National Guard of Mexico
Guardia Nacional
Seal of the National Guard
Seal of the National Guard
AbbreviationGN
Agency overview
Formed26 May 2019
Preceding agency
Employees120,000
Jurisdictional structure
National agencyMexico
Operations jurisdictionMexico
Governing bodySecretariat of Security and Civil Protection
Secretariat of National Defense
Constituting instrument
  • Law of the National Guard, 2019
General nature
Operational structure
Agency executive
  • Luis Rodríguez Bucio, Commander

The National Guard (Spanish: Guardia Nacional) is the national gendarmerie of Mexico, created in 2019 by absorbing units and officers from the Federal Police, Military Police, and Naval Police.[1][2]

In 2022, a reform package approved in the Mexican Congress transferred command of the National Guard to the Secretariat of National Defense.[3]

History

Members of the National Guard

The National Guard was launched by President Andrés Manuel López Obrador in 2019. It has since played a major part in intensifying the enforcement of immigration policy.[4] Before becoming president, López Obrador campaigned on a promise to take the military off the streets.[2] Shortly after assuming office, he released a plan to create the National Guard under control of the Mexican Armed Forces which would be in charge of "preventing and combating crime".[2][5] López Obrador stated that the new National Guard would be critical to solving Mexico's ongoing security crisis.[1][6]

On 28 February, Congress voted to approve a 60,000-member national guard.[6] On 27 May 2019, the law regulating the National Guard entered into force.[7] On 30 June 2019, the National Guard was officially established.[8][9]

In June 2019, as part of a deal with the United States, Mexico agreed to deploy the newly formed National Guard to its border with Guatemala.[10][11] While the guard was always intended to enforce immigration policy, it was not intended to do so as soon as announced.[10][11]

A 2019 survey sponsored by The Washington Post and Mexican newspaper Reforma gathered information on public opinion regarding both the new National Guard and illegal immigration to Mexico.[4] The survey was conducted from 9 July to 14 July 2019, among 1,200 adults across the country in 100 election districts by way of face-to-face interviews.[4] A 53% majority voiced their trust in the national guard, with two-thirds saying that they would like the national guard to be in their city, whereas 45% report that they feel more safe with the domestic force.[4] Furthermore, the survey said 51% of Mexicans support utilizing the country's recently formed National Guard to repel migration by illegal immigrants.[4]

Command structure

The law assigns full control of the National Guard to the Secretary of Security and Civilian Protection, who is in charge of all matters related to the work of the NG.[9]

According to article 12 of the Law of the National Guard, the National Guard is organized on five command levels:[7]

Ranks

According to articles 29 and 30 of the Law of the National Guard, the ranks are:[7]

Commissioned officers

Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Commissioners General Inspectors Officers
Mexico Mexican National Guard
Comisario General Comisario Jefe Comisario Inspector General Inspector Jefe Inspector Subinspector Primero Subinspector Segundo Oficial Suboficial

Basic scale ladder

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Mexico Mexican National Guard
Agente Mayor Agente Subagente Guardia Nacional

Equipment

Aircraft

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "A Look At Mexico's New National Guard". NPR. 13 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Sieff, Kevin; Sheridan, Mary Beth (10 June 2019). "Mexico is sending its new national guard to the Guatemala border. The mission is unclear". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Pase de la Guardia Nacional a la Sedena es oficial: AMLO publica decreto en el DOF". El Financiero (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e Clement, Scott; Sieff, Kevin (17 July 2019). "Unauthorized Immigrants Face Public Backlash in Mexico, Survey". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Plan Nacional de Paz y Seguridad" (PDF). transicion.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b Semple, Kirk; Villegas, Paulina (28 February 2019). "Mexico Approves 60,000-Strong National Guard. Critics Call It More of the Same". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  7. ^ a b c "LEY DE LA GUARDIA NACIONAL" (PDF) (in Spanish). 9 September 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
  8. ^ "Acuerdo por el que se establecen los elementos de la Policía Federal, de la Policía Militar y de la Policía Naval que integrarán la Guardia Nacional.". Acuerdo of 2019 (in Spanish).
  9. ^ a b Correa, Catalina Pérez (8 August 2019). "México necesita una Guardia Nacional realmente civil". The New York Times (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Mexico Scrambles To Establish National Guard After Promising To Tighten Border". NPR. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  11. ^ a b Semple, Kirk (14 June 2019). "Mexico's National Guard, a 'Work in Progress,' Deployed to Curb Migration". The New York Times. Mexico City. Retrieved 14 July 2019.