare Gränsjägare Rekryt

Current activities

The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (September 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

After the Second World War, the Border Guards were placed on all Finnish borders. In the 1950s, the Sea Guard was attached to the Border Guard. Since then, the Border Guard has received a fine public image. It is famed for the wilderness skills of its guards foot-patrolling the forest-covered Russian border, its good efficiency in catching the few illegal border crossers and for the fact that it is the only state authority in large parts of Lapland. In these matters it resembles the popular image of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The Border Guard of Finland is one of the links of the chain of protectors of the external borders of the European Union and Schengen agreement.

Nearly every Border Guard District trains small number of conscripts for long range reconnaissance (Finnish: Sissi). Conscripts in Border Guard companies are mostly volunteers and preferably selected from the occupants of border areas, and while trained by Border Guard, they do not perform regular border control duties. Rivalry between Sissi from Border Guards and Defence Forces is traditionally high.

Employment in Border Guard is much sought for, especially in North and Eastern Finland, which suffer from chronic unemployment problems. Typically a vacancy in the Border Guard receives at least 50 applications.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Border Guard: Rise in Syrians entering Finland illegally through Russia". Yle Uutiset. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  2. ^ Pulliainen, Mikko (14 October 2022). "Rajavartiolaitokselle uutta valvontakonekalustoa etsivä MVX-hanke etenee: Nyt on valittu ne konetoimittajat, jotka kutsutaan tarjouspyyntökilpailuun". Tekniikka&Talous (in Finnish). Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  3. ^ Lehtihaara, Maarit (10 June 2018). "Räcker det att man vilar på hanen?". Hufvudstadsbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  4. ^ a b Valmiusjoukkueet Archived 2017-10-29 at the Wayback Machine. Finnish Border Guard. Retrieved 2015-07-07. (in Finnish).
  5. ^ Smash ASEM: mielenosoitus joka ei koskaan alkanut. Yle Elävä arkisto. 10.1.2012. Retrieved 2015-07-07. (in Finnish)
  6. ^ "Flashbang - 5th Unit & 1st Unit".
  7. ^ Lindberg, Camilla, ed. (2020). Ett rum för alla – Folktingets arbete för svenskan i Finland under 100 år (in Swedish). Helsinki: Swedish Assembly of Finland. ISBN 978-952-9700-61-5.
  8. ^ "Griffon 2000TD". www.griffonhoverwork.com.
  9. ^ "Watercat 1300 Patrol". www.marinealutech.com.
  10. ^ "RV90". tyovene.com.
  11. ^ "The Border Guard's vessels and aircraft". www.raja.fi.
  12. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  13. ^ "Nopeammin, korkeammalle, voimakkaammin: Rajavartiolaitos haluaa kaksi uutta, suurta valvontalentokonetta". Ilta-Sanomat (in Finnish). 15 April 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  14. ^ "Rajavartiolaitoksen valvontalentokoneet ovat elinkaarensa päässä – 25 vuotta palvelleille koneille pitäisi löytää seuraaja". ts.fi (in Finnish). 14 August 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  15. ^ "Puolustukseen yhteensä kaksi miljardia euroa, työmarkkinatukeen 20–30 euron aikaistettu korotus – hallituksen johto kertoi talouspäätöksistä". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 5 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  16. ^ "MVX-hankkeessa ehdolla 14 erilaista konetyyppiä - Rajavartiolaitoksen Dornierit korvattava pikaisesti | lentoposti.fi". 15 April 2021.
  17. ^ "Rajavartiolaitos tutustuu MVX-hankkeessa Embraer Praetor 600 -liikesuihkukoneeseen Turussa | lentoposti.fi". 26 July 2022.
  18. ^ "Rajavartiolaitoksen monitoimilentokoneiden hankinta etenee". 20 April 2023.