This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (August 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article may be written from a fan's point of view, rather than a neutral point of view. Please clean it up to conform to a higher standard of quality, and to make it neutral in tone. (March 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A TASER device, with cartridge removed, making an electric spark between its two electrodes
Police issue X26 TASER device with cartridge installed
Raysun X-1, a multi-purpose handheld weapon

A TASER is a conducted energy device (CED) primarily used to incapacitate people, allowing them to be approached and handled in an unresisting and thus less-lethal manner. Sold by Axon, formerly TASER International,[1] the TASER fires two small barbed darts intended to puncture the skin and remain attached to the target until removed by the user of the TASER device, at a speed of 55 m/s (120 mph; 200 km/h). Their range extends from 4.5 m (15 ft) for non-Law Enforcement Tasers to 10.5 m (34 ft) for Law Enforcement Tasers. The darts are connected to the main unit by thin laquer insulated copper wire and deliver a modulated electric current designed to disrupt voluntary control of muscles, causing "neuromuscular incapacitation." The effects of a taser may only be localized pain or strong involuntary long muscle contractions, based on the mode of use and connectivity of the darts.[2]

In the United States, TASERs are marketed as less-lethal, since the possibility of serious injury or death exists whenever the weapon is deployed. At least 49 people died in 2018 after being shocked by police with a Taser.[3]Personal use TASERs are marketed in the US, but prohibited in Canada. In Canada, all taser possession is considered illegal. There is a categorical ban on all conducted energy weapons such as stun guns or tasers, according to section 84 of the Canada Criminal Code. And the TASER in Canada is only legal for Law Enforcement users.

The first TASER conducted energy weapon was introduced in 1993 as a less-lethal force option for police to use to subdue belligerent or fleeing suspects, who would have otherwise been subjected to more lethal force options such as firearms. As of 2010, according to one study, over 15,000 law enforcement and military agencies around the world used tasers as part of their use of force continuum.[4]

A 2009 report by the Police Executive Research Forum in the United States found that police officer injuries dropped by 76% in large law enforcement agencies that deployed taser devices in the first decade of the 21st century compared with those that did not use them at all.[5] Axon and its CEO Rick Smith have claimed that unspecified "police surveys" show that the device has "saved 75,000 lives through 2011."[6][7] A more recent academic study suggested police use of conducted electrical weapons in the United States was less risky to police officers than hands-on tactics, and showed officer injury rates equal to use of chemicals such as pepper spray.

History

Tasers have a long history of use to prevent the escape of dangerous suspects without needing to resort to lethal force, or used to capture suspects without risking serious injuries to both the officer and the suspect. US patent by Kunio Shimizu titled "Arrest device" filed in 1966 describes an electrical discharge gun with a projectile connected to a wire with a pair of electrode needles for skin attachment.[8]

Jack Cover, a NASA researcher, began developing the first Taser in 1969.[9] By 1974, Cover had completed the device, which he named TASER, using a loose acronym of the title of the book Tom Swift and His Electric Rifle, a book written by the Stratemeyer Syndicate under the pseudonym Victor Appleton and featuring Cover's childhood hero, Tom Swift.[10][11] The name made sense, given that the Taser delivers an electric shock. This was also done on the pattern of laser, as both a Taser and a laser fire a beam at an object.

The first Taser model that was offered for sale, called the TASER Public Defender, used gunpowder as its propellant, which led the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms to classify it as a firearm in 1976.[12][13]

Former TASER International CEO Patrick Smith testified in a TASER-related lawsuit that the catalyst for the development of the device was the "shooting death of two of his high school acquaintances" by a "guy with a legally licensed gun who lost his temper".[14] The two decedents, Todd Bogers and Cory Holmes, died in 1991 not 1990 as Smith has claimed. Family members and friends of the two state that Smith was not friends with them, as Smith has claimed, and they were never "football teammates", as Smith has claimed. The two graduated before Smith attended Chaparral High School. Family members of the two have criticized his use of their deaths for profit.[15][16]

In 1993, Rick Smith and his brother Thomas founded the original company, TASER,[17] and began to investigate what they called "safer use of force option[s] for citizens and law enforcement". At their Scottsdale, Arizona, facilities, the brothers worked with Cover to develop a "non-firearm TASER electronic control device".[18] The 1994 Air TASER Model 34000 conducted energy device had an "anti-felon identification (AFID) system" to prevent the likelihood that the device would be used by criminals; upon use, it released many small pieces of paper containing the serial number of the TASER device. The U.S. firearms regulator, the ATF, stated that the Air TASER conducted energy device was not a firearm.

In 1999, TASER International developed an "ergonomically handgun-shaped device called the Advanced TASER M-series systems," which used a "patented neuromuscular incapacitation (NMI) technology." In May 2003, TASER International released a new weapon called the TASER X26 conducted energy device, which used "shaped pulse technology." On July 27, 2009, TASER International released a new type of TASER device called the X3, which can fire three shots before reloading. It holds three new type cartridges, which are much thinner than the previous model.[19] On April 5, 2017, TASER announced that it was rebranding itself as Axon to reflect its expanded business into body cameras and software. In 2018, TASER 7 conducted energy device was released, the seventh generation of TASER devices from Axon.[20]

Function

The M-26 TASER, the United States military version of a commercial TASER

A TASER device fires two small dart-like electrodes, which stay connected to the main unit by thin insulated copper wire as they are propelled by small compressed nitrogen charges.[21][22] The cartridge contains a pair of electrodes and propellant for a single shot and is replaced after each use. Once fired the probes travel at 180 feet (55 m) per second, spread 12 inches (300 mm) apart for every 7 feet (2.1 m) they travel, and must land at least 4 inches (100 mm) apart from each other to complete the circuit and channel an electric pulse into the target person's body.[23] They deliver a modulated electric current designed to disrupt voluntary control of muscles, causing "neuromuscular incapacitation." The effects of a TASER device may only be localized pain or strong involuntary long muscle contractions, based on the mode of use, connectivity and location of the darts.[24][25] The TASER device is marketed as less-lethal, since the possibility of serious injury or death exists whenever the weapon is deployed.[26]

There are a number of cartridges designated by range, with the maximum at 35 feet (11 m).[22] Cartridges available to non-law enforcement consumers are limited to 15 feet (4.6 m).[27] Practically speaking, police officers must generally be within 15 to 25 feet (4.6 to 7.6 m) to use a Taser, though the X26's probes can travel as far as 35 feet.[28][23]

The electrodes are pointed to penetrate clothing, and barbed to prevent removal once in place. The original TASER device probes unspool the wire from the cartridge that causes a yaw effect before the dart stabilizes,[29] which made it difficult to penetrate thick clothing, but newer versions (X26, C2) use a "shaped pulse" that increases effectiveness in the presence of barriers.[30]

The TASER 7 conducted energy device is a two-shot device with increased reliability over legacy products. The conductive wires spool from the dart when the TASER 7 conducted energy device is fired, instead of spooling from the TASER cartridge which increases stability while in flight and therefore increases accuracy. The spiral darts fly straighter and faster with nearly twice the kinetic energy for better connection to the target and penetration through thicker clothing.[31] The body of the dart breaks away to allow for containment at tough angles.[20] TASER 7 has a 93% increased probe spread at close range, where 85% of deployments occur, according to agency reports. Rapid arc technology with adaptive cross-connection helps enable full incapacitation even at close range.[20] TASER 7 wirelessly connects to the Axon network, allowing for easier updates and inventory management.[32]

A TASER device may provide a safety benefit to police officers.[33] The use of a TASER device has a greater deployment range than batons, pepper spray, or empty hand techniques. This allows police to maintain a greater distance. A 2008 study of use-of-force incidents by the Calgary Police Service conducted by the Canadian Police Research Centre found that the use of the TASER device resulted in fewer injuries than the use of batons or empty hand techniques. The study found that only pepper spray was a safer intervention option.[34]

A typical TASER device can operate with a peak voltage of 50 kilovolts (1200 Volts to the body), an electric current of 1.9 milliamps, at for example 19 100 microsecond pulses per second.[35] A supplier quotes a current of 3-4 milliamps.[36]

Models

Axon currently has three models of TASER conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) available for law enforcement use and civilian use. Axon currently has work underway for a new model, the TASER 10.

The TASER X26P device is a single-shot CEW that is the smallest, most compact SMART WEAPON of all four Axon models.[37]  

The TASER X2 device is a two-shot TASER CEW with a warning arc and dual lasers.[38] The warning arc is a function the officer can utilize with the push of a button to intimidate an aggressor, warn a potential assailant, and gain compliance of a suspect without having to deploy the loaded cartridges. During the warning arc mode, the TASER CEW will display an arc of electricity at the front of the device.[39]

The TASER 7 device is the second newest of all four CEWs. It is a two-shot device with spiral darts that spool from the dart allowing the probes to fly straighter. The TASER 7 device's rapid arc technology with adaptive cross connections allows for full incapacitation. The TASER 7 CEW connects wirelessly to the Axon Evidence network that includes inventory management capabilities among other things.[20]

The TASER 10 device was officially announced by Axon on January 24, 2023.[40] The TASER 10 was dubbed the "less-lethal weapon of its era" by Axon. In addition to the functions of the TASER 7, the TASER 10 features an increased probe distance by up to 45 feet, waterproof capabilities, increased probe velocity (205 feet per second), and ability to deploy the probes individually allowing the officer to create their own "spread" unlike previous models, which relied heavily on precise aiming of the prongs at a fixed angle with the assistance of two lasers.[41]

Lethality

Main article: Taser safety issues

As with all less-lethal weapons, use of the TASER system is never risk free. Sharp metal projectiles and electricity are in use, so misuse or abuse of the weapon increases the likelihood that serious injury or death may occur. In addition, the manufacturer has identified other risk factors that may increase the risks of use. Children, pregnant women, the elderly, and very thin individuals are considered at higher risk. Persons with known medical problems, such as heart disease, history of seizure, or have a pacemaker are also at greater risk. Axon also warns that repeated, extended, or continuous exposure to the weapon is not safe. Because of this, the Police Executive Research Forum says that total exposure should not exceed 15 seconds.[42]

There are other circumstances that pose higher secondary risks of serious injury or death, including:[26]

Fulton County, Georgia District Attorney Paul Howard Jr. said in 2020 that "under Georgia law, a taser is considered as a deadly weapon."[43][44][45] A 2012 study published in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation found that Tasers can cause "ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac arrest and even death."[46][47] In 2014, NAACP State Conference President Scot X. Esdaile and the Connecticut NAACP argued that Tasers cause lethal results.[48] Reuters reported that more than 1,000 people shocked with a Taser by police died through the end of 2018, nearly all of them since the early 2000s.[49] At least 49 people died in the US in 2018 after being shocked by police with a Taser.[3]

Drive Stun capability

Some TASER device models, particularly those used by police departments, also have a "Drive Stun" capability, where the TASER device is held against the target without firing the projectiles, and is intended to cause pain without incapacitating the target. "Drive Stun" is "the process of using the EMD (Electro Muscular Disruption) weapon as a pain compliance technique. This is done by activating the TASER [device] and placing it against an individual's body. This can be done without an air cartridge in place or after an air cartridge has been deployed."[50]

Guidelines released in 2011 by the U.S. Department of Justice recommend that use of Drive Stun as a pain compliance technique be avoided.[51] The guidelines were issued by a joint committee of the Police Executive Research Forum and the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. The guidelines state "Using the CEW to achieve pain compliance may have limited effectiveness and, when used repeatedly, may even exacerbate the situation by inducing rage in the subject."

A study of U.S. police and sheriff departments found that 29.6% of the jurisdictions allowed the use of Drive Stun for gaining compliance in a passive resistance arrest scenario, with no physical contact between the officer and the subject. For a scenario that also includes non-violent physical contact, this number is 65.2%.[52]

A Las Vegas police document says "The Drive Stun causes significant localized pain in the area touched by the TASER [CEW], but does not have a significant effect on the central nervous system. The Drive Stun does not incapacitate a subject but may assist in taking a subject into custody."[53] The UCLA Taser incident[54] and the University of Florida Taser incident[55] involved university police officers using their TASER device's "Drive Stun" capability (referred to as a "contact tase" in the University of Florida Offense Report).

Amnesty International has expressed particular concern about Drive Stun, noting that "the potential to use TASERs in drive-stun mode—where they are used as 'pain compliance' tools when individuals are already effectively in custody—and the capacity to inflict multiple and prolonged shocks, renders the weapons inherently open to abuse."[56]

Users

Taser demonstration by the North Dakota Air National Guard. The center person is being shocked through his back while being held to prevent falling injuries.

According to a 2011 study by the United States Department of Justice's National Institute of Justice entitled Police Use of Force, TASERs and Other Less-Lethal Weapons,[4] over 15,000 law enforcement and military agencies around the world used TASER devices as part of their use of force continuum. Just as the number of agencies deploying TASER conducted energy weapons has continued to increase each year, so too the number of TASER device related "incidents" between law enforcement officers and suspects has been on the rise.

Excited delirium syndrome

Main article: Excited delirium

See also: Taser safety issues

Some of the deaths associated with TASER devices have been blamed on excited delirium, a controversial medical diagnosis that supposedly involves extreme agitation and aggressiveness. It has typically been diagnosed postmortem in young adult black males who were physically restrained by law enforcement at the time of death. The diagnosis was supported by the American College of Emergency Physicians from 2009[57] to 2023[58][59] and the National Association of Medical Examiners until 2023.[60]

Excited delirium is thought to involve delirium, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, hallucinations, speech disturbances, disorientation, violent and bizarre behavior, insensitivity to pain, elevated body temperature, and increased strength.[57][61] Excited delirium is associated with sudden death (usually via cardiac or respiratory arrest), particularly following the use of physical control measures, including police restraint and TASER devices.[57][61] Excited delirium is most commonly diagnosed in male subjects with a history of serious mental illness or acute or chronic drug abuse, particularly stimulant drugs such as cocaine.[57][62] Alcohol withdrawal or head trauma may also contribute to the condition.[63]

The diagnosis of excited delirium has been controversial.[64][65] Excited delirium has been listed as a cause of death by some medical examiners for several years,[66][67] mainly as a diagnosis of exclusion established on autopsy.[57] Additionally, academic discussion of excited delirium has been largely confined to forensic science literature, providing limited documentation about patients that survive the condition.[57] These circumstances have led some civil liberties groups to question the cause of death diagnosis, claiming that excited delirium has been used to "excuse and exonerate" law enforcement authorities following the death of detained subjects, a possible "conspiracy or cover-up for brutality" when restraining agitated individuals.[57][64][65] Also contributing to the controversy is the role of TASER device use in excited delirium deaths.[62][68]

Excited delirium is not found in the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The term "excited delirium" was accepted by the National Association of Medical Examiners and the American College of Emergency Physicians, who argued in a 2009 white paper that "excited delirium" may be described by several codes within the ICD-9.[57] In 2017, investigative reporters from Reuters reported that three of the 19 members of the 2009 task force were paid consultants for Axon, the manufacturer of Tasers.[69][70]

Usage worldwide

Australia

Tasers are prohibited for civilian ownership in Australia in every state and territory. A weapons permit is required to purchase and own a taser.[71][72][73][74][75][76][77]

Canada

Only members of law enforcement are allowed to own a taser legally.[78] However, according to an article by The Globe and Mail, many Canadians illegally purchase tasers from the US, where they are legal.[79]

China

Under the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Control of Firearms and Public Security Punishment Law, tasers are prohibited for civilian ownership in China without an application for a state licence. A weapons permit is required to purchase and own a taser.[80]

Germany

Since April 2008, tasers can be legally purchased by persons 18 and older, but can only be carried by persons with a firearm carry permit (Waffenschein), which is only issued under very restricted conditions.

In 2001, Germany approved a pilot project allowing individual states to issue tasers to their SEK teams (police tactical units); by 2018, 13 out of 16 states had done so. A number of states have also provided a limited number of tasers to their general police forces. Some states, such as Berlin, have use of force guidelines that only permit taser use where firearm use would also be justified.[81]

The Bundeswehr (German armed forces) does not issue tasers nor are they used in training.[82]

Ireland

Under the Firearms Act of 1925, tasers, pepper spray and stun guns are illegal to possess or purchase in Ireland, even with a valid firearms certificate.[83][84]

Jamaica

Tasers are legal for civilians to own, provided they possess a valid permit under the Customs Act.[85] Currently, Police in Jamaica do not have access to tasers, but in February 2021 Corporal James Rohan, Chairman of the Police Federation, requested access to non-lethal weaponry in order to deal more effectively with encounters with mentally ill individuals.[86]

Japan

Under the Swords and Firearms Control Law, import, carrying, purchase and use of stun guns or tasers is prohibited in Japan.[87]

Russia

Stun guns and tasers made in Russia can be purchased for self-defense without special permission, however, under the Federal Law No. 150 "On Weapons" of the Russian Federation it's illegal to import and subsequent sale of any foreign stun devices or tasers into the country. The ban has been in place since the first version of the law was approved in 1996.[88][89]

Saudi Arabia

Tasers are classified as weapons under Federal Law No. 3 of 2009, and therefore require a valid license to own or import.[90]

United Kingdom

Tasers have been in use by UK police forces since 2001, 2002, and 2003, and they require 18 hours of initial training, followed by six hours of annual top-up training, in order for a police officer to be allowed to carry and use one.[91] Members of the general public are not allowed to own tasers, with possession or sale of a taser punishable by up to 10 years in prison. As of September 2019, 30,548 (19%) of police officers were trained to use tasers.[92] Tasers were used 23,000 times from March 2018 to March 2019, compared to only 10,000 times in 2013.[93] In March 2020, extra funding was provided to purchase devices to allow more than 8,000 extra British police officers to carry a taser.[94]

Use on children

There has been considerable controversy over the use of Taser devices on children and in schools.

Criminal use

The earliest known case of a taser being used on a child was on June 10, 1991, when one was used to incapacitate an 11-year-old girl in order to kidnap her. According to Jaycee Dugard, whenever she tried to escape, her kidnapper threatened to use the taser again.[95]

Police use

In 2004, the parents of a 6-year-old boy in Miami sued the Miami-Dade County Police department for firing a Taser device at their child.[96] The police said the boy was threatening to injure his own leg with a shard of glass, and said that using the device was the safest option to prevent the boy from injuring himself. The boy's mother told CNN that the three officers involved probably found it easier not to reason with her child.[96] In the same county two weeks later, a 12-year-old girl skipping school and drinking alcohol was tased while she was running from police. The Miami-Dade County Police reported that the girl had started to run into traffic and that the Taser device was deployed to stop her from being hit by cars or causing an automobile accident.[96] In March 2008, an 11-year-old girl was subdued with a Taser device.[97] In March 2009, a 15-year-old boy died from alcohol-induced excited delirium[98] in Michigan.[99]

Police claim that the use of TASER conducted energy weapons on smaller subjects and elderly subjects is safer than alternative methods of subduing suspects, alleging that striking them or falling on them will cause much more injury than a TASER device, because the device is designed to only cause the contraction of muscles. Critics counter that TASER devices may interact with pre-existing medical complications such as medications, and may even contribute to someone's death as a result. Critics also suggest that using a Taser conducted electrical weapon on a minor, particularly a young child, is effectively cruel and abusive punishment, or unnecessary.[100][101][102][103]

Use on non-human subjects

Tasers are used to immobilize wildlife for research, relocation, or treatment. Since they are classified as a form of torture, it is more common to use tranquilizer darts.[104]

Use in torture

A report from a meeting of the United Nations Committee Against Torture states that "The Committee was worried that the use of TASER X26 weapons, provoking extreme pain, constituted a form of torture, and that in certain cases it could also cause death, as shown by several reliable studies and by certain cases that had happened after practical use."[105][106] Amnesty International has also raised extensive concerns about the use of other electro-shock devices by American police and in American prisons, as they can be (and according to Amnesty International, sometimes are) used to inflict cruel pain on individuals. Maurice Cunningham of South Carolina, while an inmate at the Lancaster County Detention Center,[107][108] was subjected to continuous shock for 2 minutes 49 seconds, which a medical examiner said caused cardiac arrhythmia and his subsequent death. He was 29 years old and had no alcohol or drugs in his system.[109]

In response to the claims that the pain inflicted by the use of the TASER device could potentially constitute torture, Tom Smith, the Chairman of the TASER Board, stated that the U.N. is "out of touch" with the needs of modern policing and asserted that "Pepper spray goes on for hours and hours, hitting someone with a baton breaks limbs, shooting someone with a firearm causes permanent damage, even punching and kicking—the intent of those tools is to inflict pain, ... with the TASER device, the intent is not to inflict pain; it's to end the confrontation. When it's over, it's over."[110]

Legality

Further information: Electroshock weapon § Legality

See also

References

  1. ^ "TASER X26". Archived from the original on September 27, 2014.
  2. ^ "Neuromuscular Incapacitation (NMI)", TASER International, published March 12, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007 Archived April 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b "As death toll keeps rising, U.S. communities start rethinking Taser use". Reuters. February 4, 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  4. ^ a b Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapons (PDF), U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, May 2011
  5. ^ Taylor B (September 2009). "Comparing safety outcomes in police use-of-force cases for law enforcement agencies that have deployed Conducted Energy Devices and a matched comparison group that have not: A quasi-experimental evaluation" (PDF). National Institute of Justice.
  6. ^ Roberts D. "A new life for Taser, this time with less controversy". Fortune. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  7. ^ "Taser.org".
  8. ^ Shimizu K (August 11, 1970). "Arrest device". Google Patents. Archived from the original on February 25, 2023. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  9. ^ Langton J (December 1, 2007). "The dark lure of 'pain compliance'". Toronto Star. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  10. ^ Cornwell R (March 2, 2009). "Jack Cover: Inventor of the Taser stun gun". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  11. ^ Lartey J (November 30, 2015). "Where did the word 'Taser' come from? A century-old racist science fiction novel". The Guardian. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  12. ^ Talvi SJ (November 13, 2006). "Stunning Revelations". In These Times. Archived from the original on December 5, 2006. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  13. ^ "Jurisdiction over the Taser Public Defender (#236)" (PDF). U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. March 22, 1976. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
  14. ^ "Taser chief gives jurors demonstration of stun-gun blast in court". CourtTV.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  15. ^ "CEO of Taser company accused of exaggerating shooting origin story". The Independent. December 27, 2023. Retrieved April 5, 2024.
  16. ^ "Taser maker Axon has a moving backstory. It's mostly a myth". Retrieved April 5, 2024.
  17. ^ "Axon Leadership | Axon". www.axon.com. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  18. ^ "Corporate History". Taser.com. February 5, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  19. ^ "TASER International Launches Revolutionary New Multi-Shot TASER Device With Precision Shaped Pulse Technology". TASER International. July 27, 2009. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d "Taser 7 OG TItle | Axon". www.axon.com. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  21. ^ Personal Defense Products: TASER® X26c™ Archived February 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, TASER site. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  22. ^ a b TASER® Cartridges: Replacement Cartridge for X26, M26, X2 & X3 Archived March 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, TASER site. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  23. ^ a b Greenemeier L. "TASER Seeks to Zap Safety Concerns". Scientific American.
  24. ^ "Neuromuscular Incapacitation (NMI)", Taser International, published March 12, 2007. Retrieved May 19, 2007 Archived April 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ International Association of Chiefs of Police, Electro Muscular Disruption Technology: A Nine-Step Strategy for Effective Deployment Archived December 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, 2005
  26. ^ a b "TASER CEW Use Guidelines" (PDF). Axon. April 5, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  27. ^ TASER Cartridges (Consumers) Archived September 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, TASER site. Retrieved December 15, 2007.
  28. ^ "Why police choose deadly force despite non-lethal options". NBC News. September 29, 2016.
  29. ^ "Axon's TASER 7 could be a game changer for LE". PoliceOne. October 11, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  30. ^ "Shaped Pulse Technology". Taser International. April 27, 2007. Archived from the original on May 26, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
  31. ^ "Enforce Tac: Axon's New TASER 7 Makes Debut". www.monch.com. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  32. ^ "History of Taser". sun-sentinel.com. June 19, 2005. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  33. ^ Hans Wimberly (July 2019). "Safety Benefits of Tasers for Police Officers". GearsAdviser.com.
  34. ^ "Police batons more dangerous than Tasers: Study". Archived from the original on January 5, 2016.
  35. ^ Kroll MW (November 30, 2007). "How a TASER works. The stun gun shocks without killing—but how safe is it? Two experts take a look. Crafting The Perfect Shock". spectrum.ieee.org. IEEE. Retrieved June 22, 2023. Once the barbs establish a circuit, the gun generates a series of 100-microsecond pulses at a rate of 19 per second. Each pulse carries 100 microcoulombs of charge, so the average current is 1.9 milliamperes.
  36. ^ "How Many AMPs Are In A Taser?". taserguide.com. Oaks Industries LLC. 2023. Retrieved June 22, 2023. A taser works by operating at a high voltage and low amperage of about 3-4 milliamps.
  37. ^ "TASER X26P | Axon". www.axon.com. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  38. ^ "TASER X2 | Axon". www.axon.com. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  39. ^ "MyAxon". MyAxon. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  40. ^ Axon. "Axon Unveils TASER 10". www.prnewswire.com (Press release). Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  41. ^ "TASER 10 - Axon". www.axon.com. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  42. ^ Lee T (November 14, 2017). "Family of man who dies after Taser incident gets $5.5 million verdict". Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  43. ^ "Opinion | The Atlanta Shooting". Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2020 – via www.wsj.com.
  44. ^ Peebles JO. "Rayshard Brooks died after he was shot by Atlanta police officer Garrett Rolfe. What happens now?". USA TODAY.
  45. ^ "Under Georgia law a taser is considere a deadly weapon - Fulton County District Attorney Paul Howard" – via www.bitchute.com.
  46. ^ Douglas P. Zipes (January 7, 2014). "TASER Electronic Control Devices Can Cause Cardiac Arrest in Humans". Circulation. 129 (1): 101–111. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005504. PMID 24396013. S2CID 207709146.
  47. ^ "Another Death Prompts Another Call for Taser Regulation". ACLU of Connecticut. June 21, 2017.
  48. ^ "NAACP Investigating New London Taser Death". New London, CT Patch. October 8, 2014.
  49. ^ "Black Americans disproportionately die in police Taser confrontations". June 15, 2020.
  50. ^ Law Enforcement Advisory Committee (Summer 2005). "Less Lethal Weapons: Model Policy and Procedure for Public Safety Officers" (PDF). Michigan Municipal Risk Management Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2008. Retrieved May 12, 2009. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. ^ A Joint Project of PERF and COPS (April 2011). "2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines". United States Department of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  52. ^ Michael R. Smith, J.D., Robert J. Kaminski, Geoffrey P. Alpert, Lorie A. Fridell, John MacDonald, Bruce Kubu (July 2010). "A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes". National Institute of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 1, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2011. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ Use of the Taser, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
  54. ^ Merrick Bobb, Matthew Barge, Camelia Naguib (August 2007). "A Bad Night at Powell Library: The Events of November 14, 2006" (PDF). Police Assessment Resource Center. Retrieved April 14, 2016. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  55. ^ "University of Florida Police Department offense report" (PDF). CNN. October 18, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
  56. ^ "Amnesty International's concerns about Tasers". Amnesty.ca. Archived from the original on July 17, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h "White Paper Report on Excited Delirium Syndrome" Archived October 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, ACEP Excited Delirium Task Force, American College of Emergency Physicians, September 10, 2009
  58. ^ "ACEP Task Force Report on Hyperactive Delirium with Severe Agitation in Emergency Settings" (PDF). American College of Emergency Physicians. June 23, 2021. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  59. ^ "ACEP's Position on Hyperactive Delirium". American College of Emergency Physicians. April 14, 2023. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  60. ^ "NAME Excited Delirium Statement 3/2023" (PDF). NAME. Retrieved April 13, 2023.
  61. ^ a b Grant JR, Southall PE, Mealey J, Scott SR, Fowler DR (March 2009). "Excited delirium deaths in custody: past and present". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 30 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1097/PAF.0b013e31818738a0. PMID 19237843. S2CID 205910534.
  62. ^ a b Ruth SoRelle (October 2010). "ExDS Protocol Puts Clout in EMS Hands". Emergency Medicine News. 32 (10): 1, 32. doi:10.1097/01.EEM.0000389817.48608.e4.
  63. ^ Samuel E, Williams RB, Ferrell RB (2009). "Excited delirium: Consideration of selected medical and psychiatric issues". Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 5: 61–6. doi:10.2147/ndt.s2883. PMC 2695211. PMID 19557101.
  64. ^ a b "Death by Excited Delirium: Diagnosis or Coverup?". NPR. Retrieved February 26, 2007. You may not have heard of it, but police departments and medical examiners are using a new term to explain why some people suddenly die in police custody. It's a controversial diagnosis called excited delirium. But the question for many civil liberties groups is, does it really exist?
  65. ^ a b "Excited Delirium: Police Brutality vs. Sheer Insanity". ABC News. March 2, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2007. Police and defense attorneys are squaring off over a medical condition so rare and controversial it can't be found in any medical dictionary—excited delirium. Victims share a host of symptoms and similarities. They tend to be overweight males, high on drugs, and display extremely erratic and violent behavior. But victims also share something else in common. The disorder seems to manifest itself when people are under stress, particularly when in police custody, and is often diagnosed only after the victims die.
  66. ^ "Suspects' deaths blamed on 'excited delirium', critics dispute rare syndrome usually diagnosed when police are involved". NBC News. Retrieved April 29, 2007. Excited delirium is defined as a condition in which the heart races wildly—often because of drug use or mental illness—and finally gives out. Medical examiners nationwide are increasingly citing the condition when suspects die in police custody. But some doctors say the rare syndrome is being overdiagnosed, and some civil rights groups question whether it exists at all.
  67. ^ "Excited delirium, not Taser, behind death of N.S. man: medical examiner". The Canadian Press. September 17, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2008. Medical examiner Dr. Matthew Bowes concluded that Hyde died of excited delirium due to paranoid schizophrenia. He said Hyde's coronary artery disease, obesity and the restraint used by police during a struggle were all factors in his death. ... In a government news release, excited delirium is described as a disorder characterized by extreme agitation, violent and bizarre behaviour, insensitivity to pain, elevated body temperature, and superhuman strength. It says not all of these characterizations are always present in someone with the disorder.[dead link]
  68. ^ "Tasers Implicated in Excited Delirium Deaths". NPR.org. NPR. Retrieved April 29, 2007. The medical diagnosis called excited delirium is the subject of intense debate among doctors, law-enforcement officers and civil libertarians. They don't even all agree on whether the condition exists. But to Senior Cpl. Herb Cotner of the Dallas Police Department, there's no question that it's real.
  69. ^ "Shock Tactics: Taser inserts itself in probes involving its stun guns". Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  70. ^ The three members of the task force that were consultants for the Taser manufacturer were Deborah Mash, Charles Wetli and Jeffrey Ho.
  71. ^ "View - Tasmanian Legislation Online". www.legislation.tas.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  72. ^ "View - NSW legislation". legislation.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  73. ^ "Control of Weapons Act 1990". www.legislation.vic.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  74. ^ "Prohibited Weapons Act 1996 | PDF" (PDF). www.legislation.act.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  75. ^ "Weapons Act 1999 01-d0-06 Xml". www.legislation.wa.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  76. ^ "Legislation Database". legislation.nt.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  77. ^ "View - Queensland Legislation - Queensland Government". www.legislation.qld.gov.au. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  78. ^ Regnier S (June 15, 2021). "Trail man faces weapons charge after police confiscate stun gun - Trail Daily Times". www.trailtimes.ca. Black Press Media. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  79. ^ "Online loopholes allow stun guns to enter Canada". Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  80. ^ "中华人民共和国枪支管理法" (in Chinese). April 24, 2015.
  81. ^ "DistanzElektroImpulsGerät". polizeipraxis.de (in German).
  82. ^ "Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Ulla Jelpke, Wolfgang Neskovic, Heike Hänsel, weiterer Abgeordneter und der Fraktion DIE LINKE. – Drucksache 16/11806" (PDF). bundestag.de (in German). February 13, 2019.
  83. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". The Department of Justice. January 25, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  84. ^ Aodha GN (March 11, 2018). "No plans to legalise pepper spray or tasers in Ireland". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  85. ^ "Stun gun shocker - Tasers pour through Customs, sold openly, as women arm themselves against attackers". jamaica-gleaner.com. April 28, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  86. ^ "Cops demand tasers for clashes with mentally ill". jamaica-gleaner.com. February 9, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  87. ^ "銃砲刀剣類所持等取締法" (in Japanese). Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  88. ^ "Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации". Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  89. ^ "OBERON-ALPHA: DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF POLICE WEAPONS AND SPECIAL EQUIPMENT". Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  90. ^ "The legal possession of weapons in the UAE". www.tamimi.com. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  91. ^ McGuinness T. "Taser use in England and Wales" (PDF). House of Commons Library.
  92. ^ "Conducted energy devices (Taser)". www.npcc.police.uk. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  93. ^ "Taser use by police in England and Wales reaches record high". BBC News. December 20, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  94. ^ "Forces awarded extra funding for Taser". GOV.UK. March 2, 2020. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  95. ^ "Jaycee Dugard: The Garridos stole my life". Reno Gazette Journal. April 2014. Archived from the original on September 29, 2023. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  96. ^ a b c CNN, Susan Candiotti, contributor. Police review policy after Tasers used on kids November 15, 2004
  97. ^ "Officials: Deputy Shocks Girl, 11, With Taser At Elementary School". Local6.com. March 27, 2008. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  98. ^ "Judge awards $1 million in Brett Elder wrongful death suit against Bay City, police". mlive. August 22, 2011.
  99. ^ "Michigan 15-year-old Dies After Police Tase Him". Cbsnews.com. Associated Press. March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  100. ^ Kansas Students Speak Out Against Tasers In Schools April 6, 2006
  101. ^ Teen dies after being shot by stun gun Archived February 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine November 1, 2006
  102. ^ "Tasers Implicated in Excited Delirium Deaths". NPR, February 27, 2007
  103. ^ "More UK police to get stun guns". BBC News. May 16, 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  104. ^ Cairns D (January 21, 2011). "Company in America launches Taser 'bear stun gun'". BBC News. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  105. ^ Committee against Torture Concludes Thirty-Ninth Session, press release, United Nations Office at Geneva, November 23, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007. Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  106. ^ "Tasers a form of torture, says UN". The Daily Telegraph (Sydney). AFP. November 24, 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  107. ^ "Taser Blamed for Inmate's Death". United Press International. September 28, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
  108. ^ "Officers used tasers, baton on inmate". Associated Press. July 28, 2005. Archived from the original on November 6, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
  109. ^ Amnesty International's continuing concerns about Taser use Archived November 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine 2006
  110. ^ "UN 'out of touch' on torture: Taser boss". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. November 28, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2008.