This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. When this tag was added, its readable prose size was 22,000 words. Consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (May 2023)

Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.[1]

The experiences of Muslim women (Arabic: مسلمات Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslimah) vary widely between and within different societies.[2][3] At the same time, their adherence to Islam is a shared factor that affects their lives to a varying degree and gives them a common identity that may serve to bridge the wide cultural, social, and economic differences between them.[2][3][4]

Among the influences which have played an important role in defining the social, legal, spiritual, and cosmological status of women in the course of Islamic history are the sacred scriptures of Islam: the Quran;[5] the ḥadīth, which are traditions relating to the deeds and aphorisms attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions;[6] ijmā', which is a scholarly consensus, expressed or tacit, on a question of law;[7] qiyās, the principle by which the laws of the Quran and the sunnah or prophetic custom are applied to situations not explicitly covered by these two sources of legislation;[8] and fatwā, non-binding published opinions or decisions regarding religious doctrine or points of law.

Additional influences include pre-Islamic cultural traditions; secular laws, which are fully accepted in Islam so long as they do not directly contradict Islamic precepts;[9] religious authorities, including government-controlled agencies such as the Indonesian Ulema Council and Turkey's Diyanet;[10] and spiritual teachers, which are particularly prominent in Islamic mysticism or Sufism. Many of the latter, including the medieval Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi, have themselves produced texts that have elucidated the metaphysical symbolism of the feminine principle in Islam.[11]

Sources of law

There are four sources of law for Sunni jurists. The first two, the Quran and ḥadīth literature, are considered primary sources, while the other two, ijmā' and qiyās, are secondary. Additional or supplementary sources differ between various Muslim sects and schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Scholars who give fatwās and perform ijtihad may make use of these sources.[12][13][14]


A fragment of Sūrat an-Nisā' – a chapter of Islam's sacred text entitled 'Women' – featuring the Persian, Arabic, and Kufic scripts. Islam views men and women as equal before God, and the Quran underlines that man and woman were "created of a single soul" (4:1,[15] 39:6[16] and elsewhere).[17]

Within Sunni Islam, women are provided a number of guidelines prescribed by the Quran and ḥadīth literature, as understood by fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), as well as in accordance with the interpretations derived from the ḥadīth that were agreed upon by majority of Sunni Muslim scholars as authentic beyond doubt based on ḥadīth studies.[18][19] The Quran holds that men and women have equal moral agency and they both receive equal rewards in the afterlife.[20] These interpretations and their application were shaped by the historical context of the Muslim world at the time they were written.[18]

During his life, Muhammad married nine or eleven women, depending upon the differing accounts of who were his wives. In pre-Islamic Arabian culture, marriage was generally contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes. Virginity at the time of marriage was emphasized as a tribal honor.[21] William Montgomery Watt states that all of Muhammad's marriages had the political aspect of strengthening friendly relationships and were based on the pre-Islamic Arabian custom.[22]


Main article: Al-Nisa'

Women or Sūrat an-Nisāʼ[23] is the fourth chapter of the Quran. The title of the surah derives from the numerous references to women throughout the chapter,[24] including verses 4:34[25]: 4:34  and 4:127 – 4:130.[25]: 4:127–130 


The above primary sources of influence on women of Islam do not deal with every conceivable situation over time. This led to the development of jurisprudence and religious schools with Islamic scholars that referred to resources such as identifying authentic documents, internal discussions, and establishing a consensus to find the correct religiously approved course of action for Muslims.[12][13] These formed the secondary sources of influence for women. Among them are ijmā', qiyās, ijtihad, and others, depending on the sect and the corresponding schools of Islamic law. Included in secondary sources are the fatwā, which are often widely distributed, orally or in writing by Muslim clerics, to the masses, in local language and describe behavior, roles, and rights of women that conforms with religious requirements. Fatwa are theoretically non-binding, but seriously considered and have often been practiced by most Muslims. The secondary sources classify the lawful and unlawful behaviors of Muslim men and women which typically fall into the five categories (al-ahkam al-khamsa): wajib/fard (obligatory), mustahabb/mandub (recommended), mubah (neutral), makruh (disapproved), and haram (forbidden).[26] There is considerable controversy, change over time, and conflict between the secondary sources.[27][28][29]

Gender roles

Main article: Gender roles in Islam

A fifteenth-century Persian miniature depicting the Battle of the Camel, a decisive encounter between the troops of the fourth caliph 'Alī, and an opposing army rallied by Muḥammad's wife, Āʿisha.[30][31] In the aftermath of Alī's victory, Āʿisha withdrew from politics. Traditionalists have used this episode to argue that women should not play an active political role, while modernists have held up Āʿisha's legacy in arguing for gender equity in the Islamic tradition.[32]

Gender roles in Islam are simultaneously colored by two Quranic precepts: (i) spiritual equality between women and men; and (ii) the idea that women are meant to exemplify femininity, and men masculinity.[33]

Spiritual equality between women and men is detailed in Sūrat al-Aḥzāb (33:35):[34]

Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women, the Qanit: men and the women, the men and women who are truthful, the men and the women who are patient, the Khashi`: men and the women, the men and the women who give Sadaqat, the men and the women who fast, the men and the women who guard their chastity and the men and the women who remember Allah much with their hearts and tongues, Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.[35]: 33:35 

Islam's basic view of women and men postulates a complementarity of functions: like everything else in the universe, humanity has been created in a pair (Sūrat al-Dhāriyāt, 51:49)[36] – neither can be complete without the other.[37] In Islamic cosmological thinking, the universe is perceived as an equilibrium built on harmonious polar relationships between the pairs that make up all things.[37] Moreover, all outward phenomena are reflections of inward noumena and ultimately of God.[37]

The emphasis which Islam places upon the feminine/masculine polarity (and therefore complementarity) results in a separation of social functions.[38] In general, a woman's sphere of operation is the home in which she is the dominant figure – and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world.[39] [better source needed] Women are highly respected in many aspects of domestic life such as being praised for their knowledge as ritual specialists, healers, caretakers, and those who arrange marriages in their community.[40]

However, this separation is not, in practice, as rigid as it appears.[38] There are many examples – both in the early history of Islam and in the contemporary world – of Muslim women who have played prominent roles in public life, including being sultanas, queens, elected heads of state and wealthy businesswomen. Moreover, it is important to recognize that in Islam, home and family are firmly situated at the centre of life in this world and of society: a man's work cannot take precedence over the private realm.[39]

The Quran dedicates numerous verses and surahs to Muslim women, their role, duties and rights, such as An-Nisa (“The Women”) and Maryam, named after Mary.

Dress code

Main articles: Islam and clothing and Intimate parts in Islam

See also: Islamic feminist views on dress codes

Early costumes of Arab women.

Modesty (Haya) is a religious prescription in Islam: the Quran commands both men and women to dress modestly and not display their bodies, and Muḥammad asserted that modesty is a central character trait in Islam.[41] Traditional dress for Muslim men has typically covered at least the head and the area between the waist and the knees, while women's Islamic dress is to conceal the hair and the body from the ankles to the neck.[42] Some Muslim women also cover their face.[43]

In the specific context of women, the Quran at 24:31[44] speaks of covering women's "ornaments" from strangers outside the family.[45] This type of behaviour is commonly seen by Islamic scholars and the broader Muslim public alike as emblematic of a state of spiritual ignorance (al-Jāhiliyyah).

All orthodox schools of sharia law prescribe covering the body in public: specifically, to the neck, the ankles, and below the elbow.[45] However, none of the traditional legal systems actually stipulate that women must wear a veil:[45] it is only the wives of Muḥammad who are instructed to wear this article of clothing (33:59).[44][45]

On the basis of the injunction to be modest, various forms of dress were developed in different parts of the Islamic world, but some forms of dress were carryovers from earlier, pre-Islamic Near Eastern societies: the practice of women covering their hair was the norm in the earlier communities of Jews and Christians.[41] The iconography of the Virgin Mary in Christian art always shows her with her hair covered, and this convention was followed into the modern era by both Georgian and Armenian Christians, in addition to Oriental Jewish women; Catholic women would not go to church without covering their heads until well into the twentieth century.[41] The covering of the hair was taken by women to be a natural part of life as a sign of modesty and especially as a sign of respect before God.[41]

Women in an Istanbul cafeteria
Indonesian women in Hong Kong
A young Muslim woman in the Thar desert near Jaisalmer, India

In the twenty-first century, there continues to be tremendous variance in how Muslim women dress, not least because the Islamic world is so geographically and culturally diverse. Laws passed in states (such as laïcist Turkey and Tunisia) with twentieth century Westernization campaigns – which mandated that women wear "modern", Western-style clothing – have been relaxed in recent years;[46][47] similarly, the end of communism in Albania and the Yugoslav republics also meant an end to highly restrictive secular apparel legislation.[48] As a result, it is now legal for women in these countries to wear clothes suggesting a (post-) modern Islamic identity – such as the headscarf colloquially known as the ḥijāb – in public, though not necessarily in all public institutions or offices of state.[49][50]

Conversely, in a handful of states – notably Shia Iran – with modernist fundamentalist regime, dress codes stipulating that women wear exclusively "religious" garments (as opposed to "secular" ones) in public which became mandatory in the latter part of the twentieth century are still in force.[51] However, these countries are both theologically and culturally atypical within the Islamic world: Iran is the world's only Shī'a revolutionary state[52] and in none of the others do the same restrictions on women's clothing in public apply, as the overwhelming majority of Muslim-majority countries have no laws mandating the public wearing of either secular or religious apparel.[53][54][55]

In a 2018 study done by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding, Muslim American women were, "the most likely" when compared to other domestic religious communities to, "wear "a visible symbol that makes their faith identity known to others.""[56] Of the Muslim women surveyed by ISPU, 46% say they wear a visible symbol to mark their faith in public all the time" (this includes the hijab), 19% some of the time, and 35% none of the time. The study did not find there to be any significant age or race difference.[56]

In today's modern context, the question of why Muslim women wear the hijab is met with a variety of responses by Muslim American women, including the most popular, "piety and to please God" (54%), "so others know they are Muslim" (21%), and "for modesty" (12%). Only 1% said they wore it, "because a family member or spouse required it".[56]

Clothing materials

A Bengali woman wearing a pink niqab

According to all schools of Islamic law, only women are permitted to wear pure silken garments next to the skin, although the schools of law differ about almost every other detail concerning silk (such as the permissibility of men wearing silk mixed with other fibers).[57] In Islamic tradition, silk is strongly associated with Heaven.[57] The Quran speaks in several places of the sumptuous fabrics to be enjoyed by the virtuous in Paradise: their garments will be made of silk (22:23[58] and 35:33),[58] and they will recline on carpets lined with rich brocade (55:54).[58][57]


Similarly, sharia law posits that only women may wear gold ornaments, such as jewelry.[59] The intention behind this distinction is to help men maintain a state of sobriety, reserve, concentration, and spiritual poverty (the "perfections of the centre").[59] Conversely, women, who symbolize unfolding, infinitude and manifestation, are not bound by the same constraints.[59]

Public versus private appearance

Clothing such as ḥijābs, chādors, and burqas are typically worn in public only. 32% of countries in the European Union have bans on traditional Muslim headgear for women.[60] Bans differ in enforcement, penalty for violation, and details of what type of headgear is considered "publicly acceptable" in countries with these bans in place.[61] The United Nations Human Rights Committee has publicly condemned these bans, claiming their infringement on rights of women dressing a certain way for religious purposes.[62] Muslim European women, specifically, have noted that their public wearing of Islamic headgear has posed obstacles when it comes to gaining employment.[63] In private, it is common for women to wear Western-style clothing. Global fashion retail chains including Zara and Victoria's Secret have branches in OIC member states like Saudi Arabia.[64][65]

Religious objections to the modern ḥijāb

From the 1920s to the 1970s, the use of what is often referred to as the "veil" – this term could mean anything from a face veil to a shawl loosely draped over the head – declined until only a minority of Muslim women outside the conservative societies of the Arabian Peninsula still used it.[66]

The Sorbonne-educated Franco-Bosnian academic Jasna Šamić has posited that the term "ḥijāb" does not have any connection with the noun or concept of "headscarf": "The expression hijab in the Koran means 'the veil hiding God'. In other words, one can never see and get to know God, because our intellect is too weak [to fully comprehend Him]."[67] Other analysts have pointed out that the Quranic verse most cited in defense of the ḥijāb (Sūrat al-Aḥzāb, 33:59)[58] does not mention this article of clothing at all; instead, it references a "long, overflowing gown" which was the traditional dress at the time of this revelation.[68]

Effect of globalization on Muslim women's couture

Two Malaysian women wearing contrasting styles of clothing: the (post-)modern hijab on the one hand (left), and a variant of the traditional Islamic kebaya blouse-shirt combination on the other. The kebaya is derived from the Arabic abaya (meaning "clothing") and is the national female dress of Indonesia

The fashion media sector within the Muslim world for both Western and Islamic fashion has grown tremendously from the 1990s onwards. Local editions of magazines from Marie Claire to Cosmopolitan are now published in a wide range of OIC member states, including Turkey, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Indonesia, while fashion magazines specifically targeted at more overtly religious demographics are flourishing: the Turkish title Âlâ is reportedly outselling both Vogue and Elle within its home market,[69] while Aquila Style has a purported total circulation of 30,000 in three ASEAN states.[70]

The 2014–15 Thomson Reuters State of the Global Islamic Economy Report forecasted that expenditure on clothing in OIC member states would reach US$484 billion by 2019.[71]


With the coming of the Quranic revelation, the family replaced the tribe as the basic unit of Arab society, and today the family is still the primary means of social organization in the Islamic world.[72] As in many other traditional societies, the family in Muslim-majority countries is not restricted to the nuclear model solely consisting of parents and children, but is instead typically made up of a larger extended family network which includes grandparents, uncles, aunts, in-laws and cousins.[72]

Pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding

Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding are processes for which women are rewarded by God:

"A woman questioned the Prophet [Muḥammad]: 'Men go to war and have a great reward for that, so what do women have.' He answered: 'When a woman is pregnant, she has the reward of someone who spends the whole night praying and the whole day fasting; when the contractions strike her, no one knows how much reward God gives her for having to go through this, and when she delivers her child, then for every suck it draws from her, she receives the reward for keeping a soul alive.'"[73]

Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No-one should be charged beyond his capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if ye wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provide that ye pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what ye do. (Al-Quran 2:233)

Muḥammad also stated that if a woman dies in childbirth, she is counted as a martyr; the reward for martyrdom is Paradise.[73]


A famous hadith of Muḥammad states that "Heaven lies under the feet of mothers",[74][75] and accordingly – and like all traditional systems – Islam has honored the work of homemaker and mother as being of the highest value.[74] While there is nothing in Islamic teachings that precludes women from working and receiving wages,[76] as per Seyyed Hossein Nasr's The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity, "Islamic society has never thought that working in an office is of a higher order of importance than bringing up one's children".[74]

Gender segregation

Main article: Islam and gender segregation

See also: Mosque, Women's mosques, and Islamic Bill of Rights for Women in the Mosque

The ladies' prayer hall in the Khadija Mosque in Berlin; upper part reads: Only in the remembrance of Allah will your hearts find peace (in Arabic)
Makhphil (makfil), upper gallery plateau part of Bosnian mosques reserved only for women (except when Jumu'ah) who climb to it by stairs at side(s) of entrance; White/Nasser's mosque in Zenica
The University of al-Qarawiyyin (Université Al Quaraouiyine) in the Moroccan city of Fes was founded as a mosque complex by a Muslim woman – Fatima al-Fihri, the educated daughter of a wealthy merchant – in 859. According to UNESCO, it is the oldest university in the world which is still operational.[77] It was incorporated into Morocco's modern state university system in 1963.

While Islam has sometimes been lauded for a historically more progressive portrayal of women, there are differing viewpoints on the fairness of its personal status laws and criminal code as they pertain to women.[78] Islam's patriarchal values continue to be a subject of debate, with the understanding that these values exhibit variations within the diverse contexts of different countries with Muslim majorities. Generally, however, male and female rights differ according to Islamic personal status laws.[2] Some Islamic legal traditions allow men to engage in polygamy and marry non-Muslim women,[79][80][81][82] while women are generally restricted from having multiple husbands and marrying Non-Muslim men. Additionally, female inheritances are typically half of their male siblings'. Islamic criminal jurisprudence also relies heavily on witness testimony, and female testimonies alone are often not considered sufficient to convict a murderer, requiring a male testimony for validation.[78][80]

Although the Quran doesn't explicitly require Muslim women to cover their faces or heads, the observance of sexual modesty and plain dress for both Muslim men and women is prescribed by the ḥadīth literature and sunnah (deeds and sayings attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions);[2] the practice of mandatory veiling is perceived in certain areas as a reflection of gender-related separation.[83] The practice of mandatory veiling is not due to any universal Islamic code; rather, the practice has risen under different contextual circumstances.[83] The dress codes imposed in the Islamic Republic of Iran and in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime, and Islamic schools that require girls to wear a headscarf, have all been cited as examples of mandatory veiling.[84][85] These policies of forced veiling have been criticized as coercive instruments for gender segregation that deny female autonomy and agency.[85][86] However, objections to this argument suggest that forced veiling does not constitute gender apartheid and that social constructions of the veil have wrongfully made it a symbol of gender inequality.[86] During the five-year history of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, the Taliban regime interpreted the Sharia law in accordance with the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence and the religious edicts of Mullah Omar.[87] Women were banned from working,[87] girls were forbidden to attend schools or universities,[87] were requested to observe purdah and to be accompanied outside their households by male relatives; those who violated these restrictions were punished.[87] Men were forbidden to shave their beards and required to let them grow and keep them long according to the Taliban's liking, and to wear turbans outside their households.[87][88] Among other things, the Taliban also forbade both male and female participation in sport,[87] including football and chess,[87] as well as recreational activities such as kite-flying.[87]

Mahnaz Afkhami writes that the Islamic fundamentalist worldview "singles out women's status and her relations to society as the supreme test of the authenticity of the Islamic order." This is symbolized by the institutions of purdah (physical separation of the sexes) and awrah (concealing the body with clothing). As in much of the world, institutions suppressing women were becoming less powerful until the resurgence of Islamic fundamentalism at the end of the 20th century.[89] Walid Phares writes that Marxism in the Soviet Union and China, as well as "secular anticlericalism" in Turkey forced women to "integrate themselves into an antireligious society" resulting in a backlash of "gender apartheid" by Islamic fundamentalists. He notes that other religions also have "witnessed similar historical struggles".[90]


Main articles: Salah and Islam and gender segregation § In mosques

There are location-variations for women within mosques and congregations. Within some Islamic schools and branches, there are specific prayer variations for women. Women are not obligated to pray during their menstruation and for a period of time after childbirth. Majority of mosques worldwide have dedicated ladies-only prayer spaces. These include mosques in Muslim-majority countries like Indonesia,[91] Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia[92] and the United Arab Emirates,[93] as well as mosques in countries where Muslims are a minority group, like Singapore,[94][95] South Korea,[96] Japan and the United States.[97] In accordance with Islamic tradition, there is a practice of creating separate prayer spaces for men and women within mosques, which is derived from Hadith literature, including Sahih Muslim. Additionally, it is recorded that the Muhammad, encouraged the construction of separate entrances for men and women in mosques. This recommendation aimed to provide convenience and maintain a sense of propriety by allowing men and women to enter and exit the mosque without mingling through the same entrance.[98][99]

Transport restrictions

1990–2017 Saudi ban on women driving

Main article: Women to drive movement

A 1990 fatwa commissioned by the Saudi Arabian Ministry of the Interior formally enacted a ban on women driving.[100] This prohibition was unique to Saudi Arabia and became a source of international ridicule.[101] On September 26, 2017, a royal decree personally signed by Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud – the King and Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia – directed the Ministry of the Interior to reverse the ban.[101] The decree noted that "the original Islamic ruling in regards to women driving is to allow it",[101] and that those who opposed this view did so on the basis of "excuses that are baseless and have no predominance of thought (sic)".[101] Full implementation of the decree was scheduled for June 2018.[101]

In an interview with The Atlantic, Hala Al-Dosari – a Saudi scholar at Harvard University's Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study – posited that the driving ban was not religious or even cultural, but political;[100] she also noted the absurdity of banning females driving when women in the era of Muḥammad (570–632) were riding their camels without it being an issue.[100] The author and academic Haifaa Jawad underlined that the royal decree was "not some bold initiative to present a new religious interpretation of the issue. Theologically speaking, the ban has no basis in the Quran or Hadith, and should never have been issued in the first place."[102]

Additionally, some analysts have contended that the US$3.5 billion investment in the car-sharing app Uber by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Public Investment Fund – together with other projected economic gains – was instrumental in the reversal of the ban on women driving.[103][101]

Female education

See also: Religious education of Women in Islam

The University of al-Qarawiyyin (Université Al Quaraouiyine) in the Moroccan city of Fes was founded as a mosque complex by a Muslim woman – Fatima al-Fihri, the educated daughter of a wealthy merchant – in 859. According to UNESCO, it is the oldest university in the world which is still operational.[77] It was incorporated into Morocco's modern state university system in 1963.

The classical position

The Quran, ḥadīth literature, and sunnah (the spoken or acted example attributed to Muhammad) advocate the rights of women and men equally to seek knowledge.[104] The Quran commands all Muslims to exert effort in the pursuit of knowledge, irrespective of their biological sex: it constantly encourages Muslims to read, think, contemplate and learn from the signs of God in nature.[104] Moreover, Muhammad encouraged education for both males and females: he declared that seeking knowledge was a religious duty binding upon every Muslim man and woman.[105] Like her male counterpart, each woman is under a moral and religious obligation to seek knowledge, develop her intellect, broaden her outlook, cultivate her talents and then use her potential to the benefit of her soul and her society.[106] Copyists made it evident that women were entitled to seek an education just as much as any man by stating in the ḥadīth literature that it is everyone's duty, whether male or female, to seek knowledge.[107] Along with these ideals came with hesitation from some who believed an educated woman who could read and write was described as poisonous.[107] Many women throughout the Muslim world took this opportunity to receive education.[107]

Muhammad's teachings were widely sought by both sexes, and accordingly at the time of his death it was reported that there were many female scholars of Islam.[105] Additionally, the wives of Muhammad – particularly Aisha – also taught both women and men; many of his companions and followers learned the Quran, ḥadīth, and Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) from Aisha.[108] Because Islam recognizes that women are in principle wives and mothers, the acquisition of knowledge in fields which are complementary to these social roles was specially emphasized.[109]

History of women's education

Pakistani school girls in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

James E. Lindsay states that Islam encouraged religious education of Muslim women.[110] According to a ḥadīth in Saḥih Muslim variously attributed to Aisha and Muhammad, the women of the ansar were praiseworthy because shame did not prevent them from asking detailed questions about Islamic law.[110]

While it was not common for women to enroll as students in formal religious schools, it was common for women to attend informal lectures and study sessions at mosques, madrassa and other public places. For example, the attendance of women at the Fatimid Caliphate's "sessions of wisdom" (majālis al-ḥikma) was noted by various historians, including Ibn al-Tuwayr, al-Muṣabbiḥī, and Imam.[111] Historically, some Muslim women played an important role in the foundation of many religious educational institutions, such as Fatima al-Fihri's founding of the al-Karaouine mosque in 859 CE, from which later developed the University of al-Karaouine.[112]: 274  Many royal women were founders of educational institutions, including madrassa.[107] In Mamluk Cairo, women were responsible for endowing five madrassa and could even have the responsibility of being a supervisor of a madrasa administration if they had familial ties to a founder.[107] According to the 12th-century Sunni scholar Ibn 'Asakir, there were various opportunities for female education during the Islamic Golden Age. He writes that women could study, earn ijazah (religious degrees) and qualify as ulama and Islamic teachers.[112]: 196, 198  Similarly, al-Sakhawi devotes one of the twelve volumes of his biographical dictionary Daw al-Lami to female religious scholars between 700 and 1800 CE, giving information on 1,075 of them. [113] Women of prominent urban families were commonly educated in private settings and many of them received and later issued ijazah in ḥadīth studies, calligraphy, and recitation of poetry.[114][115] There was a period of time where women scholars were vital to the transmission of the ḥadīth. Important female scholars such as Shuhda, Zaynab, Aisha, and Fatimah were trained at a very young age and influenced heavily by family members who were also scholars or immersed in the knowledge.[116] Each had an extensive following and made many contributions to teaching those of various backgrounds.[116] Working women learned religious texts and practical skills primarily from each other, though they also received some instruction together with men in mosques and private homes.[114]

During the colonial era, until the early 20th century, there was a gender struggle among Muslims living under the British Empire; educating women was viewed as a prelude to social chaos, a threat to the moral order, and man's world was viewed as a source of Muslim identity.[117] Muslim women in British India, nevertheless, pressed for their rights independently of men; by the 1930s, 2.5 million girls had entered schools, of which 0.5 million were Muslims.[117]

Women as educators

Display of various ḥadīth collections

The mid-14th century saw a rise in women's participation, such as the teaching of ḥadīth.[118] This increase was due to the greater contribution to the education of women and greater encouragement in women's religious participation.[119] Contact with scholars as well as the mosque allowed women to learn and obtain the credentials to teach the ḥadīth.[120] This newfound movement allowed for greater mobilization on the role of women in the passage of knowledge. The expansion of women's religious involvement helped challenge the role of women in the domestic sector and paved the way for a greater expansion of knowledge.[118] ḥadīth transmission also allowed women to gain status by putting them in a pedigree that connected them to the time of Muhammad.[121] Women who participated in the transmission of the ḥadīth were known as muhaddithat.[119]

Traveling for knowledge

One way that Islamic scholars obtained knowledge was through traveling.[122] Traveling for knowledge is highly encouraged not only among men but also among female scholars.[120] Women could travel with their mahram or relatives to other towns to learn and acquire education in the study of ḥadīth literature.[citation needed] Furthermore, women scholars also took journeys to different cities to teach the ḥadīth as well as other genera of knowledge, such as literature and law.[123] Students would undertake long journeys just to hear their teachings. Traveling for knowledge allows women scholars the ability to take part in religious teachings outside of their homes.[120] Through traveling and other venues, women hadiths were able to contribute a tremendous amount to the transmission of knowledge in the Islamicate world.

Famous muhaddithat

Zaynab bint al-Kamal

Zaynab bint al-Kamal (1248–1339 CE) was a famous ḥadīth scholar. She is known to have obtained numerous ijazah (permission to teach the ḥadīth) throughout her life, especially in her early years.[118] At the age of one, she received her first ijazah from Abd al-Khaliq al-Nishtibri.[119] Her father was not a famous hadith transmitter, and there was no account of his role in her studies. However, it was noted that her uncle, Shams al-Din Muhammad, excelled in the field of transmission and was most likely the one that facilitated her studies.[118] Her reputation came from her association with al-Nishtibri, with students traveling far to hear her teachings. She was known as a reliable authority that encompassed different genera of studies.[124] She held mixed classes in al-Madrasa al-Diya’iyyah, a congregational mosque, and her home.[119] Students would come from afar to listen to her teachings. She is also known to travel to Egypt and Medina to teach her works.[124] In her later years, she continued to thrive as a teacher. She also repeated her cycle by giving out ijazah to her students during their early years.[118] In a field where male ḥadīth teachers predominate, her reputation helped pave the way for more female transmitters of the ḥadīth. Furthermore, she acts as the last connection to the work of famous scholars that might have passed during her time.

Current situation

Queen Rania Al-Abdullah of Jordan is one of the Islamic world's most high-profile educational campaigners. Her foundation – established in 2013 – is developing a number of education programmes, including online learning platform[125]
Elementary schoolgirls from OIC member state Albania pictured during Code Week 2017 in Burrel, near Tirana. Between 2009 and 2015, Albania saw consistent and substantial improvements in all three PISA subjects.[126]

In a 2013 statement, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation noted that restricted access to education is among the challenges faced by girls and women in the developing world, including OIC member states.[127] UNICEF notes that out of 24 nations with less than 60% female primary enrollment rates, 17 were Islamic nations; more than half the adult population is illiterate in several Islamic countries, and the proportion reaches 70% among Muslim women.[128] UNESCO estimates that the literacy rate among adult women was about 50% or less in a number of Muslim-majority countries, including Morocco, Yemen, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Niger, Mali, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, and Chad.[129] Egypt had a female literacy rate of 64% in 2010, Iraq of 71% and Indonesia of 90%.[129] Literacy has been improving in Saudi Arabia since the 1970s, the female literacy rate in 2017 for women ages 15–24 was 99.3%, equivalent to the male literacy rate of 99.3%.[130] Western ideals have had an influence over education in Muslim countries due to the increased demand of literacy in males and females.[131] It is evident that more women are making an effort to receive an education by attending primary and secondary school in Muslim countries.[131]

Gender and participation in education

Some scholars[132][133] contend that Islamic nations have the world's highest gender gap in education. The 2012 World Economic Forum annual gender gap study finds the 17 out of 18 worst performing nations, out of a total of 135 nations, are the following members of Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC): Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, (Nepal[134]), Turkey, Oman, Egypt, Iran, Mali, Morocco, Côte d'Ivoire, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Chad, Pakistan, and Yemen.[135]

A scene from a female-majority class at the Psychology Department of Uludağ University in Bursa, Turkey. In Turkey, 47.5% of staff at the top five universities are female, a higher proportion than for their equivalents in the United States (35.9%), Denmark (31%) and Japan (12.7%).[136]

In contrast, UNESCO notes that at 37% the share of female researchers in Arab states compares well with other regions.[137] In Turkey, the proportion of female university researchers is slightly higher (36%) than the average for the 27-member European Union as of 2012 (33%).[138] Comparably, at 36.5%, the overall share of women researchers at universities and science centres in North Africa is above world (22.5%), European (33%) and developed country (26%) averages.[139] In Iran, women account for over 60% of university students.[140] Similarly, in Malaysia,[141] Algeria,[142] and in Saudi Arabia,[143] the majority of university students have been female in recent years, while in 2016 Emirati women constituted 76.8% of people enrolled at universities in the United Arab Emirates.[144] At the University of Jordan, which is Jordan's largest and oldest university, 65% of students were female in 2013.[145]

In a number of OIC member states, the ratio of women to men in tertiary education is exceptionally high. Qatar leads the world in this respect, having 6.66 females in higher education for every male as of 2015.[146] Other Muslim-majority states with notably more women university students than men include Kuwait, where 41% of females attend university compared with 18% of males;[146] Bahrain, where the ratio of women to men in tertiary education is 2.18:1;[146] Brunei Darussalam, where 33% of women enroll at university vis à vis 18% of men;[146] Tunisia, which has a women to men ratio of 1.62 in higher education; and Kyrgyzstan, where the equivalent ratio is 1.61.[146] Additionally, in Kazakhstan, there were 115 female students for every 100 male students in tertiary education in 1999; according to the World Bank, this ratio had increased to 144:100 by 2008.[147]

A notable development specific to the study of physics is that women in Muslim-majority countries enjoy significantly greater representation than their counterparts in the United States: in the US, women make up 21% of physics undergraduates and 20% of PhD students, while the equivalent figures for Muslim-majority nations are 60%+ and 47% respectively.[148] Female physicists who studied in Muslim-majority states and then moved to the US for academic positions noted that when they were in their previous locations, 'they did not feel they had to suppress their femininity to have their intellect – and not their appearance – be the focus of the interaction'.[149]

Similarly, the very high (c.50%) female engineering enrolment rates in three diverse OIC member states – Tunisia, Jordan and Malaysia – have prompted the incorporation of Women in Engineering in Predominately Muslim Countries ('WIEPMCS') at three American universities (Washington State, Purdue and Western Washington). The aim of this project is to 'shed light more generally on how context shapes women's successful participation in STEM in ways that inform our efforts to broaden participation in the US', where female enrolment rates in engineering are typically 15–20%.[150]

In the United States, a recent study done by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that Muslim American women (73%) are more likely than Muslim American men (57%) to achieve higher education (post-high school education or higher).[151]

Female employment

See also: Islamic economics in the world

Some scholars[152][153] refer to verse 28:23 in the Quran regarding Moses and two working women, and to Khadijah, Muhammad's first wife, a merchant before and after converting to Islam, as indications that Muslim women may undertake employment outside their homes.[disputeddiscuss]

When he arrived at the well of Midian, he found a group of people watering ˹their herds˺. Apart from them, he noticed two women holding back ˹their herd˺. He asked ˹them˺, “What is the problem?” They replied, “We cannot water ˹our animals˺ until the ˹other˺ shepherds are done, for our father is a very old man.”

Traditional interpretations of Islam require a woman to have her husband's permission to leave the house and take up employment,[154][155][156] though scholars such as Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa[157] and Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ebrahim Jannaati[158] have said that women do not require a husband's permission to leave the house and work.


See also: Female figures in the Quran

During medieval times, the labor force in Spanish Caliphate included women in diverse occupations and economic activities such as farming, construction workers, textile workers, managing slave girls, collecting taxes from prostitutes, as well as presidents of guilds, creditors, religious scholars.[159]

In the 12th century, Ibn Rushd claimed that women were equal to men in all respects and possessed equal capacities to shine, citing examples of female warriors among the Arabs, Greeks and Africans to support his case.[160] In the early history of Islam, examples of notable female Muslims who fought during the Muslim conquests and Fitna (civil wars) as soldiers or generals included Nusaybah bint Ka'ab[161] a.k.a. Umm Amarah, Aisha,[162] Kahula and Wafeira.[163]

Medieval Bimarestan or hospitals included female staff as female nurses. Muslim hospitals were also the first to employ female physicians, such as Banu Zuhr family who served the Almohad caliph ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur in the 12th century.[164] This was necessary due to the segregation of male and female patients in Islamic hospitals. Later in the 15th century, female surgeons were employed at Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Cerrahiyyetu'l-Haniyye (Imperial Surgery).[165]

Islamic faith states that in the eyes of God, men and women should be equal and are allowed to fulfill the same roles.[166] Therefore, they also are required to complete all the duties of a Muslim worshiper, including the completion of religious traditions, specifically the pilgrimage to Mecca. Islamic culture marked a movement towards liberation and equality for women, since prior Arab cultures did not enable women to have such freedoms. There is evidence that Muhammad asked women for advice and took their thoughts into account, specifically with regard to the Quran. Women were allowed to pray with men, take part in commercial interactions, and played a role in education. One of Muhammad's wives, Aisha, played a significant role in medicine, history and rhetoric. Women, however, did not hold religious titles, but some held political power with their husbands or on their own. The historic role of women in Islam is connected to societal patriarchal ideals, rather than actual ties to the Quran. The issue of women in Islam is becoming more prevalent in modern society.[167]

Three female Garuda Indonesia employees (centre) pictured at the ITB Berlin tourism trade fair. The proportion of senior business roles held by women in Indonesia is 46%, the highest in ASEAN and well above the level of countries such as Brazil (19%), Germany (18%), India (17%) and Japan (7%).[168]

Modern era

See also: Female labor force in the Muslim world

Patterns of women's employment vary throughout the Muslim world: as of 2005, 16% of Pakistani women were "economically active" (either employed, or unemployed but available to furnish labor), whereas 52% of Indonesian women were.[169] According to a 2012 World Economic Forum report[170] and other recent reports,[171] Islamic nations in the Middle East and North Africa region are increasing their creation of economic and employment opportunities for women; compared, however, to every other region in the world, the Middle East and North African region ranks lowest on economic participation, employment opportunity and the political empowerment of women. Ten countries with the lowest women labour force participation in the world – Jordan, Oman, Morocco, Iran, Turkey, Algeria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Syria – are Islamic countries, as are the four countries that have no female parliamentarians.[170]

Women are allowed to work in Islam, subject to certain conditions. For example, an acceptable circumstance is if a woman is in financial need and her employment does not cause her to neglect her important role as a mother and wife.[152][172] It has been claimed that it is the responsibility of the Muslim community to organize work for women, so that she can do so in a Muslim cultural atmosphere, where her rights (as set out in the Quran) are respected.[152] Islamic law however, permits women to work in Islamic conditions,[152] such as the work not requiring the woman to violate Islamic law (e.g., serving alcohol), and that she maintain her modesty while she performs any work outside her home.

In some cases, when women have the right to work and are educated, women's job opportunities may in practice be unequal to those of men. In Egypt for example, women have limited opportunities to work in the private sector because women are still expected to put their role in the family first, which causes men to be seen as more reliable in the long term.[173][page needed] In Saudi Arabia, it was illegal for Saudi women to drive until June 2018.[174][page needed] It is becoming more common for Saudi Arabian women to procure driving licenses from other Gulf Cooperation Council states such as the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain.[175]

According to the International Business Report (2014) published by global accounting network Grant Thornton, Indonesia – which is the world's largest Muslim country by population – has ≥40% of senior business management positions occupied by women, a greater proportion than the United States (22%) and Denmark (14%).[176] Prominent female business executives in the Islamic world include Güler Sabancı, the CEO of the industrial and financial conglomerate Sabancı Holding;[177] Ümit Boyner, a non-executive director at Boyner Holding who was the chairwoman of TÜSİAD, the Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen Association, from 2010 to 2013;[178] Bernadette Ruth Irawati Setiady, the CEO of PT Kalbe Farma Tbk., the largest pharmaceutical company in the ASEAN trade bloc;[179] Atiek Nur Wahyuni, the director of Trans TV, a major free-to-air television station in Indonesia;[180] and Elissa Freiha, a founding partner of the UAE-based investment platform WOMENA.[181][182]

In the United States, the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that, "Instead of hiding, Muslim women responded to a Trump win with greater giving." Nearly 30% of Muslim women vs. 19% of Muslim men have increased their donations to an organization associated with their faith community since the 2016 US presidential election, demonstrating a level of financial independence and influence.[151]

Financial and legal matters

Use, by country, of Sharia for legal matters relating to women:
  Sharia plays no role in the judicial system
  Sharia applies to Muslims in personal status issues only
  Sharia is also used in criminal law
  Regional variations in the application of sharia

Main articles: Application of sharia by country and Status of women's testimony in Islam

According to all schools of Islamic law, the injunctions of the sharia of Islam apply to all Muslims, male and female, who have reached the age of maturity – and only to them.[34] The Quran especially emphasizes that its injunctions concern both men and women in several verses where both are addressed clearly and in a distinct manner, such as in Sūrat al-Aḥzāb at 33:35[183] ('Verily, men who surrender unto God, and women who surrender...').

Most Muslim-majority countries, and some countries with a considerable population of Muslim minorities, follow a mixed legal system, with positive laws and state courts, as well as sharia-based religious laws and religious courts.[184] Those countries that use sharia for legal matters involving women, adopt it mostly for personal law; however, a few Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Yemen also have sharia-based criminal laws.[185]

According to Jan Michiel Otto, "[a]nthropological research shows that people in local communities often do not distinguish clearly whether and to what extent their norms and practices are based on local tradition, tribal custom, or religion."[186] In some areas, tribal practices such as vani, Ba'ad and "honor" killing remain an integral part of the customary legal processes involving Muslim women.[187][188] In turn, article 340 of the Jordanian Penal Code, which reduces sentences for killing female relatives over adultery, and is commonly believed to be derived from Islamic law, was in fact borrowed from French criminal law during the Ottoman era.[189]

Other than applicable laws to Muslim women, there is gender-based variation in the process of testimony and acceptable forms of evidence in legal matters.[190][191] Some Islamic jurists have held that certain types of testimony by women may not be accepted. In other cases, the testimony of two women equals that of one man.[190][191]

Financial and legal agency

The classical position

According to verse 4:32 of the Quran, both men and women have an independent economic position: 'For men is a portion of what they earn, and for women is a portion of what they earn. Ask God for His grace. God has knowledge of all things.'[192] Women therefore are at liberty to buy, sell, mortgage, lease, borrow or lend, and sign contracts and legal documents.[192] Additionally, women can donate money, act as trustees and set up a business or company.[192] These rights cannot be altered, irrespective of marital status.[192] When a woman is married, she legally has total control over the dower – the mahr or bridal gift, usually financial in nature, which the groom pays to the bride upon marriage – and retains this control in the event of divorce.[192][193]

Quranic principles, especially the teaching of zakāh or purification of wealth, encourage women to own, invest, save and distribute their earnings and savings according to their discretion.[192][page needed] These also acknowledge and enforce the right of women to participate in various economic activities.[192][page needed]

In contrast to many other cultures, a woman in Islam has always been entitled as per sharia law to keep her family name and not take her husband's name.[194] Therefore, a Muslim woman has traditionally always been known by the name of her family as an indication of her individuality and her own legal identity: there is no historically practiced process of changing the names of women be they married, divorced or widowed.[194] With the spread of western-style state bureaucracies across the Islamic world from the nineteenth century onwards, this latter convention has come under increasing pressure, and it is now commonplace for Muslim women to change their names upon marriage.

Property rights

A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque

See also: Women and inheritance in Islam

Quran states:

"For men is a share from what the parents and near relatives leave, and for women is a share from what the parents and near relative leave from less from it or more, a legal share." (Al-Quran 4:7)

Bernard Lewis says that classical Islamic civilization granted free Muslim women relatively more property rights than women in the West, even as it sanctified three basic inequalities between master and slave, man and woman, believer and unbeliever.[195] Even in cases where property rights were granted in the West, they were very limited and covered only upper-class women.[196] Over time, while women's rights have improved elsewhere, those in many Muslim-dominated countries have remained comparatively restricted.[197][198]

Women's property rights in the Quran are from parents and near relatives. A woman, according to Islamic tradition, does not have to give her pre-marriage possessions to her husband and receive a mahr (dower) which she then owns.[199] Furthermore, any earnings that a woman receives through employment or business, after marriage, is hers to keep and need not contribute towards family expenses. This is because, once the marriage is consummated, in exchange for tamkin (sexual submission), a woman is entitled to nafaqa – namely, the financial responsibility for reasonable housing, food and other household expenses for the family, including the spouse, falls entirely on the husband.[154][155] In traditional Islamic law, a woman is also not responsible for the upkeep of the home and may demand payment for any work she does in the domestic sphere.[200][201]

Property rights enabled some Muslim women to possess substantial assets and fund charitable endowments. In mid-sixteenth century Istanbul, 36.8% of charitable endowments (awqāf) were founded by women.[202] In eighteenth century Cairo, 126 out of 496 charitable foundations (25.4%) were endowed by women.[203] Between 1770 and 1840, 241 out of 468 or 51% of charitable endowments in Aleppo were founded by women.[204]

The Quran grants inheritance rights to wife, daughter, and sisters of the deceased.[205] However, women's inheritance rights to her father's property are unequal to her male siblings, and varies based on number of sisters, stepsisters, stepbrothers, if mother is surviving, and other claimants. The rules of inheritance are specified by a number of Quran verses, including Surah "Baqarah" (chapter 2) verses 180 and 240; Surah "Nisa(h)" (chapter 4) verses 7–11, 19 and 33; and Surah "Maidah" (chapter 5), verses 106–108. Three verses in Surah "Nisah" (chapter 4), verses 11, 12 and 176, describe the share of close relatives. The religious inheritance laws for women in Islam are different from inheritance laws for non-Muslim women under common laws.[206]

Economic equity

The Islamic teaching of going out of one's way to treat women equitably in financial dealings is exemplified by a story featuring Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā (700–767) – the founder of the Ḥanafī School of Law, who in his earlier life was a textile merchant in a garrison town – and a woman who came to his store offering to sell Abū Ḥanīfa a silk garment. The author and investment banker Harris Irfan narrates the story as follows:

"The lady offered to sell the garment to Abu Hanifa for 100 dirhams but Abu Hanifa would not buy it. 'It is worth more than a hundred', he told the surprised woman. 'How much?' he asked her again. She offered to sell it for 200 dirhams and he turned her down. Then she asked for 300, then 400, at which point the exasperated woman scolded him. 'You are mocking me', she declared, and prepared to walk away from the deal to try her luck elsewhere. So they summoned another merchant and he solemnly valued the garment at 500 dirhams. Rather than profit from the woman's ignorance, Abu Hanifa had opted to settle for a fair trade, a principle he would abide by all his life – that the greedy should be regulated from taking advantage of the vulnerable."[207]

Sexual crimes and sins


Main article: Zina

The fornicating woman and the fornicating man, flog each one of them with one hundred stripes. No pity for them should prevail upon you in the matter of Allah's religion, if you really believe in Allah and the Last Day; and a group of believers must witness their punishment. A man who is fornicator will not marry but a woman who is a fornicator or a polytheist; and a woman who is a fornicator will not marry but a man who is a fornicator or a polytheist. And this (i.e. marrying such spouses) has been prohibited for the believers. (Al-Quran 24:2–3)

Traditional jurisprudence

Zina is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse.[208] According to traditional jurisprudence, zina can include adultery (of married parties), fornication (of unmarried parties), prostitution, bestiality, and, according to some scholars, rape.[208] The Quran disapproved of the promiscuity prevailing in Arabia at the time, and several verses refer to unlawful sexual intercourse, including one that prescribes the punishment of 100 lashes for fornicators.[209] Zina thus belong to the class of hadd (pl. hudud) crimes, which have Quranically specified punishments.[209]

Although stoning for zina is not mentioned in the Quran, all schools of traditional jurisprudence agreed on the basis of hadith that it is to be punished by stoning if the offender is muhsan (adult, free, Muslim, and having been married), with some extending this punishment to certain other cases and milder punishment prescribed in other scenarios.[209][208] The offenders must have acted of their own free will.[209] According to traditional jurisprudence, zina must be proved by testimony of four adult, pious male eyewitnesses to the actual act of penetration, or a confession repeated four times and not retracted later.[209][208] Any Muslim who accuses another Muslim of zina but fails to produce the required witnesses commits the crime of false accusation (qadhf, القذف).[210][211][212] Some contend that this sharia requirement of four eyewitnesses severely limits a man's ability to prove zina charges against women, a crime often committed without eyewitnesses.[210][213][214] The Maliki legal school also allows an unmarried woman's pregnancy to be used as evidence, but the punishment can be averted by a number of legal "semblances" (shubuhat), such as existence of an invalid marriage contract.[209] These requirements made zina virtually impossible to prove in practice.[208]


Aside from "a few rare and isolated" instances from the pre-modern era and several recent cases, there is no historical record of stoning for zina being legally carried out.[208] Zina became a more pressing issue in modern times, as Islamist movements and governments employed polemics against public immorality.[208] After sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by European-inspired statutes in the modern era, in recent decades several countries passed legal reforms that incorporated elements of hudud laws into their legal codes.[215] Iran witnessed several highly publicized stonings for zina in the aftermath of the Islamic revolution.[208] In Nigeria local courts have passed several stoning sentences, all of which were overturned on appeal or left unenforced.[216] While the harsher punishments of the Hudood Ordinances have never been applied in Pakistan,[217] in 2005 Human Rights Watch reported that over 200,000 zina cases against women were underway at various levels in Pakistan's legal system.[218]

Qazf and Li'an

In 'qazf' when someone accuses a chaste woman without four witnesses then he is to be punished with being flogged with eighty lashes. His testimony will become inadmissible forever unless he repents and improves (24:4–5) However, in 'lian', when the husband accuses the wife of adultery without witnesses, he have to swear five times each to support his case. If he takes oaths she is to be punished with 100 flogging and stoning unless she too takes oaths in similar way to support her case, her oaths are upheld over his and she will not be punished(24:6–9).[219]

24:4 Those who accuse chaste women ˹of adultery˺ and fail to produce four witnesses, give them eighty lashes ˹each˺. And do not ever accept any testimony from them—for they are indeed the rebellious—
24:5 except those who repent afterwards and mend their ways, then surely Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
24:6 And those who accuse their wives ˹of adultery˺ but have no witness except themselves, the accuser must testify, swearing four times by Allah that he is telling the truth,
24:7 and a fifth oath that Allah may condemn him if he is lying.
24:8 For her to be spared the punishment, she must swear four times by Allah that he is telling a lie,
24:9 and a fifth oath that Allah may be displeased with her if he is telling the truth.


Main article: Rape in Islamic law

Traditional jurisprudence

Rape is considered a serious sexual crime in Islam, and can be defined in Islamic law as: "Forcible illegal sexual intercourse by a man with a woman who is not legally married to him, without her free will and consent".[220]

Sharia law makes a distinction between adultery and rape and applies different rules.[221] According to Professor Oliver Leaman, the required testimony of four male witnesses having seen the actual penetration applies to illicit sexual relations (i.e. adultery and fornication), not to rape.[222] The requirements for proof of rape are less stringent:

Rape charges can be brought and a case proven based on the sole testimony of the victim, providing that circumstantial evidence supports the allegations. It is these strict criteria of proof which lead to the frequent observation that where injustice against women does occur, it is not because of Islamic law. It happens either due to misinterpretation of the intricacies of the sharia laws governing these matters, or cultural traditions; or due to corruption and blatant disregard of the law, or indeed some combination of these phenomena.[222]

In the case of rape, the adult male perpetrator (i.e. rapist) of such an act is to receive the ḥadd zinā, but the non-consenting or invalidly consenting female (i.e. rape victim) is to be regarded as innocent of zinā and relieved of the ḥadd punishment.[223]

Modern criminal laws

Rape laws in a number of Muslim-majority countries have been a subject of controversy. In some of these countries, such as Morocco, the penal code is neither based on Islamic law nor significantly influenced by it,[224] while in other cases, such as Pakistan's Hudood Ordinances, the code incorporates elements of Islamic law.

In Afghanistan and Dubai, some women who made accusations of rape have been charged with fornication or adultery.[225][226][227][228] This law was amended in Pakistan in 2006.[229]

Witness of woman

Main article: Status of women's testimony in Islam

In Quran, surah 2:282 equates two women as substitute for one man, in matters requiring witnesses.[230]

O believers! When you contract a loan for a fixed period of time, commit it to writing. Let the scribe maintain justice between the parties. The scribe should not refuse to write as Allah has taught them to write. They will write what the debtor dictates, bearing Allah in mind and not defrauding the debt. If the debtor is incompetent, weak, or unable to dictate, let their guardian dictate for them with justice. Call upon two of your men to witness. If two men cannot be found, then one man and two women of your choice will witness—so if one of the women forgets the other may remind her. The witnesses must not refuse when they are summoned. You must not be against writing ˹contracts˺ for a fixed period—whether the sum is small or great. This is more just ˹for you˺ in the sight of Allah, and more convenient to establish evidence and remove doubts. However, if you conduct an immediate transaction among yourselves, then there is no need for you to record it, but call upon witnesses when a deal is finalized. Let no harm come to the scribe or witnesses. If you do, then you have gravely exceeded ˹your limits˺. Be mindful of Allah, for Allah ˹is the One Who˺ teaches you. And Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things.

— Quran 2:282

Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri:

The prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?" The women said, "Yes". He said, " This is deficiency of her mind".

(Sahih Bukhari: Book of Witnesses: Chapter witness of women: Hadith no. 2658)

Regarding the hadith, that is used to prove the half-testimony status, Ghamidi and members of his foundation, Al-Mawrid, argue against its reliability[231] and its common understanding.[232][233](27:37) Ghamidi also contends that the narration cannot be used in all general cases because it is related to the Qur'an verse whose subject is related only to financial matters. Another Pakistani religious scholar Ishaq argues that acquiring conclusive evidence is important, regardless of whether it can be obtained from just one man or just one woman. According to Ghamidi, regarding the verse Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Taymiyya also held similar views to his.[233](11:31)

Al-Qayyim argued that the verse relates to the heavy responsibility of testifying by which an owner of wealth protects his rights, not with the decision of a court; the two are completely different from each other.[234] It is also argued that this command shows that the Qur'an does not want to make difficulties for women.[235] Ibn Taymiyya also reasoned the deficiency of using Qur'an 2:282 to prove evidentiary discrimination against women. However, both Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Taymiyya did believe in the difference of probative value of men's and women's testimony. It is argued that even though Ibn al-Qayyim believed that women were more prone to making errors, instead of concluding a general discrimination from this, women's testimony was to be treated on an individual basis. This is because Ibn al-Qayyim contended that in cases where a woman and man share all the Islamic good qualities of a witness, a woman's testimony corroborated by another woman may actually be considered stronger than the uncorroborated testimony of a man. Additionally, Ibn al-Qayyim also regarded the testimony of some exceptional women like those who transmitted the Hadith as doubtlessly greater than a single man of lesser esteem.[236]

Ibn Taymiyyah wrote:

"فَمَا كَانَ مِنْ الشَّهَادَاتِ لَا يُخَافُ فِيهِ الضَّلَالُ فِي الْعَادَةِ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِيهِ عَلَى نِصْفِ رَجُلٍ" "Whatever there is among the testimonies of women, which there is no fear of habitual error, then they are not considered as half of a man."[237]

Ibn al-Qayyim writes:

"وَالْمَرْأَةُ الْعَدْلُ كَالرَّجُلِ فِي الصِّدْقِ وَالْأَمَانَةِ وَالدِّيَانَة إلَّا أَنَّهَا لَمَّا خِيفَ عَلَيْهَا السَّهْوُ وَالنِّسْيَانُ قَوِيَتْ بِمِثْلِهَا وَذَلِكَ قَدْ يَجْعَلُهَا أَقْوَى مِنْ الرَّجُلِ الْوَاحِدِ أَوْ مِثْلَهُ" "The woman is equal to the man in honesty, trust, and piety; otherwise, whenever it is feared that she will forget or misremember, she is strengthened with another like herself. That makes them stronger than a single man or the likes of him."[238]

In Islamic law, testimony (shahada) is defined as attestation of knowledge with regard to a right of a second party against a third. It exists alongside other forms of evidence, such as the oath, confession, and circumstantial evidence.[239] In classical sharia criminal law men and women are treated differently with regard to evidence and bloodmoney. The testimony of a man has twice the strength of that of a woman. However, with regard to hadd offenses and retaliation, the testimonies of female witnesses are not admitted at all.[191] A number of Muslim-majority countries, particularly in the Arab world, presently treat a woman's testimony as half of a man's in certain cases, mainly in family disputes adjudicated based on Islamic law.[240]

Classical commentators commonly explained the unequal treatment of testimony by asserting that women's nature made them more prone to error than men. Muslim modernists have followed the Egyptian reformer Muhammad Abduh in viewing the relevant scriptural passages as conditioned on the different gender roles and life experiences that prevailed at the time rather than women's innately inferior mental capacities, making the rule not generally applicable in all times and places.[241] According to other explanations, the reason behind this inequality is that in a household a portion of the male's share has to go on into caring for the family and providing their needs, meanwhile the female can act freely with her share[242]

Domestic violence

See also: Islam and domestic violence

Acceptance of domestic violence by women in some Islamic countries, according to UNICEF (2013).[243]

4:34 Men are the caretakers of women, as men have been provisioned by Allah over women and tasked with supporting them financially. And righteous women are devoutly obedient and, when alone, protective of what Allah has entrusted them with. And if you sense ill-conduct from your women, advise them ˹first˺, ˹if they persist,˺ do not share their beds, ˹but if they still persist,˺ then discipline them ˹gently˺. But if they change their ways, do not be unjust to them. Surely Allah is Most High, All-Great.
4:35 If you anticipate a split between them, appoint a mediator from his family and another from hers. If they desire reconciliation, Allah will restore harmony between them. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.

The word "strike" in this verse which is understood as "beating" or "hitting" in English – w'aḍribūhunna – is derived from the Arabic root word ḍaraba, which has over fifty derivations and definitions, including "to separate', "to oscillate" and "to play music".[244] The common conservative interpretations [245][246] translate and understand the word to mean as strike or beat in this verse, with some making a special note of the striking being specifically of low severity, however, there does exist Islamic thought that suggests a different interpretation also. Even within the Quran itself, the most common use[where?] of this word is not with the definition "to beat", but as verb phrases which provide a number of other meanings, including, as argued by some, several which are more plausible within the context of 4:34, such as "to leave [your wife in the event of disloyalty]", and "to draw them lovingly towards you [following temporarily not sleeping with them in protest at their disloyal behaviour].[247]

Jonathan A.C. Brown gives the wider scholarly tendency when it comes to the verse: The vast majority of the ulama across the Sunni schools of law inherited Muhammad's unease over domestic violence and placed further restrictions on the evident meaning of the 'Wife Beating Verse'. A leading Meccan scholar from the second generation of Muslims, Ata' bin Abi Rabah, counseled a husband not to beat his wife even if she ignored him but rather to express his anger in some other way. Darimi, a teacher of both Tirmidhi and Muslim bin Hajjaj as well as a leading early scholar in Iran, collected all the Hadiths showing Muhammad's disapproval of beating in a chapter entitled 'The Prohibition on Striking Women'. A thirteenth-century scholar from Granada, Ibn Faras, notes that one camp of ulama had staked out a stance forbidding striking a wife altogether, declaring it contrary to Muhammad's example and denying the authenticity of any Hadiths that seemed to permit beating. Even Ibn Hajar, the pillar of late medieval Sunni Hadith scholarship, concludes that, contrary to what seems to be an explicit command in the Quran, the hadiths of Muhammad leave no doubt that striking one's wife to discipline her actually falls under the sharia ruling of 'strongly disliked' or 'disliked verging on prohibited.[248]

In recent years, numerous prominent scholars in the tradition of "orthodox Islam" have issued fatwas (legal opinions) against domestic violence. These include the Shī'ite scholar Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, who promulgated a fatwa on the occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women in 2007, which states that Islam forbids men from exercising any form of violence against women;[249] Shakyh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani, the Chairman of the Islamic Supreme Council of America, who co-authored The Prohibition of Domestic Violence in Islam (2011) with Homayra Ziad;[250] and Cemalnur Sargut, the president of the Turkish Women's Cultural Association (TÜRKKAD), who has stated that men who engage in domestic violence "in a sense commit polytheism (shirk)": "Such people never go on a diet to curb the desires of their ego...[Conversely] In his Mathnawi Rumi says love for women is because of witnessing Allah as reflected in the mirror of their being. According to tasawwuf, woman is the light of Allah's beauty shed onto this earth. Again in [the] Mathanawi Rumi says a man who is wise and fine-spirited is understanding and compassionate towards a woman, and never wants to hurt or injure her."[251]

Some scholars[252][253] claim Islamic law, such as verse 4:34 of Quran, allows and encourages domestic violence against women, when a husband suspects nushuz (disobedience, disloyalty, rebellion, ill conduct) in his wife.[254] Other scholars claim wife beating, for nashizah, is not consistent with modern perspectives of Quran.[255]

There are a number of translations of this verse from the Arabic original, and all vary to some extent.[256] Some Muslims, such as Islamic feminist groups, argue that Muslim men use the text as an excuse for domestic violence.[257]

In Muhammad's Farewell Sermon as recorded in al-Tabari's History,[258] and in a Sahih Hadith collected by Abu Dawud he instructed husbands to beat their wives, without severity (فَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ضَرْبًا غَيْرَ مُبَرِّحٍ fadribuhunna darban ghayra mubarrih; literal translation: "beat them, a beating without severity") When asked by Ibn Abbas the cousin and companion of Muhammd Ibn Abbas replied back: "I asked Ibn Abbas: 'What is the hitting that is Ghayr Al-Mubarrih (Without Severity) ?' He replied [with] the siwak (toothbrush like a twig) and the like'.[259]

There have been several fatwas against domestic violence.[260][261]

Some conservative translations suggest Muslim husbands are permitted to use light force on their wives, and others claim permissibly to strike them with a Miswak and chastise them.[262][263] The relationship between Islam and domestic violence is disputed by some Islamic scholars.[262][264]

The Lebanese educator and journalist 'Abd al-Qadir al-Maghribi argued that perpetrating acts of domestic violence goes against Muḥammad's own example and injunction. In his 1928 essay, Muḥammad and Woman, al-Maghribi said: "He [Muḥammad] prohibited a man from beating his wife and noted that beating was not appropriate for the marital relationship between them".[265] Muḥammad underlined the moral and logical inconsistency in beating one's wife during the day and then praising her at night as a prelude to conjugal relations.[265] The Austrian scholar and translator of the Quran Muhammad Asad (Leopold Weiss) said: It is evident from many authentic traditions that the Prophet himself intensely detested the idea of beating one's wife...According to another tradition, he forbade the beating of any woman with the words, "Never beat God's handmaidens."'[266]

In practice, the legal doctrine of many Islamic nations, in deference to sharia law, have refused to include, consider or prosecute cases of domestic violence, limiting legal protections available to Muslim women.[267][268][269][270] In 2010, for example, the highest court of United Arab Emirates (Federal Supreme Court) considered a lower court's ruling, and upheld a husband's right to "chastise" his wife and children with physical violence. Article 53 of the United Arab Emirates' penal code acknowledges the right of a "chastisement by a husband to his wife and the chastisement of minor children" so long as the assault does not exceed the limits prescribed by Sharia.[271] In Lebanon, as many as three-quarters of all Lebanese women have suffered physical abuse at the hands of husbands or male relatives at some point in their lives.[272][273] In Afghanistan, over 85% of women report domestic violence;[274] other nations with very high rates of domestic violence and limited legal rights include Syria, Pakistan, Egypt, Morocco, Iran, Yemen and Saudi Arabia.[275] In some Islamic countries such as Turkey, where legal protections against domestic violence have been enacted, serial domestic violence by husband and other male members of her family is mostly ignored by witnesses and accepted by women without her getting legal help, according to a Government of Turkey report.[276]

Turkey was the first country in Europe to ratify (on March 14, 2012) the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence,[277] which is known as the Istanbul Convention because it was first opened for signature in Turkey's largest city (on May 11, 2011).[278] In 2021, Turkey became the first and only country to withdraw from the convention, after denouncing it on 20 March 2021.[279] Three other European countries with a significant (≥c.20%) Muslim population – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro – have also ratified the convention, while Macedonia is a signatory to the document.[280] The aim of the convention is to create a Europe free from violence against women and domestic violence.[281] On December 10, 2014, the Serbian-Turkish pop star Emina Jahović released a video clip entitled Ne plašim se ("I'm not scared") to help raise awareness of domestic violence in the Balkans. Ne plašim se highlighted the link between alcohol consumption and domestic abuse. The film's release date was timed to coincide with the United Nations' Human Rights Day.[282]

In the United States, a recent 2017 study done by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that, "Domestic violence occurs in the Muslim community as often as it does in Christian and non- affiliated communities, but Muslim victims are more likely to involve faith leaders.".[151] Data from the study demonstrates that among American Muslims 13% of those surveyed said they knew someone in their faith community who was a victim of domestic violence, a number similar to that of Catholics (15%), Protestants (17%), of non-affiliated (14%), and even the general public (15%).[151] Among Americans Muslims who knew of a domestic violence incident in the past year, the percentage of them who said the crime was reported to law enforcement (50%) is comparable to other groups and the general public as well. American Muslim respondents reported that a faith leader was informed of the domestic violence about half the time, a significantly higher rate than any other faith group surveyed in the poll.[151]


Among classical Muslim authors, the notion of love was developed along three conceptual lines, conceived in an ascending hierarchical order: natural love, intellectual love, and divine love.[283] The notion of 'ishq or passionate love is absent in the Qur'an and was introduced by the Persian writer Ahmad Ghazali.[283]

Romantic love

Main article: Ishq

The Taj Mahal near Agra in India was commissioned by the Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan (1628–1658) in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, and completed in 1648.[284] It is studded with numerous inscriptions, almost all of which are from Persian poetry and the Quran.[285] Scholars have suggested that the Taj Mahal complex is a representation of paradise.[285]

In traditional Islamic societies, love between men and women was widely celebrated,[286] and both the popular and classical literature of the Muslim world is replete with works on this theme.[287] Throughout Islamic history, intellectuals, theologians, and mystics have extensively discussed the nature and characteristics of romantic love (ishq).[283] In its most common intellectual interpretation of the Islamic Golden Age, ishq refers to an irresistible desire to obtain possession of the beloved, expressing a deficiency that the lover must remedy to reach perfection.[283]

The Arab love story of Lāyla and Majnūn was arguably more widely known amongst Muslims than that of Romeo and Juliet in (Northern) Europe,[286] while the Persian author Jāmī's retelling of the story of Yusuf (Joseph) and Zulaykhā — based upon the narrative of Surat Yusuf in the Quran – is a seminal text in the Persian, Urdu, and Bengali literary canons. The growth of affection (mawadda) into passionate love (ishq) received its most probing and realistic analysis in The Ring of the Dove by the Andalusian scholar Ibn Hazm.[283] The theme of romantic love continues to be developed in the modern and even postmodern fiction from the Islamic world: The Black Book (1990) by the Nobel Prize winner Orhan Pamuk is a nominal detective story with extensive meditations on mysticism and obsessive love, while another Turkish writer, Elif Şafak, intertwines romantic love and Sufism in her 2010 book The Forty Rules of Love: A Novel of Rumi.[288]

In Sufism, romantic love is viewed as a metaphysical metaphor for the love of God. However, the importance of love extends beyond the metaphorical. This is evident in the romantic relationship between Rumi, who is widely recognised as the greatest poet of Sufism, and his mentor Shams Tabrizi.[287] IbnʿArabī posited also that for a man, sex with a woman is the occasion for experiencing God's 'greatest self-disclosure' (the position is similar vice versa):[289]

The most intense and perfect contemplation of God is through women, and the most intense union is the conjugal act.[290]

This emphasis on the sublimity of the conjugal act holds true for both this world and the next: the fact that Islam considers sexual relationships one of the ultimate pleasures of paradise is well-known; moreover, there is no suggestion that this is for the sake of producing children.[291] Accordingly, (and in common with civilisations such as the Chinese, Indian, and Japanese), the Islamic world has historically generated significant works of erotic literature and technique, and many centuries before such a genre became culturally acceptable in the West: Richard Burton's substantially ersatz 1886 translation of The Perfumed Garden of Sensual Delight, a fifteenth-century sex manual authored by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Nafzawi, was labelled as being 'for private circulation only' owing to the puritanical mores and corresponding censorship laws of Victorian England.[292]

Love of women

Particularly within the context of religion – a domain which is often associated with sexual asceticism – Muḥammad is notable for emphasising the importance of loving women. According to a famous ḥadīth, Muḥammad stated: "Three things of this world of yours were made lovable to me: women, perfume – and the coolness of my eye was placed in the ritual prayer".[293] This is enormously significant because in the Islamic faith, Muḥammad is by definition the most perfect human being and the most perfect male: his love for women shows that the perfection of the human state is connected with love for other human beings, not simply with love for God.[293] More specifically, it illustrates that male perfection lies in women and, by implication, female perfection in men.[293] Consequently, the love Muḥammad had for women is obligatory on all men, since he is the model of perfection that must be emulated.[294]

Prominent figures in Islamic mysticism have elaborated on this theme. Ibn 'Arabī reflected on the above ḥadīth as follows: "...he [Muḥammad] mentioned women [as one of three things from God's world made lovable to him]. Do you think that which would take him far from his Lord was made lovable to him? Of course not. That which would bring him near to his Lord was made lovable to him.

"He who knows the measure of women and their mystery will not renounce love for them. On the contrary, one of the perfections of the gnostic is love for them, for this is a prophetic heritage and a divine love. For the Prophet said, '[women] were made lovable to me.' Hence he ascribed his love for them only to God. Ponder this chapter – you will see wonders!"[294]

Ibn 'Arabī held that witnessing God in the female human form is the most perfect mode of witnessing: if Muḥammad was made to love women, it is because women reflect God.[295]

Rūmī connected women with the female attributes of the Divine: "She [woman] is the radiance of God, she is not your beloved. She is the Creator – you could say that she is not created."[287][295][296]

According to Gai Eaton, there are several other ḥadīths on the same theme which underline Muḥammad's teaching on the importance of loving women:

Another well-known ḥadīth explicitly states that loving conduct towards one's wife is synonymous with advanced religious understanding:


Both the concept and the reality of beauty are important in the Islamic religion: beauty (iḥsān, also translated as "virtue", "excellence", and "making beautiful") is the third element of the canonical definition of Islam after belief (īmān) and practice (islām).[7] At 53:31,[301][302] the Quran emphasises the importance of avoiding ugly actions, while at 10:26[303] it states: "Those who do what is beautiful will receive the most beautiful and increase [or more than this]."[302]

Female beauty

Female beauty is a central theme in Islam, which regards it as "the most direct visible manifestation of God's beauty, gentleness, mercy and forgiveness".[304] This theme is developed most famously in Islamic mysticism or Sufism. In her work The Mystical Dimensions of Islam, Annemarie Schimmel records the position of Ibn ʿArabī – who is generally regarded as the greatest Sufi – on "perceiving the divine through the medium of female beauty and seeing the female as the true revelation of God's mercy and creativity"[305] as follows:

"The closing chapter of the Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam, that on the Prophet Muhammad, centers around the famous tradition according to which the Prophet was given a love for perfumes and women and joy in prayer. Thus, Ibn 'Arabī could defend the idea that 'love of women belongs to the perfection of the gnostics, for it is inherited from the Prophet and is a divine love' (R 480). Woman reveals, for Ibn Arabī, the secret of the compassionate God. The grammatical fact that the word dhāt, 'essence', is feminine offers Ibn Arabī different methods to discover this feminine element in God."[305]


See also: Marriage in Islam and Muhammad's wives

Legal framework

Main article: Islamic marital jurisprudence

Marriage is the central institution of family life and society, and therefore the central institution of Islam.[306] On a technical level, it is accomplished through a contract which is confirmed by the bride's reception of a dowry or mahr, and by the witnessing of the bride's consent to the marriage.[307] A woman has the freedom to propose to a man of her liking, either orally or in writing.[308] Muḥammad himself was the subject of a spoken marriage proposal from a Muslim lady which was worded "I present myself to you", although ultimately Muḥammad solemnized her marriage to another man.[309]

Within the marriage contract itself, the bride has the right to stipulate her own conditions.[310] These conditions usually pertain to such issues as marriage terms (e.g. that her husband may not take another wife), and divorce terms (e.g. that she may dissolve the union at her own initiative if she deems it necessary).[310] In addition, dowries – one on marriage, and another deferred in case of divorce – must be specified and written down; they should also be of substance.[310] The dowry is the exclusive property of the wife and should not be given away, neither to her family nor her relatives.[310] According to the Quran (at 4:2),[15] the wife may freely choose to give part of their dowry to the husband.[310] Fiqh doctrine says a woman's property, held exclusively in her name cannot be appropriated by her husband, brother or father.[311] For many centuries, this stood in stark contrast with the more limited property rights of women in (Christian) Europe.[311] Accordingly, Muslim women in contemporary America are sometimes shocked to find that, even though they were careful to list their assets as separate, these can be considered joint assets after marriage.[311]

A bridal procession accompanied by live music in Lombok, Indonesia. According to the National Statistical Bureau of Indonesia, the mean age of marriage for women was 22.3 years in 2010, an increase on the 1970 average of 19 years; the corresponding figures for men were 25.7 years and 23 years respectively.[312]

Marriage ceremony and celebrations

When agreement to the marriage has been expressed and witnessed, those present recite the Al-Fatiha prayer (the opening chapter of the Quran).[307] Normally, marriages are not contracted in mosques but in private homes or at the offices of a judge (qāḍi).[307] The format and content of the ceremony (if there is one) is often defined by national or tribal customs, as are the celebrations ('urs) that accompany it.[307] In some parts of the Islamic world these may include processions in which the bride gift is put on display; receptions where the bride is seen adorned in elaborate costumes and jewelry; and ceremonial installation of the bride in the new house to which she may be carried in a litter (a type of carriage).[307] The groom may ride through the streets on a horse, followed by his friends and well-wishers, and there is always a feast called the walīmah.[307]

Historical commonality of divorce

In contrast to the Western and Orient world where divorce was relatively uncommon until modern times, divorce was a more common occurrence in certain parts of the late medieval Muslim world. In the Mamluk Sultanate and Ottoman Empire, the rate of divorce was high.[313][314] The work of the scholar and historian Al-Sakhawi (1428–1497) on the lives of women show that the marriage pattern of Egyptian and Syrian urban society in the fifteenth century was greatly influenced by easy divorce, and practically untouched by polygamy.[315][316] Earlier Egyptian documents from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries also showed a similar but more extreme pattern: in a sample of 273 women, 118 (45%) married a second or third time.[316] Edward Lane's careful observation of urban Egypt in the early nineteenth century suggests that the same regime of frequent divorce and rare polygamy was still applicable in these last days of traditional society.[316] In the early 20th century, some villages in western Java and the Malay Peninsula had divorce rates as high as 70%.[313]


See also: Islamic marital jurisprudence and Polygyny in Islam

Marriage customs vary in Muslim dominated countries. Islamic law allows polygamy where a Muslim man can be married to four wives at the same time, under restricted conditions,[317] but it is not widespread.[318] As the Sharia demands that polygamous men treat all wives equally, classical Islamic scholars opined that it is preferable to avoid polygamy altogether, so one does not even come near the chance of committing the forbidden deed of dealing unjustly between the wives.[319] The practice of polygamy is allowed, but not recommended.[320] In some countries, polygamy is restricted by new family codes, for example the Moudawwana in Morocco.[321] Iran allow Shia men to enter into additional temporary marriages, beyond the four allowed marriages, such as the practice of sigheh marriages,[322] and Nikah Mut'ah in Iraq.[323][324]

A marriage of pleasure, where a man pays a sum of money to a woman or her family in exchange for a temporary spousal relationship, is found and considered legal among Shia faith, for example in Iran after 1979. Temporary marriages are forbidden in Sunni Islam.[325] Among Shia, the number of temporary marriages can be unlimited, recognized with an official temporary marriage certificate, and divorce is unnecessary because the temporary marriage automatically expires on the date and time specified on the certificate.[326] Payment to the woman by the man is mandatory, in every temporary marriage and considered as mahr.[327][328] The minimum duration of a temporary marriage is debated between scholars, with some saying the minimum duration is as low as 3 days and others saying it is as high as one year.[329] Its practitioners cite sharia law as permitting the practise. Women's rights groups have condemned it as a form of legalized prostitution.[330][331]


See also: Islamic marital jurisprudence

Polyandry, the practice of a woman having more than one husband (even temporarily, after payment of a sum of money to the man or the man's family), by contrast, is not permitted.[332][333] However, during the pre-Islamic period, women were able to practice polyandry. [334]


Muḥammad quite deliberately did not recommend cousin marriage as his sunnah or path to be followed; out of his thirteen wives, only one – the seventh, Zaynab bint Jahsh, a divorcée said by historians to have been very beautiful – was his cousin.[335] The rest of his wives came from diverse social and even religious backgrounds, with Safiyya bint Huyayy and Rayhana bint Zayd being of Jewish origin.[336]

Despite this, endogamy is common in some Muslim-majority countries. The observed endogamy is primarily consanguineous marriages, where the bride and the groom share a biological grandparent or other near ancestor.[337][338] The most common observed marriages are first cousin marriages, followed by second cousin marriages. Consanguineous endogamous marriages are most common for women in Muslim communities in the Middle East, North Africa and Islamic Central Asia.[339][340] About 1 in 3 of all marriages in Saudi Arabia, Iran and Pakistan are first cousin marriages; while overall consanguineous endogamous marriages exceed 65 to 80% in various Islamic populations of the Middle East, North Africa and Islamic Central Asia.[338][341] Consanguineous endogamous marriages are common for women in Islam.[342] Consanguineous marriage rates in the Muslim world range from 5–9% in Malaysia to >50% in Saudi Arabia.[343][344] Over 65% of all marriages in Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are endogamous and consanguineous arranged marriages; more than 40% of all marriages are endogamous and consanguineous in Mauritania, Libya, Sudan, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Kuwait, UAE and Oman.[343][345]

Forbidden marriages

In the interests of transparency, clandestine marriages are not permitted under Islamic law; weddings must be public – a commitment made before society.[346] The European Council for Fatwa and Research has ruled that a state registration of a marriage between Muslims, if attended by two witnesses, fulfills the minimum requirements for a religious marriage under the sharia because it demonstrates (a) mutual consent; and (b) a public declaration of commitment.[346]

Some marriages are forbidden between Muslim women and Muslim men, according to sharia.[347] In the Quran, Surah An-Nisa gives a list of forbidden marriages.[Quran 4:22-24] Examples for women include marrying one's stepson, biological son, biological father, biological brother, biological sibling's son, biological uncle, milk son or milk brother she has nursed, husband of her biological daughter, a stepfather who has had sexual relations with her biological mother and father-in-law.[348][349] There are disputes between Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi'is and Hanabalis schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence on whether and which such marriages are irregular but not void if already in place (fasid), and which are void (batil) marriages.[350]

Age of marriage

See also: Aisha § Age at marriage, Islam and children § Marriage, and Child marriage

Child marriage, which was once a globally accepted phenomenon, has come to be discouraged in most countries, but it persists to some extent in some select parts of the Muslim world.[351]

The age of marriage in Islam for women varies with country. Traditionally, Islam has permitted marriage of girls below the age often, because Sharia considers the practices of Muhammad a basis for Islamic law. According to Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, the two most authentic Sunni hadiths books, Muhammed married Aisha, his third wife, when she was six and consummated the marriage when she reached the age of nine or ten. This version of events is rejected by Shia Muslims[352][353] and disputed by some Sunni scholars.[354]

Some Islamic scholars suggest that it is not the calendar age that matters, rather it is the biological age of the girl that determines when she can be married under Islamic law. According to these Islamic scholars, marriageable age in Islam is when a girl has reached sexual maturity, as determined by her nearest male guardian; this age can be, claim these Islamic scholars, less than 10 years, or 12, or another age depending on each girl.[351][355][356][357] Some clerics and conservative elements of Muslim society,[358][359] in various communities around the world,[360][361][362][363][364] have insisted that it is their Islamic right to marry girls below age 15.[365] In December 2019, Saudi Arabia changed the law and raised the age of marriage to 18.[366]

Interfaith marriages and women

Main article: Interfaith marriage in Islam

Interfaith marriages are recognized between Muslims and non-Muslim People of the Book (usually enumerated as Jews, Christians, and Sabians).[367] Historically, in Islamic culture and traditional Islamic law Muslim women have been forbidden from marrying Christian or Jewish men, whereas Muslim men have been permitted to marry Christian or Jewish women.[79][80] Although historically Sunni Islam prohibited Muslim women to marry Non-Muslim men in interfaith marriages, in various parts of the world interfaith marriages between Muslim women and Non-Muslim men take place at substantial rates, contravening the traditional Sunni understanding of ijma.[79][368] In the United States, for example, about one in ten Muslim women are married to non-Muslim men, including about one in six Muslim women under 40 and about one in five, or 20% of, Muslim women who describe themselves as less devoutly religious.[81] The tradition of reformist and progressive Islam permits marriage between Muslim women and Non-Muslim men;[79] Islamic scholars opining this view include Khaleel Mohammed, Hassan Al-Turabi, among others.[82] Ayse Elmali-Karakaya says in her 2020 study, that impact of Muslim women's marriage to non-Muslims men has been found to be positive. Elmali-Karakaya says since Muslim women's feelings of being an ambassador of Islam and Muslims in their inter-religious family, interfaith marriages help expansion of their religious knowledge.[368]

According to sharia law, it is legal for a Muslim man to marry a Christian or Jewish woman, or a woman of any of the divinely-revealed religions, while sharia law does not allow a Muslim woman to marry outside her religion.[307] A significant number of non-Muslim men have entered into the Islamic faith to satisfy this aspect of the religious law where it is in force.[307] With deepening globalisation, it has become more common for Muslim women to marry non-Muslim men who remain outside Islam.[307][369] These marriages meet with varying degrees of social approval, depending on the milieu.[307] However, conversions of non-Muslim men to Islam for the purpose of marriage are still numerous, in part because the procedure for converting to Islam is relatively expeditious.[370]

Additionally, according to Islamic law, if a Muslim man wishes to marry a Christian or Jewish woman, he must get to know her parents and ask for permission to marry their daughter.[346]

The majority of Muslim scholars have historically read Surah 60, verse 10, which forbids female converts from returning to their non-Muslim husbands, as an injunction against any Muslim women marrying non-Muslim men.[371]

Kecia Ali argues that such interpretations unfairly presume that women are inherently subordinate to their husbands, which, if true, could result in children being brought up as non-Muslims if their father is non-Muslim. Additionally, the Quranic verse in question mentions unbelievers, but not people of the Jewish or Christian faiths, whom the Quran does identify as suitable partners for Muslim men. The Quran thus does not give any general guidance on whether Muslim women may marry "non-Muslim" men, but rather "discusses specific categories of potential spouses."[372]

Behavior and rights within marriage

Main articles: Rights and obligations of spouses in Islam and Islam and domestic violence

Islamic law and practice recognize gender disparity, in part, by assigning separate rights and obligations to a woman in married life. A woman's space is in the private sphere of the home, and a man's is in the public sphere.[373][374] Women must primarily fulfill marital and maternal responsibilities,[375] whereas men are financial and administrative stewards of their families.[373][376] According to Sayyid Qutb, the Quran "gives the man the right of guardianship or superiority over the family structure to prevent dissension and friction between the spouses. The equity of this system lies in the fact that God both favoured the man with the necessary qualities and skills for the 'guardianship' and also charged him with the duty to provide for the structure's upkeep."[377]

The Quran considers the love between men and women to be a Sign of God.[Quran 30:21] This said, the Quran also permits men to first admonish, then lightly tap or push and even beat her, if he suspects nushuz (disobedience, disloyalty, rebellion, ill conduct) in his wife.[254][Quran 4:34][378]

In Islam, there is no coverture, an idea central in European, American as well as in non-Islamic Asian common law, and the legal basis for the principle of marital property. An Islamic marriage is a contract between a man and a woman. A Muslim man and woman do not merge their legal identity upon marriage, and do not have rights over any shared marital property. The assets of the man before the marriage, and earned by him after the marriage, remain his during marriage and in case of a divorce.[379] A divorce under Islamic law does not require redistribution of property. Rather, each spouse walks away from the marriage with his or her individual property. Divorcing Muslim women who did not work outside their home after marriage do not have a claim on the collective wealth of the couple under Islamic law, except for deferred mahr – an amount of money or property the man agrees to pay her before the woman signs the marriage contract.[172][380]

Quran states

And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing. (Al-Quran 4:12)

In case of husband's death, a portion of his property is inherited by his wives according to a combination of sharia laws. If the man did not leave any children, his wives receive a quarter of the property and the remaining three-quarters is shared by the blood relatives of the husband (for example, parents, siblings).[381] If he had children from any of his wives, his wives receive an eighth of the property and the rest is for his surviving children and parents.[381] The wives share as inheritance a part of movable property of her late husband, but they do not share anything from immovable property [citation needed] such as land, real estate, farm or such value. A woman's deferred mahr and the dead husband's outstanding debts are paid before any inheritance is applied.[382] Sharia mandates that inheritance include male relatives of the dead person, that a daughter receive half the inheritance as a son, and a widow receives less than her daughters.[382][383][better source needed]


Main article: Islamic sexual jurisprudence

General parameters

In contrast to Christianity – where sex is sanctified through marriage – in the Islamic conception, sexuality in and of itself is sacred and a blessing;[384] as per Ibn 'Arabī's formulation, sex is a sublime act which can draw its practitioners closer to God.[385] Marriage in Islam is a contract drawn up according to sharia to legitimise sexual relations and protect the rights of both partners.[384] However, in common with Christianity and Judaism, sexual activity outside of marriage is perceived as a serious sin in the eyes of God.[384][386]

Sexual satisfaction and frequency of intercourse

Female sexual satisfaction is given significant prominence in the Islamic faith and its classical literature. As recorded by the British Muslim writer Ruqayyah Waris Maqsood in her book The Muslim Marriage Guide: "the early Muslims regarded sexual prowess and the ability to satisfy a woman as being an essential part of manhood. The niece of 'Ā'ishah bint Abī Bakr, a scholarly and beautiful woman named A'isha bint Talha, married the pious Umar ibn Ubaydilah. On their wedding night he made love to her no fewer than seven times, so that when morning came, she told him: 'You are a perfect Muslim in every way, even in this!'"[387]

In this context, the Muslim caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab (584–644) believed that a married woman had the right to sex at least once every four days, while according to the hadith scholar, jurist and mystic Abu Talib al-Makki (d.996), "if [a husband] knows that [his wife] needs more, he is obliged to comply".[388]


Muhammad underlined the importance of foreplay and emotional intimacy in sexual relations, as the following hadith illustrates:

"[The Prophet Muḥammad said] 'Not one of you should fall upon his wife like an animal; but let there first be a messenger between you.'

'And what is that messenger?' they asked, and [the Prophet Muḥammad] replied: 'Kisses and words.'[389]

Islamic luminaries expanded on this theme. The philosopher, mystic and jurist Al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111) stated that "Sex should begin with gentle words and kissing",[390] while the Indian scholar al-Zabīdī (1732–1790) added to this exhortation in his commentary on Al-Ghazālī's magnum opus, The Revival of the Religious Sciences (Iḥiyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn): "This should include not only the cheeks and lips; and then he should caress the breasts and nipples, and every part of her body."[390]

Simultaneous orgasms

Classical Islamic scholars have written extensively about the art and desirability of husband and wife attaining simultaneous orgasms; Al-Ghazali gives the following counsel in his key work, The Revival of the Religious Sciences (Iḥiyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn):

"When he has come to his orgasm (inzal), he should wait for his wife until she comes to her orgasm likewise; for her climax may well come slowly. If he arouses her desire, and then sits back from her, this will hurt her, and any disparity in their orgasms will certainly produce a sense of estrangement. A simultaneous orgasm will be the most delightful for her, especially since her husband will be distracted by his own orgasm from her, and she will not therefore be afflicted by shyness."[391][392]

According to Quran and Sahih Muslim, two primary sources of sharia, Islam permits only vaginal sex.[393]

(…) "If he likes he may (have intercourse) being on the back or in front of her, but it should be through one opening (vagina)."

There is disagreement among Islamic scholars on proper interpretation of Islamic law on permissible sex between a husband and wife, with claims that non-vaginal sex within a marriage is disapproved but not forbidden.[393][394][395] Anal intercourse and sex during menstruation are prohibited, as is violence and force against a partner's will.[396] However, these are the only restrictions; as the Quran says at 2:223 (Sūratu l-Baqarah): 'Your women are your fields; go to your women as you wish'.[396]

After sex, as well as menstruation, Islam requires men and women to do ghusl (major ritual washing with water, ablutions), and in some Islamic communities xoslay (prayers seeking forgiveness and purification), as sex and menstruation are considered some of the causes that makes men and women religiously impure (najis).[397][398] Some Islamic jurists suggest touching and foreplay, without any penetration, may qualify wudu (minor ritual washing) as sufficient form of religiously required ablution.[399] Muslim men and women must also abstain from sex during a ritual fast, and during all times while on a pilgrimage to Mecca, as sexual act, touching of sexual parts and emission of sexual bodily fluids are considered ritually dirty.[400]

Sexual intercourse is not allowed to a Muslim woman during menstruation, postpartum period, during fasting and certain religious activities, disability and in iddah after divorce or widowhood. Homosexual relations and same sex marriages are forbidden to women in Islam.[394] In vitro fertilization (IVF) is acceptable in Islam; but ovum donation along with sperm donation, embryo donation are prohibited by Islam.[393] These marriages meet with varying degrees of social approval, depending on the milieu.[401][402] Some debated fatwas from Shia sect of Islam, however, allow third party participation.[403][404]

Islam requires both husband and wife/wives to meet their conjugal duties. Religious qadis (judges) have admonished the man or women who fail to meet these duties.[405]

A high value is placed on female chastity and exhibitionism is prohibited.[406]

Female genital mutilation

A poster for a campaign against female genital mutilation ('FGM') in Christian-majority Uganda. In the African states of Tanzania, Nigeria and Niger, FGM is more prevalent amongst Christians than Muslims.[407][408]

Main articles: Female genital mutilation and Religious views on female genital mutilation

The classical position

There is no mention of female circumcision – let alone other forms of female genital mutilation – in the Quran. Furthermore, Muḥammad did not subject any of his daughters to this practice, which is itself of real significance as it does not form part of his spoken or acted example.[409] Moreover, the origins of female circumcision are not Islamic: it is first thought to have been practiced in ancient Egypt.[410] Alternatively, it has been suggested that the practice may be an old African puberty rite that was passed on to Egypt by cultural diffusion.[411]

Notwithstanding these facts, there is a belief amongst some Muslims – particularly though not entirely exclusively in (sub-Saharan) Africa – that female circumcision (specifically the cutting of the prepuce or hood of the clitoris) is religiously vindicated by the existence of a handful of ḥadīths which apparently recommend it.[410] However, these ḥadīths are generally regarded as inauthentic, unreliable and weak, and therefore as having no legislative foundation and/or practical application.[412]

Islamic perspectives on FGM

In answering the question of how "Islamic" female circumcision is, Haifaa A. Jawad – an academic specialising in Islamic thought and the author of The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach – has concluded that "the practice has no Islamic foundation whatsoever. It is nothing more than an ancient custom which has been falsely assimilated to the Islamic tradition, and with the passage of time it has been presented and accepted (in some Muslim countries) as an Islamic injunction."[413] Jawad notes that the argument which states that there is an indirect correlation between Islam and female circumcision fails to explain why female circumcision is not practiced in much of the Islamic world, and conversely is practiced in Latin American countries such as Brazil, Mexico and Peru.[414][415]

The French intellectual, journalist, and translator Renée Saurel observed that female circumcision and FGM more generally directly contradict Islam's sacred text: "The Koran, contrary to Christianity and Judaism, permits and recommends that the woman be given physical and psychological pleasure, pleasure found by both partners during the act of love. Forcibly split, torn, and severed tissues are neither conducive to sensuality nor to the blessed feeling given and shared when participating in the quest for pleasure and the escape from pain."[416]

The Egyptian feminist Nawal El-Saadawi reasons that the creation of the clitoris per se is a direct Islamic argument against female circumcision: "If religion comes from God, how can it order man to cut off an organ created by Him as long as that organ is not diseased or deformed? God does not create the organs of the body haphazardly without a plan. It is not possible that He should have created the clitoris in woman's body only in order that it be cut off at an early stage in life. This is a contradiction into which neither true religion nor the Creator could possibly fall. If God has created the clitoris as a sexually sensitive organ, whose sole function seems to be the procurement of sexual pleasure for women, it follows that He also considers such pleasure for women as normal and legitimate, and therefore as an integral part of mental health."[417]

Sheikh Abbas el Hocine Bencheikh, a diplomat and Rector of the L'institut Musulman at the Grande Mosquée de Paris, pointed to the total lack of Islamic theological justification for female circumcision: "If circumcision for the man (though not compulsory) has an aesthetic and hygienic purpose, there is no existing religious Islamic text of value to be considered in favour of female excision, as proven by the fact that this practice is totally non-existent in most of the Islamic countries."[412]

Mahmud Shaltut, the former Sheikh of Al-Azhar in Cairo – one of the most important religious offices in Sunni Islam – also stated that female circumcision has no theological basis: "Islamic legislation provides a general principle, namely that should meticulous and careful examination of certain issues prove that it is definitely harmful or immoral, then it should be legitimately stopped to put an end to this damage or immorality. Therefore, since the harm of excision has been established, excision of the clitoris of females is not a mandatory obligation, nor is it a Sunnah."[417]

Initiatives to end FGM in the OIC

In the twenty-first century, a number of high-ranking religious offices within the OIC have urged the cessation of all forms of FGM:

  1. A 2006 international conference convened by Egypt's Dar al ifta – an influential body which issues legal opinions on Islamic law and jurisprudence – concluded "that the [female genital] mutilation presently practised in some parts of Egypt, Africa and elsewhere represents a deplorable custom which finds no justification in the authoritative sources of Islam, the Quran and the practice of the Prophet Muḥammad...all measures must be taken to put a halt to this unacceptable tradition."[418]
  2. A November 2006 conference at Al-Azhar University in Cairo held under the auspices of the Grand Mufti of Egypt passed a resolution – with the same legal weight as fatwa – that FGM was to be considered a punishable offence, because it constitutes "an act of aggression and a crime against humanity".[419]
  3. In 2007 the Cairo-based Al-Azhar Supreme Council of Islamic Research, an entity belonging to what is generally regarded as one of the most significant theological universities in the OIC, ruled that female genital mutilation has no basis in Islamic law.[420]
  4. In 2012, Professor Dr. Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu – the then Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation – urged countries to abolish female genital mutilation (FGM), saying the practice was against Islam and human rights: "This practice is a ritual that has survived over centuries and must be stopped as Islam does not support it."[421]
  5. In 2016, the OIC Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations reaffirmed its determination to eliminate FGM/C by 2030,[422] in accordance with a global target set by the UN in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Recorded prevalence of FGM in the OIC

According to UNICEF (2014), twenty-six of the twenty-nine countries in which female genital mutilation is classified as 'concentrated' are in sub-Saharan Africa: there is no recorded prevalence in any non-African OIC member state outside Yemen (19% prevalence) and Iraq (8%).[423]


From very early times various methods of contraception have been practiced in Islam,[396] and Muslim jurists of the two major sects of Islam, Sunni and Shia, generally agree that contraception and family planning are not forbidden by sharia; the use of contraceptive devices is permitted if the marital partners agree.[396][424] All the Islamic schools of law from the tenth to the nineteenth century gave contraception their serious consideration.[425] They dealt principally with coitus interruptus, the most common method, and unanimously agreed that it was licit provided the free wife gave her permission, because she had rights to children and to sexual fulfilment which withdrawal was believed to diminish.[425] From the writings of the jurists it emerges that other methods of birth control – mostly intravaginal tampons – were also used by premodern women and the commonest view was that these should only be employed if the husband also agreed.[425]

Given the era and the fact that both Christian and Jewish tradition outlawed contraception, the attitude of Muslims towards birth control has been characterised as being remarkably pragmatic; they also possessed a sophisticated knowledge of possible birth control methods.[425] Medieval doctors like Ibn Sina (Avicenna) regarded birth control as a normal part of medicine, and devoted chapters to contraception and abortion in their textbooks (although the permissibility of abortion within Islamic thought varies according to a number of factors; Islam views the family as sacred and children as a gift from God).[425][426] According to medieval Muslims, birth control was employed to avoid a large number of dependants; to safeguard property; to guarantee the education of a child; to protect a woman from the risks of childbirth, especially if she was young or ill; or simply to preserve her health and beauty.[425]

Female infanticide

Islam condemns female infanticide.[427]

When the female (infant), buried alive, is questioned – For what crime she was killed;

— Quran, 81:8

In some Islamic populations, sex-selective female infanticide is of concern because of abnormally high boy to girl ratios at birth.[428] In Islamic Azerbaijan, for example, the birth sex ratio was in the 105 to 108 range, before the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. After the collapse, the birth sex ratios in Azerbaijan has sharply climbed to over 115 and remained high for the last 20 years.[428] The persistently observed 115 boys for every 100 girls born suggests sex-selective abortion of females in Azerbaijan in the last 20 years.[429][430][431] Other Muslim-majority countries with high birth sex ratio, implying[432][433] female sex-selective abortion, include Albania (112)[434] and Pakistan (111).[435][436]


Main articles: Divorce (Islamic) and At-Talaq

In Islam, a woman may only divorce her husband under certain conditions. These are many and include neglect, not being supported financially, the husband's impotence, apostasy, madness, dangerous illness or some other defect in the marriage.[437][438] Divorce by mutual consent has only to be agreed upon by both parties to become effective.[438] If a Muslim woman wishes to divorce her husband she has two options under Sharia law: seek a tafriq, or seek a khul. A tafriq is a divorce for certain allowable reasons. This divorce is granted by a qadi, a religious judge, in cases where the qadi accepts her claims of abuse or abandonment. If a tafriq is denied by the qadi, she cannot divorce. If a tafriq is granted, the marriage is dissolved and the husband is obligated to pay her the deferred mahr in their marriage contract. The second method, by far more common in wife-initiated divorces, khul is a divorce without cause, by mutual consent. This divorce requires a husband's consent and it must be supported by consideration that passes from the wife to the husband. Often, this consideration almost always consists of the wife relinquishing her claim to the deferred mahr. In actual practice and outside of Islamic judicial theory, a woman's right to divorce is often extremely limited compared with that of men in the Middle East.[439]

In contrast to the comparatively limited methods of divorce available to a woman, Islam allows a Muslim husband to unilaterally divorce his wife, as talaq, with no requirement to show cause; however, in practice there is variance by country as to whether there are any additional legal processes when a husband divorces his wife by this method. For example, the Tunisian Law of Personal Status (1957) makes repudiation by a husband invalid until it has been ratified by a court, and provides for further financial compensation to the wife.[438] Similar laws have been enacted elsewhere, both within an interpretive framework of traditional sharia law, and through the operation of civil codes not based upon the sharia.[438] However, upon talaq, the husband must pay the wife her deferred mahr.[440] Some Muslim-majority countries mandate additional financial contributions to be made to the wife on top of the mahr: for example, the Syrian Law of Personal Status (1953) makes the payment of maintenance to the wife by the husband obligatory for one year after the divorce, which is thus a legal recourse of the wife against the husband.[438] The husband is free to marry again immediately after a divorce, but the woman must observe iddah, that is wait for 3 lunar months[441] before she can remarry after divorce, to establish paternity, in case she discovers she is pregnant. In case of death of her husband, the iddah period is 4 lunar months and 10 days before she can start conjugal relations with another Muslim man.[442][443][444]

Obligations during divorce

A verse relating to obligation of women during divorce is 2:228:[445]

Divorced women remain in waiting for three periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have more right to take them back in this [period] if they want reconciliation. And due to the wives is similar to what is expected of them, according to what is reasonable. But the men have a degree over them [in responsibility and authority]. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. (Al-Quran 2:228) [citation needed] >>>>[446]

This verse not only explains the divorce rights of women in Islam, it sets out iddah to prevent illegal custody of divorcing husband's child by a woman, specifies that each gender has divorce rights, and that men are a degree above women.[445][447][448]


Main articles: Culture and menstruation and Menstruation in Islam

A Muslim woman may not move in a mosque and is relieved from duty of performing salat while she is menstruating or during postpartum period, because bodily fluids are considered ritually impure in Islam. Some Muslim scholars suggest that the woman should stay in her house, or near her house, during this state.[400][449][450] Some Islamic jurists claim that this is an incorrect interpretation of sharia, and suggest the Islamic intent was about hygiene, not about religious ritual cleanliness.[400] Some scholars say that it is not permitted for menstruating women to read the Quran.[451] Others say it is possible, in some circumstances.[452]

Shrines and mosques

From the earliest centuries of Islam, Muslims have visited shrines and mosques to pray, meditate, ask forgiveness, seek cures for ailments, and seek grace – a blessing or spiritual influence (barakah) sent down by God.[453] Some of these structures are named after women. Although women are not restricted from entering mosques, it is quite uncommon to see women gathering in mosques to pray. When women do travel to mosques, they are usually accompanied by their husband or other women at times of the day where there is not a large population of other men. While prayer is mostly done at home for women when they are attending prayers at public worship places such as a mosque they are to be separated from the other men present. Women must also be dressed appropriately or they may be reprimanded.[40]

The Virgin Mary

Main article: Mary in Islam

The Meryemana or wishing wall at the House of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus, Turkey. Pilgrims' most frequent wishes include those for good health, peace and happiness.[454] This devotional site is one of many that is sacred to both Christians and Muslims.[455]

The Virgin Mary ('Maryam' in Arabic) has a particularly exalted position within the Islamic tradition, extolled as she is for being the mother of Jesus, whom Muslims revere as a prophet.[456] Maryam is the only woman mentioned by name in Islam's sacred text; an entire chapter or sūra of the Quran – the nineteenth, Sūrat Maryam – bears her name.

Accordingly, the Virgin Mary is synonymous with numerous holy sites in the Islamic faith:

  1. The House of the Virgin Mary near Selçuk, Turkey. This is a shrine frequented by both Christians and Muslims. It is known as Panaya Kapulu ("the Doorway to the Virgin") in Turkish. Pilgrims drink water from a spring under her house which is believed to have healing properties. Perhaps the shrine's most distinctive feature is the Mereyemana or wishing wall on which visitors attach their written wishes; because the House of the Virgin Mary is increasingly famous internationally, these messages are composed in English, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, French and Spanish, as well as Turkish.[457][458]
  2. The Virgin Mary Monastery in the province of Giresun, Turkey. This is one of the oldest monasteries in the area and has been active since the fourth century A.D.[459]
  3. The Virgin Mary Mosque in Tartous, Syria. This was officially inaugurated in June 2015 as a symbol of peace and religious tolerance. Antoine Deeb – the representative of the Tartous and Lattakia Patriarchate – stated that naming the mosque after the Virgin Mary 'shows that Islam and Christianity share the messages of peace and love.'[460]
  4. The Virgin Mary Mosque in Melbourne, Australia.[461]
  5. Medjugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina. This site is associated with a number of Marian apparitions forecast by a Muslim mystic by the name of Hasan Shushud that were reported in the late twentieth century by local Catholics.[462]
  6. The Chapel of Santa Cruz at Oran, Algeria. The chapel's tower contains a large statue of the Virgin Mary, which is styled as Notre Dame du Salut de Santa Cruz. The historian James McDougall notes in his acclaimed A History of Algeria (2017) that to this day, the women of Oran "still climb up to the church the [French] settlers 1959, at Santa Cruz, to light candles to lalla Maryam, the Virgin whose statue still looks benignly over their city from the mountaintop."[463]

Hala Sultan

Hala Sultan Tekke, Larnaca, Cyprus is an ancient site revered because it contains the burial place of Muḥammad's paternal aunt Hala Sultan (Umm Haram in Arabic), although other scholars believe that she was in fact Muḥammad's wet nurse.[464]

According to legend, Hala Sultan died after falling off her mule and breaking her neck during the first Arab incursions into Cyprus around 647 A.D. The same night, a divine power supposedly placed three giant stones where she lay. In 1760, Hala Sultan's grave was discovered by Sheikh Hasan; he began spreading the word about her healing powers, and a tomb was built there.[464] The complex – comprising a mosque, mausoleum, minaret, cemetery and living quarters for men and women – was constructed in its present form while the island was still under Ottoman rule, and completed in around 1816.[464]

According to the archaeologist Tuncer Bağışkan, during the Ottoman period in Cyprus, Ottoman-flagged ships used to fly their flags at half-mast when off the shores of Larnaca, and salute Hala Sultan with cannon shots.[465]

This tekke is also notable for being the burial place of the grandmother of the late King Hussein of Jordan.[464]

Sayeda Zainab

The granddaughter of Muḥammad is the patron saint of Cairo, the Arab world's largest city and a regional cultural hub. She also has the following mosques named for her:

  1. The Sayeda Zainab mosque in Cairo, Egypt. The original structure was built in 1549; the modern mosque dates back to 1884.[466] In 1898, the square in front of the mosque also took her name.[467] The mosque was expanded in 1942 and renovated in 1999 following an earthquake seven years earlier.[468] There is an annual feast dedicated to Sayeda Zainab which celebrates her birth; the celebration features ecstatic mystical whirling inside the shrine, while outside there are fairground attractions such as merry-go-round rides.[468] Historically, the coffee shops around the square and the mosque were places where some of Egypt's most notable writers and journalists met and exchanged ideas.[468] There is a notable silver shrine inside the mosque.[469] According to Sunni Muslim tradition, this mosque houses the tomb of Sayeda Zainab.
  2. The Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque in the city of Sayeda Zainab, a southern suburb of Damascus, Syria. According to Shia Muslim tradition, it is in fact this mosque which contains the tomb of Muḥammad's granddaughter. It has been a destination of mass pilgrimage for Muslims since the 1980s. The dome is gold-leafed.

Fātimah al-Ma'sūmah

Fātimah al-Ma'sūmah was the sister of the eighth Imam and the daughter of the seventh Imam in 'Twelver' Shī'ism. Her shrine is located in Qom, a city which is one of the most important Shī'ah centres of theology. During the Safavid dynasty, the women of this family were very active in embellishing the Shrine of Fatima Masumeh. In times of war, Safavid royal women found refuge in Qom, and likely compared their situation to that of Fatima Masumeh.[470]

Rabi'āh al-'Adawiyyah

One of the most famous saints in Islam, Rabi'āh al-'Adawiyyah ('Rabi'āh') extolled the way of maḥabbah ('divine love') and uns ('Intimacy with God'). Her mystical sayings are noted for their pith and clarity; some have become proverbs throughout the Islamic world. The famous mosque in Cairo, which is named in Rabi'āh's honour, is notable for being the burial site of former Egyptian president Anwar Sadat. The mosque was badly damaged during the 2013 post-military coup unrest in Egypt.[471] It has since been rebuilt.

Ruqayyah bint Ali

Ruqayyah bint Ali was the daughter-in-law of Muḥammad's cousin and son-in-law 'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib. Legend has it that the Bibi Pak Daman (lit. 'the chaste lady') mausoleum – located in Lahore, Pakistan – named after her contains not just her grave but those of five other ladies from Muḥammad's household. These females were amongst the most important women who brought Islam to South Asia. It is said that these ladies came here after the event of the battle of Karbala on the 10th day of the month of Muharram in 61 AH (October 10, CE 680). Bibi Pak Daman is the collective name of the six ladies believed to interred at this mausoleum, though it is also (mistakenly) popularly used to refer to the personage of Ruqayyah bint Ali alone. They preached and engaged in missionary activity in the environs of Lahore. It is said that Data Ganj Bakhsh, considered a great Sufi saint of the South Asia, was himself a devotee of the Bibi Pak Daman shrine and received holy knowledge from this auspicious shrine.[472]

Religious life

Further information: Islam and gender segregation and Women's mosques

A women-only mosque in Byblos, Lebanon.

According to a saying attributed to Muhammad in the hadith Sahih Bukhari, women are allowed to go to mosques.[473] However, as Islam spread, Muslim authorities stressed the fears of unchastity from interaction between sexes outside their home, including the mosque. By pre-modern period it was unusual for women to pray at a mosque.[474] By the late 1960s, women in urban areas of the Middle East increasingly began praying in the mosque, but men and women generally worship separately.[475] (Muslims explain this by citing the need to avoid distraction during prayer prostrations that raise the buttocks while the forehead touches the ground.[476]) Separation between sexes ranges from men and women on opposite sides of an aisle, to men in front of women (as was the case in the time of Muhammad), to women in second-floor balconies or separate rooms accessible by a door for women only.[476] Women in the state of ritual impurity, such as menstruation, are forbidden from entering the prayer hall of the mosque.[477]

The Haji Ali Dargah in Mumbai, India; entry of women to the sanctum of the shrine was restricted starting 2012 until an intervention by the Bombay High Court in 2016

Today, Muslim women do indeed attend mosques. In fact, in the United States, a recent study by the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that American Muslim women attend the mosque at extremely similar rates (35%) to those of American Muslim men (45%).[151] ISPU also found that 87% of Muslim American women say that they "see their faith identity as a source of happiness in their life."[478]

Female religious scholars were relatively common from early Islamic history throughout the 16th century.[479] Mohammad Akram Nadwi, a Sunni religious scholar, has listed 8,000 female jurists, and orientalist Ignaz Goldziher estimates 15 percent of medieval hadith scholars were women.[480] Women, during early history of Islam, primarily obtained their knowledge through community study groups, ribat retreats and during hajj when the usual restrictions imposed on female education were more lenient.[481] After the 16th century, however, female scholars became fewer.[480] In the modern era, while female activists and writers are relatively common, there has not been a significant female jurist in over 200 years.[482] Opportunities for women's religious education exist, but cultural barriers often keep women from pursuing such a vocation.[480]

Women's right to become imams, however, is disputed by many. A fundamental role of an imam (religious leader) in a mosque is to lead the salat (congregational prayers). Generally, women are not allowed to lead mixed prayers.[citation needed] However, some argue that Muhammad gave permission to Ume Warqa to lead a mixed prayer at the mosque of Dar.[483][484]

Hui women are self-aware of their relative freedom as Chinese women in contrast to the status of Arab women in countries like Saudi Arabia where Arab women are restricted and forced to wear encompassing clothing. Hui women point out these restrictions as "low status", and feel better to be Chinese than to be Arab, claiming that it is Chinese women's advanced knowledge of the Quran which enables them to have equality between men and women.[485]

Sufi female mystics

Sufi Islam teaches the doctrine of tariqa, meaning following a spiritual path in daily living habits. To support followers of this concept, separate institutions for men (ta'ifa, hizb, rabita) and women (khanqa, rabita, derga) were created. Initiates to these groups pursued a progression of seven stages of spiritual discipline, called makamat (stations) or ahwal (spiritual states).[486]

Rabiah al-Basri is an important figure in Islamic Mysticism called Sufism. She upheld the doctrine of "disinterested love of God".[487]

Current female religious scholars

There are a number of prominent female Islamic scholars. They generally focus on questioning gender-based interpretations of the Quran, the traditions of Muhammad and early Islamic history. Some notable Muslim women scholars are: Azizah al-Hibri, Amina Wadud, Fatima Mernissi, Riffat Hassan, Laila Ahmad, Amatul Rahman Omar,[488] Farhat Hashmi, Aisha Abdul-Rahman, and Merryl Wyn Davies.[489]


A collage of Muslim women voters in the 2010s from different countries
The coins issued during the rule of Razia Sultana. She inherited and ruled the Sultanate of Delhi for 3 years in the early 13th century.[490]

See also: Sultana (title), Female political leaders in Islam and in Muslim-majority countries, and Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries

Many classical Islamic scholars, such as al-Tabari, supported female leadership.[491] In early Islamic history, women including Aisha, Ume Warqa, and Samra Binte Wahaib took part in political activities.[483] Ash-Shifa would later on become the head of Health and Safety in Basra, Iraq.[492] Other historical Muslim female leaders include Shajarat ad-Durr, who ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1257,[493] Razia Sultana, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1236 to 1239,[490] and Taj ul-Alam, who ruled Aceh Sultanate from 1641 to 1675.

This historical record contrasts markedly with that of (predominantly Taoist and Buddhist) Chinese-majority nations, where there were no women rulers in the period between the reign of the fierce empress Wu Zetian at the turn of the eighth century (690–705), and the inauguration of Tsai Ing-wen as President of the Republic of China in 2016.[494]

Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah, an Islamic institute that advises Egypt's ministry of justice, had said women can both be rulers and judges in an Islamic state.[495]

Female heads of state in Muslim-majority countries during the modern era

Benazir Bhutto was the first elected female head of state in a Muslim-majority country, serving as the Prime Minister of Pakistan twice (1988–1990, 1993–1996).[496]

In the modern era, Pakistan became the first Muslim-majority state with an elected female head of government (1988).[497] Currently Bangladesh is the country that has had females as head of government continuously the longest starting with Khaleda Zia in 1991.

In the past several decades, a number of countries in which Muslims are a majority, including Turkey (Prime Minister Tansu Çiller, 1993),[498] Pakistan's Benazir Bhutto (1988–1996),[499] Bangladesh (prime ministers Begum Khaleda Zia, 1991–1996, 2001–2009) and Sheikh Hasina (1996–2001, 2009–present), Indonesia (President Megawati Sukarnoputri, 2001),[500] Kosovo (President Atifete Jahjaga, 2011),[501] and Kyrgyzstan (President Roza Otunbayeva, 2010) have been led by women;[502] Mauritius, which has a significant Muslim minority, elected a female Muslim (Ameenah Gurib) as president in 2015.[503]

At one stage in the 1990s, over 300 million Muslims – at that time, between one-third and a quarter of the world's entire Islamic population – were simultaneously ruled by women when elected heads of state Tansu Çiller (the 22nd Prime Minister of Turkey), Khaleda Zia (the 9th Prime Minister of Bangladesh) and Benazir Bhutto (the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan) led their respective countries.[504]

Female legislators in Muslim-majority countries in the 21st century

As well as elected heads of state, a number of other elected female politicians have attained exceptional levels of notability within the OIC in the twenty-first century. These include Louisa Hanoune, the head of Algeria's Workers' Party and the first woman to be a presidential candidate in an Arab country (2004; Hanoune also ran for the same post in 2009 and 2014);[505][506] Susi Pudjiastuti, Indonesia's Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (2014–2019) who is also a successful seafood and transportation entrepreneur who has been profiled in the Financial Times;[507] Meral Akşener, a veteran Turkish conservative nationalist politician who is the founder and leader of the İyi Party (2017–);[508] and mezzo-soprano opera singer Dariga Nazarbayeva, the Chairwoman of the Kazakhstan Senate and one of her country's wealthiest individuals.[509]

Several Muslim-majority nations have passed laws to incorporate more women in their parliaments and political processes. For example, Indonesia passed a law in 2013 that required political parties to field at least 30% women candidates in elections or pay a financial penalty, a law which was later amended to stipulate that at least one in three candidates on every party's electoral list must be female and parties which do not fulfill this criterion will be barred from contesting the election;[510][511][512] Tunisia's mandated electoral lists composed of 50% women in both the 2011 and 2014 legislative elections;[513][514] and in 2012, Algeria set a minimum parliamentary female membership requirement of 30%.[515] Following the May 2012 legislative elections, women constitute 31.6% of Algerian MPs.[515] In Senegal, 50% of local and national electoral lists have to be female as of 2012.[516][517] Following the passage of Law No. 46 of 2014, Egypt has required party lists to include a certain number of women;[518] in 2018, Egypt's cabinet had eight female ministers out of a total of 35 (22.86%).[519] Kosovo has had a female quota for its assembly as far back as 2001, when it was de jure part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;[520] the Muslim-majority (95.6%) Balkan republic guarantees women 30% of parliamentary seats as of 2016.[521]

Since 2012 Saudi women have been allowed to vote in some elections.[522][523] The Shura Council of Saudi Arabia now includes female members after a January 2013 decree by the Saudi King that created reserved parliamentary seats for women,[524] while four women were appointed to Qatar's 41-member Shura Council in 2017.[525] Kuwait granted its women the right to vote in the first half of the 1980s;[526] this right was later rescinded, and then reintroduced in 2005.[527] Additionally, the United Arab Emirates has allocated 30% of its top government posts to women;[528] as of February 2016, females accounted for 27.5% of the UAE's cabinet.[529]

According to Sheikh Zoubir Bouchikhi, Imam of the Islamic Society of Greater Houston's Southeast Mosque, nothing in Islam specifically allows or disallows voting by women.[530] Until recently most Muslim nations were non-democratic, but most today allow their citizens to have some level of voting and control over their government. However, some Muslim countries gave women suffrage in the early 20th century. For example, Azerbaijan extended voting rights to women in 1918,[531] two years before it became part of Soviet Union. Females in Turkey similarly gained the right to vote in municipal and parliamentary elections in 1930 and 1934 respectively.[532][533]

Muslim women and Islamophobia in non-Muslim majority countries

Judge Ina Rama, who as Prosecutor General (2007–2012) of OIC member state Albania was the highest judicial authority in the country's criminal legal system.[534]
The Shaheen Bagh protest in Delhi, against a controversial citizenship law widely perceived to be anti-Muslim, was a sit-in staged primarily by Muslim women

In the United States, Islamophobia, coupled with the 2016 presidential election which heightened anti-Muslim sentiment has particularly impacted on Muslim American women. In their 2018 American Muslim Poll, think tank Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU) reported, "though roughly half of women of all backgrounds, including Muslim women, report experiencing some frequency of gender-based discrimination in the past year, Muslim women's more frequent complaints are racial (75%) and religious (69%) discrimination."[56] Most Muslim women (72%) and Muslim men (76%) reject the notion that "most Muslims in America discriminate against women."[56]

Further data collected by the ISPU has found that "Muslim women are more likely than Muslim men to report experiencing religious discrimination in the last year (68% vs. 55%)".[151][when?] After the bombing of the World Trade Center Muslim women were especially exposed to increased violence in public spaces.[535] Research showed that 85% of Muslim women experienced violence through verbal threats as well as 25% of Muslim women experiencing actual physical violence in public spaces.[535] ISPU also found that most American Muslim women (68%) agree that most people associate negative stereotypes with their faith identity. Among these, more than half (52%) "strongly agree" that being Muslim is correlated with negative stereotypes.[56] Data shows that American Muslim women are actually more likely than Muslim men to fear for their safety from white supremacist groups (47% vs. 31%) and nearly one in five (19%) Muslim women say they have stress and anxiety enough to believe they need the help of a mental health professional as a result of the 2016 presidential elections, compared with only 9% of American Muslim men.[151] Despite this deficit in security and greater likelihood for experienced religious-based discrimination, Muslim women are no more likely than Muslim men to change their appearance to be less identifiable as a Muslim (16% vs. 15%).[151] Additionally, despite many feeling stigmatized, a large majority of Muslim American women (87%) say they are proud to be identified as a member of their faith community.[56]

According to the European Network Against Racism NGO, In addition to enhanced prevalence of Islamophobia among Muslim American women, Muslim European women also experienced heightened Islamophobia—especially, when they wear headscarves.[63] Islamophobia researcher and convert to Islam Linda Hyokki points out that at an even higher risk of Islamophobia are Muslim women of color, as they are always susceptible to Islamophobia, with or without their headscarves.[536] In 2017, English Islamophobic monitoring company Tell Mama reported that there had been a 26% increase in Islamophobia in the UK, overwhelmingly affecting Muslim women more than Muslim men.[537] Additionally, Muslim women disproportionately face the Islamophobic trope that women are seen as inferior in their religion.[538] Research has found that media along with politics, particularly, in European society, perpetuate these stereotypes of Muslim women.[63] Aside from seeing women as experiencing sexism within their religion, other Islamophobic stereotypes of Muslim women include seeing them as, "either [...] oppressed or as dangerous".[63]


Main article: Muslim women in sport

See also: Women and bicycling in Islam

Taekwondo medallists from Spain, Britain, Egypt and Iran at the 2016 Summer Olympics, including two hijabi women.

In the Islamic conception, every human being has a responsibility towards oneself. Since human life is sacred and initially created by divine rather than human agency, people are responsible for trying to keep their bodies and souls healthy, and not causing themselves spiritual or physical harm.[539] Consequently, sport has obvious attractions in Islam: traditions record that Muḥammad raced with his wife 'Ā'ishah, and that he encouraged parents to teach their children swimming, riding and archery.[540] Persian miniatures show Muslim women jointly playing polo with men in the same field.[540] In the twenty-first century, some Muslim sociologists even argue that it should be obligatory for Muslim females to participate in sport of some kind.[541]

At the same time, many Muslim women experience significant barriers to sports participation. These barriers include bans on the Islamic headscarf, commonly known as the hijab, cultural and familial barriers, and the lack of appropriate sports programs and facilities.[542] Many Muslim female athletes have overcome these obstacles and used sports to empower themselves and others, such as through education, health and wellbeing, and a push for women's rights.[543]

Islamic Solidarity Games

The Islamic Solidarity Games is a large multi-sport event held every four years in which all qualifying athletes from Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries can compete, regardless of their religious affiliation. The female International Athlete Ambassadors for Baku 2017 – the most recent edition of the games – included Tunisian Olympic medallist wrestler Marwa Amri; taekwondo icons Elaine Teo (Malaysia) and Taleen Al Humaidi (Jordan); and the Palestinian swimmer Mary Al-Atrash.[544][545]

The next edition of the Islamic Solidarity Games (2021) is scheduled to take place in Istanbul.[546]

Comparison with other religions

Main article: Islam and other religions

Further information: Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Since its inception in the Arabian Peninsula during the 7th century CE, Islam has had contact and coexistence with other major world religions, and this phenomenon intensified as the religion transcended its Arabian origins to spread over a wide geographical area: from the Adriatic region, where Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity took root, to the Hinduism- and Buddhism-dominated land masses of India and South-East Asia, Muslim populations have both influenced and been influenced by the pre-existing spiritual traditions that they encountered. Prominent examples of these processes include the syncretist philosophy of dīn-i-ilāhī ("religion of God"), an amalgam of several religions devised by Emperor Akbar (1542–1605) that was practiced at the Mughul Court in India;[547] the crypto-Christianity of Kosovo, a belief system that created a tradition of joint Catholic-Muslim households which persisted into the twentieth century.[548]

When analysing both Islam in general and the topic of women in Islam in particular, the views of scholars and commentators are profoundly shaped by certain cultural lenses. Those coming from a Western background, such as the Switzerland-born writer Charles le Gai Eaton, tend to compare and contrast Islam with Christianity; Eaton concluded that Islam, with certain important qualifications, was "essentially patriarchal". Conversely, those coming from an East Asian background tend to emphasize similarities between Islam and religions such as Taoism, which stress complementarity between the sexes: according to the Japanese scholar Sachiko Murata, it was mandatory for her to use the I Ching as a means of "[conceptualizing] Islamic teachings on the feminine principle without doing violence to the original texts."[549]

The historical strength of various Muslim-led polities – which, unlike other comparable non-Western entities such as China and Japan, were adjacent to "Christian" Europe and/or perceived to be in competition with Western powers – meant that the question of women in Islam has not always been approached objectively by those professing expertise in the subject. This can be viewed as part of the "Orientalist" academic discourse (as defined by Edward Said) that creates a rigid East-West dichotomy in which dynamic and positive values are ascribed to Western civilization; by contrast, "Oriental" societies (including but certainly not limited to Islamic ones) are depicted as being "stationary" and in need of "modernizing" through imperial administrations.[550]

Eve's role in the Fall

Main article: Adam and Eve

Persian miniature depicting the expulsion of Adam and Eve, observed by the angel Riḍwan, the Serpent, the Peacock, and Iblis.

In contrast with the Biblical account of the Fall, in the Islamic tradition Eve (Ḥawwā) did not tempt Adam (Ādam) to eat the forbidden fruit; instead, they were tempted together by the Devil (al-Shayṭān).[551] This means that Eve was not the cause of Adam's expulsion from paradise: he was also responsible, and therefore both men and women are faced equally with its consequences.[551] This has a number of important implications for the Islamic understanding of womanhood and women's roles in both religious and social life.[552] For one, in Islam, women are not seen as a source of evil as a result of the Fall.[553]

Moreover, the Biblical statement that Eve was created from Adam's rib (the famous 'third rib') finds no echo in the Quranic account: both male and female were created 'from one soul' (Sūrah 4:1).[15][553] Similarly, the concept that (as per Genesis 3:16)[554] the pains of childbirth are a punishment for Eve's sin is alien to the Quran.[553]

The Virgin Mary

The Virgin Mary (Maryām) is considered by the Quran to hold the most exalted spiritual position amongst women. A chapter of the Quran (Sūrat Maryam, the nineteenth sura) is named after her, and she is the only woman mentioned by name in the Quran; Maryām is mentioned more times in the Quran than in the New Testament.[555] Furthermore, the miraculous birth of Christ from a virgin mother is recognised in the Quran.[556]


Polygamy is not exclusive to Islam; the Old Testament describes numerous examples of polygamy among devotees to God and historically, some Christian groups have practiced and continue to practice polygamy.[557][558][559][560]

The Rig Veda mentions that during the Vedic period, a man could have more than one wife.[561] The practice is attested in epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. The Dharmashastras permit a man to marry women provided that the first wife agree to marry him. Despite its existence, it was most usually practiced by men of higher status.[562] Traditional Hindu law allowed polygamy if the first wife could not bear a child.[563][564]

In traditionally multi-confessional India, polygamy is actually more widespread amongst other religious communities: the 1961 census found that the incidence of polygamy was the least amongst Muslims (5.7%), with Hindus (5.8%), Jains (6.7%), Buddhists (7.9%) and Adivasis (15.25%) all more likely to have at least two wives.[565] Similarly, India's third National Family Health Survey (2006) found that a number of socioeconomic reasons were more likely to explain the prevalence of polygamy than the religion of the parties involved. This survey also found that a polygamous Hindu was likely to have (as a statistical average) 1.77 wives; a Christian, 2.35; a Muslim, 2.55; and a Buddhist, 3.41.[566][565][567]

Notable women in Islam

Saints, scholars, and spiritual teachers

Women have played an integral part in the development and spiritual life of Islam since the inception of Islamic civilisation in the seventh century AD. Khadijah, a businesswoman who became Muhammad's employer and first wife,[568] was also the first Muslim.[569] There have been a few number of female saints in the Islamic world spanning the highest social classes (a famous example being Princess Jahānārā, the daughter of the Moghul emperor Shāh Jahān) and the lowest (such as Lallā Mīmūna in Morocco);[570] some of them, such as Rābi'a of Basra (who is cited reverentially in Muḥammad al-Ghazālī's classic The Revival of Religious Sciences) and Fāṭima of Cordoba (who deeply influenced the young Ibn 'Arabī) have been pivotal to the conceptualisation of Islamic mysticism.[570]

Recognized as one of the most esteemed women in Islamic history, Mary is honored as the mother of Jesus. She is revered in Islam as the only woman named in the Quran, which refers to her seventy times and explicitly identifies her as the greatest woman to have ever lived.[571][572][573]

In addition to Khadijah and Maryam, Fatima bint Muhammad holds a revered place in Islamic history. Muhammad is said to have regarded her as the preeminent woman. She is often viewed as an ultimate archetype for Muslim women and an example of compassion, generosity, and enduring suffering.[574][575] Her name and her epithets remain popular choices for Muslim girls.[576] Iranians celebrate Fatima's birth anniversary on 20 Jumada al-Thani as the Mother's Day.[577]

Today, some notable personalities of the Islamic world include the Turkish Sufi teacher Cemalnur Sargut – a disciple of the novelist and mystic Samiha Ayverdi (1905–1993),[578] Amatul Rahman Omar, the first woman to translate the Qur'an into English,[579] and Shaykha Fariha al Jerrahi, the guide of the Nur Ashki Jerrahi Sufi Order.[580]

Female converts to Islam

Lebanese-Emirati musician Diana Haddad is one of the Arab world's most popular singers, and an artist who is known for her international collaborations.[581] After studying the religion, Haddad converted to Islam in 1999.[582]

Notable recent female converts to Islam include the German former MTV VJ and author Kristiane Backer,[583][584] American singer and cultural icon Janet Jackson,[585] Anglo-French writer, broadcaster and academic Myriam François, formerly François-Cerrah,[586] award-winning German actress, model and fashion designer Wilma Elles,[587] Malaysian model Felixia Yeap,[588] Malaysian VJ Marion Caunter,[589] Czech model Markéta Kořínková,[590] Canadian solo motorcycle adventurer Rosie Gabrielle,[591] the Belgian model and former Miss Belgium candidate Lindsey van Gele,[592] the Albanian model Rea Beko,[593][594] Russian model and former Miss Moscow Oksana Voevodina,[595] the German model Anna-Maria Ferchichi (née Lagerblom),[596] the American supermodel Kendra Spears (Princess Salwa Aga Khan),[597] the Australian model and Miss World Australia finalist Emma Maree Edwards,[598] South African model Wendy Jacobs,[599] and Lithuanian model-turned-actress Karolina 'Kerry' Demirci;[600] the Serbian model and fashion designer Ivana Sert stated her intention to become a Muslim in 2014 after she read the Quran in English.[601] The Turkish actress, author and model (Miss Turkey 2001) Tuğçe Kazaz converted from Islam to Eastern Orthodox Christianity in 2005, and then converted back to Islam in 2008.[602]

Women constitute a significantly larger or growing proportion of individuals who choose to convert to Islam in numerous Western countries. According to researchers based at Swansea University, of the approximately 100,000 people who entered the Muslim faith in the United Kingdom between 2001 and 2011, 75% were women.[603] In the United States, more Hispanic women convert to Islam than Hispanic men,[604] with these women being "mostly educated, young and professional";[605] the share of overall female converts to Islam in the US rose from 32% in 2000 to 41% in 2011.[606] In Brazil, approximately 70% of converts to Islam are women, most of whom are young and relatively well-educated.[607] Young females constitute an estimated 80% of converts to Islam in Lithuania.[608] According to Susanne Leuenberger of the Institute of Advanced Study in the Humanities and the Social Sciences at the University of Bern, females make up around 60–70% of conversions to Islam in Europe.[609]

In Britain, according to an article in the British Muslims Monthly Survey, the majority of new Muslim converts were women.[610] According to The Huffington Post, "observers estimate that as many as 20,000 Americans convert to Islam annually.", most of them are women and African-Americans.[611][612]

Female conversion literature

In the twenty-first century, a number of semi-autobiographical books by Western female converts to Islam have enjoyed a measure of mainstream success. These include former MTV and NBC Europe presenter Kristiane Backer's From MTV to Mecca: How Islam Inspired My Life (Arcadia Books, 2012);[613][614] Spanish journalist Amanda Figueras Fernández's Por qué el islam: Mi vida como mujer, europea y musulmana (Ediciones Península, 2018);[615] and French author Mathilde Loujayne's Big Little Steps: A Woman's Guide to Embracing Islam (Kube Publishing, 2020).[616]

Modern debate on the status of women in Islam

Within the Muslim community, conservatives and Islamic feminists have used Islamic doctrine as the basis for discussion of women's rights, drawing on the Quran, the hadith, and the lives of prominent women in the early period of Muslim history as evidence.[617] Where conservatives have seen evidence that existing gender asymmetries are divinely ordained, feminists have seen more egalitarian ideals in early Islam.[617] Still others have argued that this discourse is essentialist and ahistorical, and have urged that Islamic doctrine not be the only framework within which discussion occurs.[617]

Conservatives and the Islamic movement

Main articles: Islamic revival and Islamism

Conservatives reject the assertion that different laws prescribed for men and women imply that men are more valuable than women. Ali ibn Musa Al-reza reasoned that at the time of marriage a man has to pay something to his prospective bride, and that men are responsible for both their wives' and their own expenses but women have no such responsibility.[618]

The nebulous revivalist movement termed Islamism is one of the most dynamic movements within Islam in the 20th and 21st centuries. The experience of women in Islamist states has been varied. The progression of Muslim women's rights has been inhibited by religious extremist groups that use the disempowerment of women as a political agenda. When women are opposed to these infringements on their rights they are often subjected to abuse, violence, and shunned.[619] Women in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan faced treatment condemned by the international community.[620][621] Women were forced to wear the burqa in public,[622] not allowed to work,[623] not allowed to be educated after the age of eight,[624] and faced public flogging and execution for violations of the Taliban's laws.[625][626] The position of women in Iran, which has been a theocracy since its 1979 revolution, is more complex. Iranian Islamists are ideologically in favour of allowing female legislators in Iran's parliament[627] and 60% of university students are women.[628]

Liberal Islam, Islamic feminism, and other progressive criticism

See also: Hermeneutics of feminism in Islam and Liberalism and progressivism within Islam

Liberal Muslims advocate using critical thinking ijtihad to evolve a more progressive form of Islam regarding women's status.[629] Islamic feminists seek gender equality and social justice within an Islamic context, drawing from both Islamic and global feminist values trying to align both. Some emphasize the adaptable nature of sharia law, suggesting it can safeguard women's rights with political will.[630][631][632]

After the September 11, 2001, attacks, international attention was focused on the condition of women in the Muslim world.[633][634] Some critics noted gender inequality[635][636] and criticized Muslim societies for condoning this treatment.[635]

In response to growing civil rights for secular women, some Muslim women have advocated for their rights within Islamic societies. Malaysia serves as an example, where dual legal systems exist for secular and sharia laws.[637] In 2006, Marina Mahathir, daughter of Malaysia's former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, criticized unequal treatment of Malaysia's Muslim women in an editorial in the Malaysia Star. She highlighted legal disparities like polygamy's legality and biased child custody arrangements, which favored fathers for Muslims compared to shared-custody norms among non-Muslim parents.[637] Women's groups in Malaysia began campaigning in the 1990s to have female sharia judges appointed to the sharia legal system in the country, and in 2010 two female judges were appointed.[638]

See also



  1. ^ "Artist Feature: Who Was Osman Hamdi Bey?". How To Talk About Art History. April 27, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Siraj, Asifa (October 2011). "Meanings of modesty and the hijab amongst Muslim women in Glasgow, Scotland". Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography. 18 (6). Taylor & Francis: 716–731. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2011.617907. ISSN 1360-0524. S2CID 144326780.
  3. ^ a b Herbert L. Bodman; Nayereh Esfahlani Tohidi, eds. (1998). Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity Within Unity. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-1-55587-578-7.
  4. ^ Ibrahim, I. A.; Abu-Harb, Ibrahim Ali Ibrahim (1997). A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam. Darussalam. ISBN 978-9960-34-011-1.
  5. ^ Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab (2008). "The eternal and Islamic feminine". Sexuality in Islam (1st ed.). London and New York City: Routledge. pp. 19–30. ISBN 9780415439152.
  6. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. pp. 141–143.
  7. ^ a b Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 182.
  8. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 325.
  9. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York: HarperOne. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  10. ^ Schleifer, Yigal (April 27, 2005). "In Turkey, Muslim women gain expanded religious authority". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  11. ^ Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 188–202. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  12. ^ a b Motahhari, Morteza (1983). Jurisprudence and Its Principles, translator:Salman Tawhidi, ISBN 0-940368-28-5.
  13. ^ a b Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Cambridge: Islamic Text Society, 1991. ISBN 0-946621-24-1
  14. ^ "Shari'ah and Fiqh". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008.
  15. ^ a b c "Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 4: AN-NISA (WOMEN)". e=Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. May 1, 2015. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015.
  16. ^ "Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 39: AZ-ZUMAR (THE TROOPS, THRONGS)". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  17. ^ Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  18. ^ a b Haddad and Esposito, (1998), Islam, Gender, and Social Change, Oxford University Press, pp. xii–xx.
  19. ^ Stowasser, B. F. (1994). Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation. Oxford University Press
  20. ^ Asma Afsaruddin (2020). "Women and the Qur'an". In Mustafa Shah and Muhammad Abdel Haleem (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Qur'anic Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 527. this Qur'anic verse took an unequivocal position: women and men have equal moral and spiritual agency in their quest for the good and righteous life in this world for which they reap identical rewards in the afterlife.
  21. ^ Amira Sonbol, Rise of Islam: 6th to 9th century, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures
  22. ^ Watt (1956), p. 287.
  23. ^ "The Meaning of the Glorious Qur'ân,: 4. an-Nisa': Women". Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  24. ^ Haleem, M. A. S. Abdel. The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
  25. ^ a b Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Nisa". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  26. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. New York City: Infobase Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 9781438126968. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  27. ^ Agrama, H. A. (2010). "Ethics, tradition, authority: Toward an anthropology of the fatwa". American Ethnologist, 37(1), pp. 2–18.
  28. ^ Romirowsky, Asaf (2007). "Fatwa Rules to Live By". Political Studies Review. 19 (1/2): 174–176.
  29. ^ Hosen, N (2004). "Behind the scenes: fatwas of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (1975–1998)". Journal of Islamic Studies. 15 (2): 147–179. doi:10.1093/jis/15.2.147.
  30. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 29.
  31. ^ Asma Sayeed (2009). "Camel, Battle of the". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020.
  32. ^ Ghazala Anwar (2009). "ʿĀʿishah". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020.
  33. ^ Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  34. ^ a b Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York: HarperOne. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  35. ^ Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Ahzab". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  36. ^ "Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement". July 4, 2015. Archived from the original on July 4, 2015.
  37. ^ a b c Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  38. ^ a b Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 92. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  39. ^ a b Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 93. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  40. ^ a b Mazumdar, Shampa and Sanjoy (Winter 2001). "Rethinking Public and Private Space: Religion and Women in Muslim Society". Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. 18 (4): 307–308. JSTOR 43031047 – via JSTOR.
  41. ^ a b c d Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York, NY: HarperOne. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  42. ^ Marzel, Shoshana-Rose; Stiebel, Guy D. (December 18, 2014). Dress and Ideology: Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4725-5809-1. A believing Muslim woman will not wear pants (bantalon) for two reasons. Firstly, pants might reflect the contours of limbs that are supposed to remain hidden. Secondly, items of clothing associated with men are off limits, just as men are forbidden to wear women's clothing. According to the Prophet, Allah curses the woman who dresses in clothing meant for men, and the man who wears clothing meant for women.
  43. ^ Cooney, Mark. "Honor Cultures and Violence". Oxford Bibliographies. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  44. ^ a b "Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 24: AL-NOOR (THE LIGHT)". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016.
  45. ^ a b c d Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 413.
  46. ^ Smith, Roff (October 12, 2013). "Why Turkey Lifted Its Ban on the Islamic Headscarf". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  47. ^ "Tunisia: Can niqabs and bikinis live side-by-side?". BBC News. March 27, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  48. ^ Birnbaum, Michael (March 9, 2013). "Rise of Bosnian mayor with a head scarf challenging assumptions about Islam". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  49. ^ "Turkey lifts decades-old ban on headscarves". Al Jazeera. October 8, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  50. ^ Gadzo, Mersiha (February 4, 2016). "Hijab-wearing women react to Bosnia court ban". Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  51. ^ Kozlowska, Hanna (January 14, 2015). "The places in the world that have a burqa ban". Quartz. Atlantic Media. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  52. ^ Schleifer, Professor S Abdallah (2015). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims, 2016. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 31.
  53. ^ "Bikinis and hijabs contrast on Albanian beach". Al Arabiya News. September 22, 2011. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  54. ^ Alami, Mona (June 2, 2010). "LEBANON: Where the Bikini Finds Sisterhood With the Hijab". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  55. ^ "Morocco Bans Poster Calling on Tourists not to Wear Bikinis in Ramadan". Ahlulbayt (a.s.) News Agency. June 24, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g "American Muslim Poll 2018: Full Report | ISPU". Institute for Social Policy and Understanding. April 30, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  57. ^ a b c Bloom, Jonathan (1997). Islamic Arts. London, England: Phaidon Press Limited. pp. 84. ISBN 978-0-7148-3176-3.
  58. ^ a b c d Iman Mohammad Kashi; Uwe Hideki Matzen; Online Quran Project. "The Quran". The Quran.
  59. ^ a b c Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 140.
  60. ^ "How the EU Is Failing Muslim Women". Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  61. ^ "Where are 'burqa bans' in Europe? | DW | August 1, 2019". DW.COM. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
  62. ^ "UN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE CONDEMNS "BURQA BAN," COUNTERING EUROPEAN COURT". International Justice Resource Center. November 14, 2018.
  63. ^ a b c d "Forgotten women: the impact of Islamophobia on Muslim women" (PDF). european network against racism. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2022. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
  64. ^ "Zara Saudi Arabia – Official Website". Zara España, S.A. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  65. ^ Broomhall, Elizabeth (July 27, 2011). "Victoria's Secret opens new stores in Saudi, Bahrain". Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  66. ^ Robinson, Francis (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1.
  67. ^ Šamić, Jasna (March 4, 2016). "The hijab: To wear or not to wear?". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  68. ^ Nomani, Asra Q. (December 21, 2015). "As Muslim women, we actually ask you not to wear the hijab in the name of interfaith solidarity". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  69. ^ Letsch, Constanze (November 21, 2011). "Turkish Women's Magazine Searches for Intersection of Islam and Fashion". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  70. ^ Aqsha, Darul (December 19, 2013). "Aquila: Magazine for "Asian Cosmopolitan Muslim Women"?". Islam in Indonesia: A resource of Islam in the archipelago. Archived from the original on July 10, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  71. ^ "State of the Global Islamic Economy 2014–2015 Report" (PDF). Thomson Reuters in collaboration with DinarStandard. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  72. ^ a b Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York, NY: HarperOne. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  73. ^ a b Eaton, Charles le Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: Islamic Texts Society. pp. 88. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  74. ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York, NY: HarperOne. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  75. ^ Eaton, Charles le Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: Islamic Texts Society. pp. 95. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  76. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York, NY: HarperOne. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  77. ^ a b "Medina of Fez". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved July 4, 2016..
  78. ^ a b Kazemi, Farhad (2000). "Gender, Islam, and Politics". Social Research. 67 (2): 453–474.
  79. ^ a b c d Leeman, A. B. (2009). "Interfaith Marriage in Islam: An Examination of the Legal Theory Behind the Traditional and Reformist Positions" (PDF). Indiana Law Journal. 84 (2). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Maurer School of Law: 743–772. ISSN 0019-6665. S2CID 52224503. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 23, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  80. ^ a b c Elmali-Karakaya, Ayse (2020). "Being Married to a Non-Muslim Husband: Religious Identity in Muslim Women's Interfaith Marriages". In Hood, Ralph W.; Cheruvallil-Contractor, Sariya (eds.). Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion: A Diversity of Paradigms. Vol. 31. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 388–410. doi:10.1163/9789004443969_020. ISBN 978-90-04-44348-8. ISSN 1046-8064. S2CID 234539750.
  81. ^ a b "Roughly one-in-ten married Muslims have a non-Muslim spouse". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. July 25, 2017. Archived from the original on October 16, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  82. ^ a b Jahangir, Junaid (March 21, 2017). "Muslim Women Can Marry Outside The Faith". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  83. ^ a b Mojab, Shahrzad (December 1998). "'Muslim' Women and 'Western' Feminists: The Debate on Particulars and Universals". Monthly Review. 50 (7): 19–30. doi:10.14452/mr-050-07-1998-11_2.
  84. ^ Rasekh, Zohra; Heidi Bauer; Michele Manos; Vincent Iacopino (August 1998). "Women's Health and Human Rights in Afghanistan". Journal of the American Medical Association. 280 (5): 449–55. doi:10.1001/jama.280.5.449. PMID 9701081.
  85. ^ a b Barrett, David (October 2, 2010). "British schools where girls must wear the Islamic veil". The Telegraph. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  86. ^ a b Fernandez, Sonya (2009). "The Crusade over the Bodies of Women". Patterns of Prejudice. 43 (3–4): 269–286. doi:10.1080/00313220903109185. S2CID 73618765.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h Matinuddin, Kamal (1999). "The Taliban's Religious Attitude". The Taliban Phenomenon: Afghanistan 1994–1997. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 34–43. ISBN 0-19-579274-2. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  88. ^ "US Country Report on Human Rights Practices – Afghanistan 2001". March 4, 2002. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  89. ^ Mahnaz Afkhami, "Gender Apartheid, Cultural Relativism, and Women's Human Rights in Muslim Societies," in Women, gender, and human rights: a global perspective, Marjorie Agosín, Editor, Rutgers University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8135-2983-2
  90. ^ Walid Phares, The War of Ideas: Jihadism Against Democracy, Macmillan, 2008, p 102, ISBN 0-230-60255-X, 9780230602557
  91. ^ Aryanti, Tutin. "Gender and Sacred Space: Segregation in Indonesian Mosques".
  92. ^ "4 Beautiful Mosques in Saudi Arabia to Explore". Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  93. ^ "Ramadan 2022: UAE clarifies COVID-19 rules for worshippers". Al Arabiya English. March 30, 2022. Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  94. ^ "Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura". Archived from the original on April 3, 2022. Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  95. ^ "Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka | Infopedia". Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  96. ^ "Visit Seoul – Seoul Central Mosque". Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  97. ^ Mohamed, Besheer. "Women are becoming more involved in U.S. mosques". Pew Research Center. Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  98. ^ "Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 881". Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  99. ^ al-Sunan al-Kubrá, vol. 1, p. 109.
  100. ^ a b c Samuel, Sigal (September 27, 2017). "A Saudi Woman's 'Mixed Feelings' About Winning the Right to Drive". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  101. ^ a b c d e f Ahmad, Talmiz (September 30, 2017). "Saudi Arabia Lifting the Driving Ban on Women Has Little to Do With Empowerment". The Wire. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  102. ^ Jawad, Haifaa (September 28, 2017). "Saudi decree allowing women to drive cars is about politics, not religion". The Conversation. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  103. ^ Griswold, Alison (October 6, 2017). "How Uber secretly lobbied for women to drive in Saudi Arabia". Quartz.
  104. ^ a b Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  105. ^ a b Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  106. ^ Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  107. ^ a b c d e Robinson, Francis (2000), Irwin, Robert (ed.), "Education", The New Cambridge History of Islam (1 ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 495–531, doi:10.1017/chol9780521838245.022, ISBN 978-1-139-05614-4, retrieved December 14, 2020
  108. ^ Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  109. ^ Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  110. ^ a b Lindsay, James E. (2005). Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 196. ISBN 0-313-32270-8. In addition, Muhammad is reported to have praised the women of Medina because of their desire for religious knowledge. "How splendid were the women of the ansar; shame did not prevent them from becoming learned in the faith."
  111. ^ Virani, Shafique N. (2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-19-531173-0.
  112. ^ a b Lindsay, James E. (2005). Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32270-8.
  113. ^ Nashat, Guity; Beck, Lois, eds. (2003). Women in Iran from the Rise of Islam to 1800. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-252-07121-2.
  114. ^ a b Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 210. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
  115. ^ Berkey, Jonathan Porter (2003). The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600–1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 227.
  116. ^ a b Nadwi, Mohammad (2007). Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars in Islam. pp. 77–82.
  117. ^ a b Francis Robinson, The British Empire and Muslim Identity in South Asia, Oxford University Press, pages 18–21; Francis Robinson (1982), Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, ISBN 978-0-87196-629-2
  118. ^ a b c d e Sayeed, Asma (2013). Women and the Transmission of Religious Knowledge in Islam. New York: Cambridge University. pp. 144–169. ISBN 9781107031586.
  119. ^ a b c d Sayeed, Asma. (2002). "Women and Ḥadīth Transmission Two Case Studies from Mamluk Damascus". Studia Islamica. 95 (95): 71–94. doi:10.2307/1596142. ISSN 0585-5292. JSTOR 1596142.
  120. ^ a b c Nadwi, Mohammad (2007). Al-Muhaddithat. Oxford: Interface Publications. pp. 59–96. ISBN 9780955454530.
  121. ^ Nadia, Zunly (2017). "Women Political Participation in the Era of Prophet Muhammad: Study on the Hadith Transmitters of the Women Companions". Al Albab. 6: 55–61. doi:10.24260/alalbab.v6i1.608.
  122. ^ Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubayr (1993). Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development and Special Features. United Kingdom: Islamic Texts Society. pp. 40–43. ISBN 9780946621385.
  123. ^ El-Ali, Leena (2021). No Truth Without Beauty. Springer International Publishing. pp. 33–35. ISBN 9783030835811.
  124. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, Maulana Qazi Athar (2005). Achievements of Muslim Women in the Religious and Scholarly Fields. Darul Ishaat. pp. 24–26.
  125. ^ " Announces Grant to the Queen Rania Foundation towards the Creation of a K-12 Arab Online Learning Platform". Queen Rania Al Abdullah. May 10, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  126. ^ Albania – PISA 2015 brief (English) (Report). World Bank Group. December 15, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  127. ^ Hope and despair for women in Islamic states Archived December 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Ufuk Gokcen, OIC (January 19, 2013)
  128. ^ Investing in the Children of the Islamic World Archived October 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine UNICEF (2007)
  129. ^ a b Adult and Youth Literacy, 1990–2015, UNESCO (2012), ISBN 978-92-9189-117-7
  130. ^ "Saudi Arabia". November 27, 2016. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  131. ^ a b Weiss, Anita (1994). Islam, Globalization and Postmodernity. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 0-415-09366-X.
  132. ^ M. Steven Fish (2002), "Islam and Authoritarianism", World Politics 55, October 2002, pp. 4–37.
  133. ^ Donno and Russett (2004), "Islam, authoritarianism, and female empowerment", World Politics, vol. 56, issue 04, July 2004, pp. 582–607
  134. ^ Nepal, a South Asian nation, is not OIC member; provided here for completeness and accuracy of list per the cited source.
  135. ^ The Global Gender Gap Report 2012 World Economic Forum, Switzerland (2013)
  136. ^ Grove, Jack (May 2, 2013). "Global Gender Index, 2013". Times Higher Education. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  137. ^ UNESCO science report: towards 2030. UNESCO. November 9, 2015. p. 37. ISBN 9789231001291.
  138. ^ Gender in Research and Innovation, She Figures 2012, EU, page 26
  139. ^ Sawahel, Wagdy (December 16, 2016). "North Africa women researcher share among world highest". University World News. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  140. ^ Roksana Bahramitash (2013). "Iran". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976446-4.
  141. ^ Topping, Alexandra (July 8, 2013). "Boris Johnson criticised for suggesting women go to university to find husband". The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  142. ^ Jameh, Said (August 31, 2008). "Algerian women outpace men in academic achievement". Magharebia. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  143. ^ BUCHANAN, ROSE TROUP (July 5, 2013). "A small step for female education in Saudi Arabia". The Independent. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  144. ^ Tashakova, Oksana (May 1, 2016). "UAE women rising in positions of power and influence". Khaleej Times. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  145. ^ "65% of UJ students are females — Tarawneh". The Jordan Times. March 5, 2013. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  146. ^ a b c d e Martin, Will (November 22, 2015). "Here are the 19 countries with the highest ratio of women to men in higher education". Business Insider. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  147. ^ van Klaveren, Maarten; et al. (March 2010). "An Overview of Women's Work and Employment in Kazakhstan" (PDF). An Overview of Women's Work and Employment in Kazakhstan: Decisions for Life MDG3 Project Country Report No. 10. University of Amsterdam. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  148. ^ "More Women Study Physics in Muslim Countries, Find Out Why…". MOST. March 15, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  149. ^ El-Deghaidy, Heba (March 8, 2021). "Why More Women Study Physics in Muslim Countries". Physics. 14: 33. Bibcode:2021PhyOJ..14...33E. doi:10.1103/Physics.14.33. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  150. ^ "US study into higher rates of female engineers in Muslim countries". The Engineer. September 7, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  151. ^ a b c d e f g h i "American Muslim Poll 2017 | ISPU". Institute for Social Policy and Understanding. March 21, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  152. ^ a b c d Al Qaradawy, Yusuf. The Status Of Women In Islam. Chapter: The Woman as Member of the Society: When is a woman allowed to work?
  153. ^ Laurie A. Brand (1998), Women, State and Political Liberalisation. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 57–58
  154. ^ a b Ziba Mir-Hosseini (2009), Towards Gender Equality: Muslim Family Laws and the Shari'ah, Wanted: Equality and Justice in the Muslim Family (Editor: Zainah Anwar), Musawah, Kuala Lumpur, ISBN 978-983-2622-26-0, pp 31–33
  155. ^ a b Doi, A. Rahman, & Bewley, A. (1992). Women in Shari'ah. Ta-Ha, 4th Edition; ISBN 978-1-84200-087-8
  156. ^ Elizabeth Fernea (1985), Women and the Family in the Middle East: New Voices of Change, University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0-292-75529-1, pages 264–269
  157. ^ "Does the woman have the right to work?". Retrieved September 7, 2017. No one can object to a sensible and adult woman's legal right to engage in work that is lawful or to her right to be financially independent
  158. ^ "Selected Rulings". Retrieved September 7, 2017. Wife should seek her husband's permission for going out of home, if it is against his rights or else obtaining his permission is not required. So in this case, she can [without permission] go out for learning and teaching, doing social and political activities and visiting parent and relatives.
  159. ^ Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09896-8, pp. 6–7, 350–401;
    • Maya Shatzmiller (1997), "Women and Wage Labour in the Medieval Islamic West: Legal Issues in an Economic Context", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 40(2), pp. 174–206 [175–7].
  160. ^ Ahmad, Jamil (September 1994). "Ibn Rushd". Monthly Renaissance. 4 (9). Retrieved October 14, 2008.
  161. ^ Girl Power Archived January 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, ABC News
  162. ^ Black, Edwin (2004). Banking on Baghdad: Inside Iraq's 7,000 Year History of War, Profit, and Conflict. John Wiley and Sons. p. 34. ISBN 0-471-70895-X.
  163. ^ Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1853). Woman's Record: Or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from "The Beginning Till A.D. 1850, Arranged in Four Eras, with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. Harper Brothers. p. 120.
  164. ^ "Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts: The Art as a Profession". Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  165. ^ Bademci, G. (2006). "First illustrations of female "Neurosurgeons" in the fifteenth century by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu" (PDF). Neurocirugía. 17 (2): 162–165. doi:10.4321/s1130-14732006000200012. PMID 16721484.
  166. ^ "Concept of Gender equality in Islam". ResearchGate. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  167. ^ "Women and Islam – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Archived from the original on June 22, 2010.
  168. ^ Jayaram, Savita V. (March 16, 2017). "Indonesia has the Highest Senior Business Roles Held by Women in ASEAN at 46%". HR in Asia. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  169. ^ "Women of Our World 2005" (PDF). PRB. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  170. ^ a b The Global Gender Gap Report 2012 World Economic Forum, Switzerland (2013), page 11, 25
  171. ^ Priscilla Offenhauer, WOMEN IN ISLAMIC SOCIETIES: A SELECTED REVIEW OF SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, Library of Congress, Washington DC (2005), pp 73–76
  173. ^ Assaad, R., 2003, Gender & Employment: Egypt in Comparative Perspective, in Doumato, E.A. & Posusney, M.P., Women and Globalization in the Arab Middle East: Gender, Economy and Society, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers
  174. ^ Sebastian Maisel and John A. Shoup (2009), Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab States Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States, ISBN 978-0-313-34442-8, Greewood
  175. ^ Al-Mukthar, Rima (May 5, 2013). "Saudi women seek driving licenses in UAE". Arab News. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
  176. ^ Kim, Victoria (March 7, 2014). "The Countries With the Highest Number of Female Executives Are Not the Ones You'd Expect". World.Mic. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  177. ^ "2. Güler Sabanci". The Financial Times. November 15, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  178. ^ "Board of Directors". Boyner. Boyner Holding. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  179. ^ "99 Most Powerful Women Edition". The Jakarta Globe. October 1, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  180. ^ "Management". TRANS TV – Milik Kita Bersama. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  181. ^ "Meet the team". Meet the WOMENA team. Pan Arab Angels FZ LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  182. ^ Tehini, Noor (November 11, 2014). "Womena: the Middle East's First Women-Only Angel Investor Group". Getting to Know Womena: The Middle East's First Women-Only Angel Investor Group and the Duo Behind It All. Savoir Flair. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  183. ^ "Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 33: AL-AHZAB (THE CLANS, THE COALITION, THE COMBINED FORCES)". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Archived from the original on June 6, 2014.
  184. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (August 30, 2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 23–47. ISBN 978-90-8728-048-2. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
  185. ^ Mayer, Ann Elizabeth (2009). "Law. Modern Legal Reform". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008.
  186. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries: Tensions and Opportunities for Dutch and EU Foreign Policy (PDF). Amsterdam University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-90-8728-048-2.
  187. ^ Alissa Rubin, Punishment of Elder's Misdeeds, Afghan Girl Pays the Price, New York Times, February 16, 2012
  188. ^ Vani verdict The Tribune, Pakistan (October 9, 2012)
  189. ^ Haideh Moghissi, ed. (2005). Women and Islam: Social conditions, obstacles and prospects, Volume 2. Taylor & Francis. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-415-32420-5.
  190. ^ a b Donna E. Arzt, The Application of International Human Rights Law in Islamic States, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 2 (May 1990), pp. 202–230
  191. ^ a b c Rudolph Peters, Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-79226-4, pp 15–29 and 177–178
  192. ^ a b c d e f g Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  193. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 248.
  194. ^ a b Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  195. ^ Bernard Lewis (2002), What Went Wrong?, ISBN 0-19-514420-1, pp. 82–83
  196. ^ Joseph and Naǧmābādī, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law and Politics, Brill Academic, pp. 137–138, ISBN 978-9004128187
  197. ^ Joseph and Naǧmābādī, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law and Politics, Brill Academic, pp. 299–305, ISBN 978-9004128187
  198. ^ Naila Kabeer (1999), Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women's empowerment. Development and change, 30(3): 435–464
  199. ^ Jamal Badawi, The status of women in Islam. June 4, 2008
  200. ^ Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Nuh Ha Mim Keller (1368). "Reliance of the Traveller" (PDF). Amana Publications. p. ??. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  201. ^ Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Nuh Ha Mim Keller (1368). "A Classic Manual of Islamic Scared Law" (PDF). p. ??. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  202. ^ Baer, Gabriel (1983). "Women and Waqf: An Analysis of the Istanbul Tahrîr of 1546". Asian and African Studies.
  203. ^ Burton & Ballantyne (2005). "Women, Property and Power in Eighteenth-Century Cairo (Author: Mary Ann Fay)". Bodies in Contact: Rethinking Colonial Encounters in World History. Duke University Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-0-8223-3467-5.
  204. ^ Zilfi, Madeline C. (1997). "Women and Waqf Revisited: The Case of Aleppo 1770–1840 (Author: Margaret L. Meriwether)". Women in the Ottoman Empire: Middle Eastern Women in the Early Modern Era. Brill. pp. 131–132. ISBN 978-9004108042.
  205. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. pp. 188–189.
  206. ^ M Keshavjee (2013), Islam, Sharia and Alternative Dispute Resolution, ISBN 978-1-84885-732-2, pp. 30–31
  207. ^ Irfan, Harris (2015). "Chapter 2: The Nature of Money". Heaven's Bankers: Inside the Hidden World of Islamic Finance. London, England: Constable. ISBN 978-1-4721-2169-1.
  208. ^ a b c d e f g h Semerdjian, Elyse (2009). "Zinah". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530513-5.
  209. ^ a b c d e f Peters, R. (2012). "Zinā or Zināʾ". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_8168.
  210. ^ a b Quraishi, A. (1997). Her Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Laws of Pakistan from a Woman-Sensitive Perspective, Michigan Journal of International Law, vol. 18, #287 (1997).
  211. ^ Sidahmed, A. S. (2001). "Problems in contemporary applications of Islamic criminal sanctions: The penalty for adultery in relation to women", British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 28(2), pp. 187–204.
  212. ^ Esmaeili, H., & Gans, J. (1999). "Islamic law across cultural borders: the involvement of western nationals in Saudi murder trials", Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 28:145; see also Quran 24:4.
  213. ^ Cheema, M. H.; Mustafa, A. R. (2008). "From the Hudood Ordinances to the Protection of Women Act: Islamic Critiques of the Hudood Laws of Pakistan". UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near East Law. 8: 1–101.
  214. ^ Kamali, M. H. (1998). "Punishment in Islamic law: A critique of the hudud bill of Kelantan, Malaysia". Arab Law Quarterly. 13 (3): 203–234. doi:10.1163/026805598125826102.
  215. ^ Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". In Emad El-Din Shahin (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  216. ^ Gunnar J. Weimann (2010). Islamic Criminal Law in Northern Nigeria: Politics, Religion, Judicial Practice. Amsterdam University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9789056296551.
  217. ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (2008). Sharia and National Law in Muslim Countries: Tensions and Opportunities for Dutch and EU Foreign Policy (PDF). Amsterdam University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-90-8728-048-2.
  218. ^ Pakistan Human Rights Watch (2005)
  219. ^ "Woman as a witness". November 12, 2010.
  220. ^ Noor, Azman Mohd (January 1, 2010). "Rape: A Problem of Crime Classification in Islamic Law". Arab Law Quarterly. 24 (4): 417–438. doi:10.1163/157302510X526724.
  221. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2013). Controversies in Contemporary Islam. Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-415-67613-7.
  222. ^ a b Leaman, Oliver (2013). Controversies in Contemporary Islam. New York: Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-415-67613-7.
  223. ^ Failinger, Marie A.; et al. (2013). Feminism, Law, and Religion. Farnham, England: Ashgate. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-1-4094-4421-3.
  224. ^ Lill Scherdin (2016). Capital Punishment: A Hazard to a Sustainable Criminal Justice System?. Routledge. p. 279. ISBN 978-1-317-16992-5.
  225. ^ Jon Henley (January 3, 2002). "French 'rape victim' faces jail for adultery". The Guardian. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  226. ^ Shahnaz Khan, Zina: Transnational Feminism, and the Moral Regulation of Pakistani Women, University of British Columbia Press, ISBN 978-0-7748-1285-6, pp. 58–63.
  227. ^ Afghanistan: Surge in Women Jailed for 'Moral Crimes' Human Rights Watch (May 21, 2013)In Pakistan, Rape Victims Are the 'Criminals', Seth Mydans, New York Times (May 17, 2002)
  228. ^ Fatima-Zahra Lamrani, Rape as Loss of Honor in the Discourse of Moroccan Rape Trials Archived October 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Language and Law, June 2004
  229. ^ "Pakistan senate backs rape bill". BBC News. November 23, 2006.
  230. ^ Engineer, A. (2008). The rights of women in Islam. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; ISBN 978-8120739338; page 73-74
  231. ^ "The Woman and the Islamic Law (Part 1/2) – Javed Ahmad Ghamidi". Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  232. ^ "Questions | Al-Mawrid". Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  233. ^ a b Is woman's testimony half the weight of man's?, retrieved December 24, 2019
  234. ^ Ibn al-Qayyim, I'lam al-Muwwaqi'in, 1st ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dar al-Jayl, 1973), 91.
  235. ^ Half of a Man! Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Renaissance – Monthly Islamic Journal, 14(7), July 2004
  236. ^ Fadel, Mohammad (January 1, 1997). "Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni Legal Thought" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies. 29 (2): 185–204. doi:10.1017/S0020743800064461. S2CID 143083939. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 30, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  237. ^ Turuq Al Hukmiya 1:128
  238. ^ al-Jawziyya, Ibn Qayyim. الطرق الحكمية في السياسة الشرعية. p. 430.
  239. ^ Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press. p. 347.
  240. ^ Kelly, S. (2010), Recent gains and new opportunities for women's rights in the Gulf Arab states, Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Gulf Edition; Editors: Kelly and Breslin; ISBN 978-1-4422-0396-9
  241. ^ Mohammad Fadel (1997). "Two Women, One Man: Knowledge, Power, and Gender in Medieval Sunni Legal Thought". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 29 (2): 187. JSTOR 164016.
  242. ^ "the rights of women in merit, Wael hafed Khalaf". October 19, 2014.
  243. ^ Percentage of women aged 15–49 who think that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife/partner under certain circumstances UNICEF (2013)
  244. ^ Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham (2011). The Prohibition of Domestic Violence in Islam. Washington, DC: World Organization for Resource Development and Education. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-930409-97-2.
  245. ^ "An Nisa (The women) verse 34". Quranx. Retrieved November 19, 2023.
  246. ^ The Qur'an Arabic text(with corresponding english meanings). Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Saheeh International. 1997. p. 105.
  247. ^ Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammed Hisham (2011). The Prohibition of Domestic Violence in Islam. Washington, DC: World Organization for Resource Development and Education. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-1-930409-97-2.
  248. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publisher. pp. 275–276.
  249. ^ Abou el Magd, Nadia (October 28, 2008). "Domestic violence fatwa stirs outrage". The National. Mubadala Development Company. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  250. ^ Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham (2011). The Prohibition of Domestic Violence in America. Washington, DC: World Organization for Resource Development and Education. ISBN 978-1-930409-97-2.
  251. ^ Asimović Akyol, Riada (March 24, 2015). "Turkish teacher on why she embraces Sufi lifestyle". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on March 27, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
  252. ^ Hajjar, Lisa (2004). "Religion, state power, and domestic violence in Muslim societies: A framework for comparative analysis". Law & Social Inquiry. 29 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1086/423688.
  253. ^ Treacher, Amal (2003). "Reading the Other Women, Feminism, and Islam". Studies in Gender and Sexuality. 4 (1): 59–71. doi:10.1080/15240650409349215. S2CID 144006049.
  254. ^ a b John C. Raines & Daniel C. Maguire (Ed), Farid Esack, What Men Owe to Women: Men's Voices from World Religions, State University of New York (2001), see pages 201–203
  255. ^ Jackson, Nicky Ali, ed. Encyclopedia of domestic violence. CRC Press, 2007. (see chapter on Quranic perspectives on wife abuse)
  256. ^ "AYAH an-Nisa' 4:34". Islam Awakened. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  257. ^ Nomani, Asra Q. (October 22, 2006). "Clothes Aren't the Issue". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018.
  258. ^ al-Tabari, History of Al-Tabari, Vol. IX: The Last Years of the Prophet tr. Poonawala, I.K. (Albany, NY, 1990) pp. 112–113
  259. ^ Al Tabari, Ibn Jarir. Jami' Al Bayan An Ta'Wil Aayi al Qur'an. Dar al-Fikr. pp. volume 5, page 68.
  260. ^ "CCI supports the Continuous Call to Eradicate Domestic Violence and calls to dedicate Dec 09 Friday sermons to the subject". Archived from the original on February 20, 2012.
  261. ^ "Fatwa on Honour Killings, Misogyny and Domestic Violence" (PDF). Islamic Supreme Council of Canada. October 13, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  262. ^ a b Ahmed, Ali S. V.; Jibouri, Yasin T. (2004). The Koran: Translation. Elmhurst, NY: Tahrike Tarsile Qurān. Print.
  263. ^ Following verses of Quran and Hadiths are most cited by secondary and tertiary sources on permissibility of domestic violence under Islamic law:
  264. ^ Bakhtiar, Laleh. Verse in Koran on beating wife gets a new translation. New York Times (March 25, 2007)
  265. ^ a b Kurzman, Charles (2002). Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 207–214. ISBN 978-0-19-515468-9.
  266. ^ Engineer, Asghar Ali (2005). The Quran, Women and Modern Society. New Delhi: New Dawn Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-932705-42-3.
  267. ^ Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn; Bardsley-Sirois, Lois (1990). "Obedience (Ta'a) in Muslim Marriage: Religious Interpretation and Applied Law in Egypt". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 21 (1): 39–53. doi:10.3138/jcfs.21.1.39.
  268. ^ Maghraoui, Abdeslam. "Political authority in crisis: Mohammed VI's Morocco."Middle East Report 218 (2001): 12–17.
  269. ^ Critelli, Filomena M. "Women's rights= Human rights: Pakistani women against gender violence." J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare 37 (2010), pages 135–142
  270. ^ Oweis, Arwa; et al. (2009). "Violence Against Women Unveiling the Suffering of Women with a Low Income in Jordan". Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 20 (1): 69–76. doi:10.1177/1043659608325848. PMID 18832763. S2CID 21361924.
  271. ^ "UAE: Spousal Abuse Never a 'Right'". Human Rights Watch. October 19, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  272. ^ "IRIN – Move to take domestic violence cases out of religious courts". IRIN. September 23, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  273. ^ "Lebanon: Enact Family Violence Bill to Protect Women". Human Rights Watch. July 6, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  274. ^ Afghanistan – Ending Child Marriage and Domestic Violence Human Rights Watch (September 2013), pages 11–13
  275. ^ Moha Ennaji and Fatima Sadiq, Gender and Violence in the Middle East, Routledge (2011), ISBN 978-0-415-59411-0; see pages 162–247
  276. ^ Domestic violence against women in Turkey Archived October 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Jansen, Uner, Kardam, et al.; Turkish Republic Prime Minister Directorate General Office (2009); see Chapter 6
  277. ^ "Turkey ratifies the Convention on preventing and combating violence and domestic violence against women" (Press release). End FGM European Network. March 14, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015.
  278. ^ "Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention)". Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention). Information Platform May 20, 2014. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  279. ^ "Erdoğan insists it's at his discretion to pull Turkey out of İstanbul Convention". Bianet. March 26, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2023.
  280. ^ "Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence CETS No.: 210". Council of Europe. June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  281. ^ "The Istanbul Convention and the CEDAW framework: A comparison of measures to prevent and combat violence against women" (PDF). Council of Europe. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 11, 2013. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  282. ^ "Promo/ Emina Jahovic- Ne plasim se". Balkanika Music Television. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  283. ^ a b c d e Arkoun, M. (1997). "ʿIs̲h̲ḳ". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. 4 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 119.
  284. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 240.
  285. ^ a b Ahmed, Akbar S. (1993). Living Islam: From Samarkand to Stornoway. London, England: BBC Books Limited. pp. 95–96. ISBN 0-563-36441-6.
  286. ^ a b Robinson, Francis (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 197. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1.
  287. ^ a b c Dahlén 2008.
  288. ^ Adil, Alev (July 9, 2010). "The Forty Rules of Love, By Elif Shafak". The Independent. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  289. ^ Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  290. ^ Eaton, Charles Le Gai (1994). Islam and the Destiny of Man. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-946621-47-7.
  291. ^ Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 186–187. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  292. ^ Ghuman, Nalini (2014). Resonances of the Raj: India in the English Musical Imagination,1897–1947. New York: OUP USA. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-19-931489-8.
  293. ^ a b c Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  294. ^ a b Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  295. ^ a b Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  296. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1994). Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 201. ISBN 978-0-7914-1982-3.
  297. ^ Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 85. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  298. ^ Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 90. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  299. ^ Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 96. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  300. ^ Matar, N. I. (1992). Islam For Beginners. New York, NY: Writers and Readers Publishing, Incorporated. pp. 81. ISBN 978-0-86316-155-1.
  301. ^ "Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 53: AN-NAJM (THE STAR)". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  302. ^ a b Murata, Sachiko; Chittick, William C. (2006). The Vision of Islam. London & New York: I. B. Tauris. p. 270. ISBN 978-1-84511-320-9.
  303. ^ "Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 10: YUNUS (JONAH)". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  304. ^ Murata, Sachiko; Chittick, William C. (2006). The Vision of Islam. London & New York: I.B.Tauris. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-84511-320-9.
  305. ^ a b Schimmel, Annemarie (2011). Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill, NC: University North Carolina Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-0-8078-9976-2.
  306. ^ Oliveti, Vincenzo (2002). Terror's Source: The Ideology of Salafism and Its Consequences. Birmingham, England: Amadeus Books. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-9543729-0-3.
  307. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 59.
  308. ^ Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  309. ^ Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  310. ^ a b c d e Jawad, Haifaa A. (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  311. ^ a b c Quraishi-Landes, Asifa (June 24, 2016). "Five myths about sharia". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  312. ^ Himawan, Karel Karsten (October 23, 2017). "Modernization and singlehood in Indonesia: Psychological and social impacts". Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.kjss.2017.09.008 (inactive March 24, 2024) – via Elsevier B.V.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of March 2024 (link)
  313. ^ a b Rapoport, Yossef (2005). Marriage, Money and Divorce in Medieval Islamic Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-521-84715-X.
  314. ^ Chebel, Malek (2009). L'islam explique par Malek Chabel. Perrin. p. 113. ISBN 978-2-262-02982-1.
  315. ^ Rapoport, Yossef (2005). Marriage, Money and Divorce in Medieval Islamic Society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–6. ISBN 0-521-84715-X.
  316. ^ a b c Robinson, Frances (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 194. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1.
  317. ^ Ghamidi, Javed Ahmed. "Polygamy". Renaissance: A Monthly Islamic Journal. Translated by Saleem, Shehzad. Pakistan. Translated from Mīzān.
  318. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. 2002. p. 477. ISBN 0-7591-0189-2.
  319. ^ "Opinions of classical Islamic scholars on polygyny | Polygamy in Islam". Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
  320. ^ Ali-Karamali, Sumbul (2008). The Muslim Next Door: The Qur'an, the Media, and that Veil Thing. Ashland, Oregon: White Cloud Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-9745245-6-6.
  321. ^ Chebel, Malek (2009). L'islam expliqué par Malek Chebel. Paris: Perrin. p. 112. ISBN 9782262029821.
  322. ^ Sciolino, Elaine (October 4, 2000). "Love finds a way in Iran: 'Temporary Marriage'". The New York Times.
  323. ^ Ehsanzadeh-Cheemeh, Parvaneh; Sadeque, Abul; Grimes, Richard M.; Essien, E. James (September 2009). "Sociocultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS among Middle Eastern immigrants in the US: bridging culture with HIV/AIDS programmes". Perspectives in Public Health. 129 (5). Sage: 228–233. doi:10.1177/1466424008094807. PMID 19788166. S2CID 25012894.
  324. ^ Fisher, Max (August 6, 2013). "EGYPT: 'Some girls have been married 60 times by the time they turn 18'". The Washington Post.
  325. ^ Elizabeth Fernea (1985), Women and the Family in the Middle East: New Voices of Change, University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0-292-75529-1, pages 258–269
  326. ^ Ghori, Safiya (2008). "The application of religious law in North American courts: a case study of_mutʿa marriages". Journal of Islamic Law and Culture. 10 (1). Taylor and Francis: 29–40. doi:10.1080/15288170701878219.
  327. ^ Haeri, Shahla (1989). Law of desire: temporary marriage in Shiʼi Iran. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2483-7.
  328. ^ Haeri, Shahla (Spring 1992). "Temporary marriage and the state in Iran: an Islamic discourse on female sexuality". Social Research. 59 (1). The New School for Social Research via JSTOR: 201–223. JSTOR 40970689.
  329. ^ Esposito, John. "Mutah in the Oxford Dictionary of Islam". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  330. ^ Jervis, Rick (May 4, 2005). "Pleasure marriages regain popularity in Iraq". USA Today. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
  331. ^ Williams, Juliet A. (Spring 2009). "Temporary marriage and the state in Iran: an Islamic discourse on female sexuality". Signs. 34 (3). University of Chicago Press via JSTOR: 611–632. doi:10.1086/593354. JSTOR 10.1086/593354. S2CID 144737322.
  332. ^ Oraegbunam, I.K.; Udezo, B.O. (2012). "Women's rights in matrimonial jurisprudence under Islamic family law in Nigeria: a need for reform". Journal of Religion and Human Relations. 1 (3). African Journals OnLine: 101–111.
  333. ^ Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena (November 2001). "Polygamy and wife abuse: A qualitative study of Muslim women in America". Health Care for Women International. 22 (8). Taylor and Francis: 735–748. doi:10.1080/073993301753339951. S2CID 57777571.
  334. ^ Ahmed, Leila (1992). Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-04942-8. JSTOR j.ctt32bg61.
  335. ^ Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris (2000). The Muslims Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: amana publications. p. 46.
  336. ^ Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris (2000). The Muslim Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: amana publications. pp. 38–39.
  337. ^ Tadmouri, G. O.; Nair, P.; Obeid, T.; Al Ali, M. T.; Al Khaja, N.; Hamamy, H. A. (2009). "Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs". Reprod Health. 6 (17): 1–9. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-6-17. PMC 2765422. PMID 19811666.
  338. ^ a b Joseph, S. E. (2007). Kissing Cousins, Current Anthropology, 48(5), pages 756–764
  339. ^ Consanguineous marriages Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Brecia Young (2006)
  340. ^ Hamamy, H.; Alwan, A. (1994). "Hereditary disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 72 (1): 145–151. PMC 2486500. PMID 8131251.
  341. ^ R. Hussain (1999), Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan, Journal of Biosocial Science, 31, pages 449–461
  342. ^ Khlat, M. (1997). Endogamy in the Arab world. OXFORD MONOGRAPHS ON MEDICAL GENETICS, 30, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-509305-6; pages 63–82
  343. ^ a b Hamamy, H. (2011). "Consanguineous marriages: Preconception consultation in primary health care settings". Journal of Community Genetics. 3 (3): 185–192. doi:10.1007/s12687-011-0072-y. PMC 3419292. PMID 22109912.
  344. ^ Tadmouri, G. O.; Nair, P.; Obeid, T.; Al Ali, M. T.; Al Khaja, N.; Hamamy, H. A. (2009). "Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs". Reproductive Health. 6: 17. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-6-17. PMC 2765422. PMID 19811666.
  345. ^ Hamamy, Hanan; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Temtamy, Samia; Romeo, Giovanni; Kate, Leo P. Ten; Bennett, Robin L.; Shaw, Alison; Megarbane, Andre; Van Duijn, Cornelia; Bathija, Heli; Fokstuen, Siv; Engel, Eric; Zlotogora, Joel; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bottani, Armand; Dahoun, Sophie; Morris, Michael A.; Arsenault, Steve; Aglan, Mona S.; Ajaz, Mubasshir; Alkalamchi, Ayad; Alnaqeb, Dhekra; Alwasiyah, Mohamed K.; Anwer, Nawfal; Awwad, Rawan; Bonnefin, Melissa; Corry, Peter; Gwanmesia, Lorraine; et al. (2011). "Consanguineous marriages, pearls and perils: Geneva International Consanguinity Workshop Report". Genetics in Medicine. 13 (9): 841–847. doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e318217477f. PMID 21555946. S2CID 15331772.
  346. ^ a b c Neroznikova, Ekaterina (March 1, 2017). "Convert and love: Russia's Muslim wives". openDemocracy. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  347. ^ Akrami & Osati (2007), Is consanguineous marriage religiously encouraged? Islamic and Iranian considerations, Journal of Biosocial Science, 39(02), 313–316
  348. ^ Shaw, A. (2001), Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7(2), 315–334
  349. ^ Leila Ahmed (1993), Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate, ISBN 978-0-300-05583-2;[page needed] See also: Quran 4:23
  350. ^ J. N. D. Anderson, Invalid and Void Marriages in Hanafi Law, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1950), pp. 357–366
  351. ^ a b A.A. Ali, Child Marriage in Islamic Law, The Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University (Canada), August 2000; see pages 16–18
  352. ^ Ali, Kecia (2010), Marriage and slavery in early Islam, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-05059-4, pages 35–77
  353. ^ Ahmed, L. (1986). Women and the Advent of Islam. Signs, 11(4), 665–691
  354. ^ "The Age of Aisha (ra): Rejecting Historical Revisionism and Modernist Presumptions". Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  355. ^ Jamjoom, Mohammed (April 12, 2009). "Saudi judge refuses to annul 8-year-old's marriage". CNN World. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  356. ^ "Surah An-Nisa – 4:6". Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  357. ^ "Surah An-Nur – 24:59". Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  358. ^ "How Come You Allow Little Girls to Get Married?" – Child Marriage in Yemen Human Rights Watch, (2011); pages 15–23
  359. ^ YEMEN: Deep divisions over child brides IRIN, United Nations News Service, (March 28, 2010)
  360. ^ "Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed". CNN. January 17, 2009.
  361. ^ Haviland, Charles (September 5, 2002). "Battle over India's marriage age". BBC News.
  362. ^ Muslim groups oppose ban on child marriage The Hindu (September 22, 2013)
  363. ^ Indonesian cleric arrested over child bride Al Arabiya News, Indonesia (March 18, 2009)
  364. ^ More on child brides: After a political fight, Nigeria will continue allowing them, Max Fisher, The Washington Post (July 24, 2013)
  365. ^ Bunting, A. (2005), Stages of development: marriage of girls and teens as an international human rights issue, Social & Legal Studies, 14(1), pages 17–38
  366. ^ "Saudi Arabia moves to ban child marriage with a new ruling". The National (Abu Dhabi). December 23, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  367. ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl al-Kitab". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001. ISBN 9780195125580.
  368. ^ a b Elmali-Karakaya, Ayse (November 24, 2020). "Being Married to a Non-Muslim Husband: Religious Identity in Muslim Women's Interfaith Marriage". Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion. 31: 388–410. doi:10.1163/9789004443969_020. ISBN 9789004443969. S2CID 234539750.
  369. ^ Abbass, Rudabah (December 31, 2012). "'Halal' interfaith unions rise among UK women". Al Jazeera. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  370. ^ Kossoff, Julian (October 3, 1998). "Society girl Santa joins the ranks of religious converts". The Independent. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  371. ^ Ali, Kecia (December 21, 2015). Sexual ethics and Islam: feminist reflections on Quran, hadith, and jurisprudence (Expanded & revised ed.). London. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-78074-853-5. OCLC 934433002.
  372. ^ Ali, Kecia (December 21, 2015). Sexual ethics and Islam: feminist reflections on Quran, hadith, and jurisprudence (Expanded & revised ed.). London: Oneworld Publications. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-78074-853-5. OCLC 934433002.
  373. ^ a b Hessini, L., 1994, "Wearing the Hijab in Contemporary Morocco: Choice and Identity," in Göçek, F. M. & Balaghi, S., Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity & Power, New York, Columbia University Press
  374. ^ Suad Joseph and Afsāna Naǧmābādī, Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Family, Body, Sexuality, Volume 3, pp 224–227 and 250–281
  375. ^ Ahmed, L., 1992, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate, New Haven, Yale University Press.
  376. ^ Quran 4:34
  377. ^ Amherst Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito (1998), Islam, Gender, and Social Change, Oxford University Press, pp 20–38
  378. ^ Hajjar, Lisa, "Religion, state power, and domestic violence in Muslim societies: A framework for comparative analysis." Law & Social Inquiry 29.1 (2004); pp 1–38
  379. ^ Ahmad v. Ahmad, No. L-00-1391, 2001 WL 1518116 (Ohio Ct. App. November 30, 2001)
  380. ^ Sameena Nazir and Leigh Tomppert, Ed., Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2005
  381. ^ a b Dahlgren, Susanne (2010). Contesting realities the public sphere and morality in southern Yemen. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press. pp. 158–159 and footnote. ISBN 978-0-8156-3246-7.
  382. ^ a b Emadi, Hafizullah (2002). Repression, resistance, and women in Afghanistan. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-275-97671-2.
  383. ^ Roald, Anne (2001). Women in Islam: the Western experience. London; New York: Routledge. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-415-24895-2.
  384. ^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York, NY: HarperOne. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  385. ^ Eaton, Charles Le Gai (1994). Islam and the Destiny of Man. Cambridge, England: The Islamic Texts Society. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-946621-47-7.
  386. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 433.
  387. ^ Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris (2000). The Muslim Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: amana publications. p. 98.
  388. ^ Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris (2000). The Muslim Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications. p. 97.
  389. ^ Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris Maqsood (2000). The Muslim Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: amana publications. p. 86.
  390. ^ a b Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris (2000). The Muslim Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: amana publications. p. 87.
  391. ^ Maqsood, Ruqayyah Waris (2000). The Muslim Marriage Guide. Beltsville, MD: amana publications. p. 99.
  392. ^ Hozien, Muhammad (2013). "Revival of Religious Sciences". Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  393. ^ a b c Editor: Susan Crocklin (1996). "Religious views regarding gamete donation", in Family Building Through Egg and Sperm Donation. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, ISBN 978-0-86720-483-4, pp 242–250
  394. ^ a b Schenker, Joseph (2000). "Women's reproductive health: Monotheistic religious perspectives". International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 70 (1): 77–86. doi:10.1016/s0020-7292(00)00225-3. PMID 10884536. S2CID 40152542.
  395. ^ G I Serour (1995), "Traditional sexual practices in Islamic world", Global Bioethics, Issue 1, pp. 35–47
  396. ^ a b c d Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London: Stacey International. pp. 357–358.
  397. ^ Janet L. Bauer, "Sexuality and the Moral 'Construction' of Women in an Islamic Society", Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 3. (July 1985), pp. 120–129
  398. ^ Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan Ṭūsī, Concise Description of Islamic Law and Legal Opinions, ICAS Press London, ISBN 978-1-904063-29-2, pp 17–24
  399. ^ Brannon Wheeler, "Touching The Penis in Islamic Law", History of Religions, Vol. 44, No. 2 (November 2004), pp. 89–119
  400. ^ a b c Martin et al. (2003), Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8
  401. ^ Inhorn, M. C. (2006). "He Won't Be My Son". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 20 (1): 94–120. doi:10.1525/maq.2006.20.1.94. PMID 16612995.
  402. ^ Husain, Fatima A (2000). "Reproductive issues from the Islamic perspective". Human Fertility. 3 (2): 124–128. doi:10.1080/1464727002000198831. PMID 11844368. S2CID 20524040.
  403. ^ Serour, G. I. (2005). "Religious perspectives of ethical issues in ART 1. Islamic perspectives of ethical issues in ART". Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 10 (3): 185–190.
  404. ^ Clarke, M (2006). "Islam, kinship and new reproductive technology". Anthropology Today. 22 (5): 17–20. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8322.2006.00460.x.
  405. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. pp. 357–358.
  406. ^ Nilüfer Göle, Snapshots of Islamic Modernities, Daedalus, Vol. 129, No. 1 (Winter, 2000), pp. 91–117
  407. ^ Borkett-Jones, Lucinda (July 12, 2014). "Girls in UK Sunday schools are victims of FGM – the Church must take a stand". Christian Today. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  408. ^ El-Damanhoury, I. (September 2013). "The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation". African Journal of Urology. 19 (3): 127–129. doi:10.1016/j.afju.2013.01.004.
  409. ^ Gomaa, Ali (2013). "The Islamic view on female circumcision". African Journal of Urology. 19 (3): 123–126. doi:10.1016/j.afju.2013.02.007.
  410. ^ a b Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  411. ^ Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  412. ^ a b Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  413. ^ Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  414. ^ Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 55, 59. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  415. ^ "FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: INFORMATION PAPER FGM/40". WOMENAID µ INTERNATIONAL. Womenaid International. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  416. ^ Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  417. ^ a b Jawad, Haifaa (1998). The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-333-73458-2.
  418. ^ Gomaa, Ali (September 2013). "The Islamic view on female circumcision". African Journal of Urology. 19 (3): 123–126. doi:10.1016/j.afju.2013.02.007.
  419. ^ "FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION AND ISLAM" (PDF). International Network to Analyze, Communicate and Transform the Campaign against FGM/C. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. July 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 2, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  420. ^ "Convincing Egyptian Doctors to 'Do No Harm'". United Nations Population Fund. May 7, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  421. ^ "OIC chief calls for abolition of female genital mutilation". Thomson Reuters Foundation News. December 4, 2012. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  422. ^ "US-OIC roundtable at the UN seeks ways to eradicate FGM/C". Organisation of Islamic Cooperation: Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations in New York. Organization of Islamic Cooperation Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations. February 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  423. ^ "The State of the World's Children 2015: Executive Summary" (PDF). 84–89. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  424. ^ Hasna, F (2003). "Islam, social traditions and family planning". Social Policy & Administration. 37 (2): 181–197. doi:10.1111/1467-9515.00333.
  425. ^ a b c d e f Robinson, Frances (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–206. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1.
  426. ^ "Islamic views on contraception". BBC. September 7, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  427. ^ "BBC – Ethics – Abortion: Female infanticide". BBC. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  428. ^ a b France MESLÉ; Jacques VALLIN; Irina BADURASHVILI (2007). A Sharp Increase in Sex Ratio at Birth in the Caucasus. Why? How?. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography. pp. 73–89. ISBN 978-2-910053-29-1.
  429. ^ "Gendercide in the Caucasus" The Economist (September 13, 2013)
  430. ^ Michael, M; King, L; Guo, L; McKee, M; Richardson, E; Stuckler, D (2013), "The mystery of missing female children in the Caucasus: an analysis of sex ratios by birth order", International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 39 (2), pp. 97–102, ISSN 1944-0391
  431. ^ John Bongaarts (2013), "The Implementation of Preferences for Male Offspring", Population and Development Review, Volume 39, Issue 2, pages 185–208, June 2013
  432. ^ HIGH SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE Christophe Z Guilmoto, CEPED, Université Paris-Descartes, France (2012)
  433. ^ Stump, Doris (2011), Prenatal Sex Selection, Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, Council of Europe
  434. ^ Sex Imbalances at Birth: Current trends, consequences and policy implications Archived December 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine United Nations FPA (August 2012)
  435. ^ Klasen, S. (1994), "Missing women" reconsidered, World Development, 22(7), 1061–1071
  436. ^ Abandoned, Aborted, or Left for Dead: These Are the Vanishing Girls of Pakistan, Habiba Nosheen and Hilke Schellmann, June 19, 2012, The Atlantic
  437. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2004). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York: HarperSanFrancisco. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.
  438. ^ a b c d e Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London: Stacey International. pp. 100–101.
  439. ^ Joseph and Najmabadi, p99.
  441. ^ Quran 2:228
  442. ^ Quran 2:234
  443. ^ Esposito, John, ed. (2003), "Iddah", The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-512558-4
  444. ^ Shehzad Saleem. The Social Directives of Islam: Distinctive Aspects of Ghamidi's Interpretation Archived April 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Renaissance. March 2004.
  445. ^ a b McLarney, E (2010). "The private is political: Women and family in intellectual Islam" (PDF). Feminist Theory. 11 (2): 129–148. doi:10.1177/1464700110366805. hdl:10161/6636. S2CID 143362336.[permanent dead link]
  446. ^ "al-Baqarah 2:228" – via
  447. ^ Syed, J. (2010). "An historical perspective on Islamic modesty and its implications for female employment". Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 29(2), pp. 150–166.
  448. ^ Sherif-Trask, B. A. H. I. R. A. (2004). Muslim families in the United States. The Handbook of Contemporary Families, pp. 394–408.
  449. ^ al Ṭūsī, Mohammad ibn Hasan ibn Ali Abu Ja'far (Sheikh al-Taifah) (2008). Al-nihayah: concise description of Islamic law and legal opinions [Nihāyah fī mujarrad al-fiqh wa-al-fatāwá]. Translated by Ezzati, Alireza. London: ICAS Press. ISBN 978-1-904063-29-2.
  450. ^ Hundt, Gillian L.; Beckerleg, Susan; Kassem, Fatma; Jafar, Abdel M.A.; Belmaker, I.; Saad., K. Abu; Shoham-Vardi, I. (September 2000). "Women's health custom made: building on the 40 days postpartum for Arab women". Health Care for Women International. 21 (6). Taylor and Francis: 529–542. doi:10.1080/07399330050130313. PMID 11235284. S2CID 216590214.
  451. ^ "Menstruation: Proofs for the Impermissibility of Women Touching the Quran or Entering the Mashaf". Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  452. ^ Elias, Abu Amina (February 6, 2014). "Can a menstruating woman visit the mosque or recite the Quran?". Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  453. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. p. 64.
  454. ^ "Virgin Mary's house the place where wishes come true". Hürriyet Daily News. August 20, 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  455. ^ Lawton, Kim A. (December 8, 1996). "MARY'S LAST EARTHLY HOME?". Eternal Word Television Network. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  456. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1989). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. London, England: Stacey International. pp. 260–261.
  457. ^ "Virgin Mary's house the place where wishes come true". Hürriyet Daily News. August 20, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  458. ^ "Visitors ask Virgin Mary to bring car". Hürriyet Daily News. December 29, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  459. ^ "Virgin Mary Monastery to draw Sümela's visitors". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  460. ^ Bowker, James; Hourani, Noura. "Mosque of Virgin Mary in Tartus plays on 'sectarian nerve'". Syria Direct. Archived from the original on July 14, 2020. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
  461. ^ Rawlinson, Clare (October 30, 2015). "National Mosque Open Day: Public welcomed inside Melbourne mosque to quash Islam misconceptions". ABC News. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  462. ^ "A Muslim mystic foresaw Medjugorje!". Medugorje Miracles. October 18, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  463. ^ Ghilès, Francis (July 14, 2017). "A History of Algeria by James McDougall — war and peace". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2022. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  464. ^ a b c d "Restored mosque brings hope for Cyprus divide". Hürriyet Daily News. December 14, 2005. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  465. ^ "Restored mosque brings hope for Cyprus divide". Hürriyet Daily News. June 28, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  466. ^ "Cairo's Patron Saint: Sayeda Zainab". Cairo Observer. December 26, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  467. ^ "Cairo's Patron Saint: Sayeda Zainab". Cairo Observer. December 26, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  468. ^ a b c "Cairo's Patron Saint: Sayeda Zainab". Cairo Observer. December 26, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  469. ^ "Cairo' Patron Saint: Sayeda Zainab". Cairo Observer. December 26, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  470. ^ Canby, Sheila R. (2009). Shah 'Abbas: The Remaking of Iran. London: The British Museum Press.
  471. ^ Salbi, Zainab (April 15, 2015). "Who is Rabaa Adawiya?". Zainab Salbi. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  472. ^ Shemeem Burney Abbas (January 1, 2003), The female voice in Sufi ritual: devotional practices of Pakistan and India, University of Texas Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-292-70515-9, ... Among the women who brought Islam to the subcontinent are the Bibi Pak Daman, or the Pur Women ... Upon arrival in Lahore, they engaged in missionary activity ... Data Ganj Bakhsh Hujwiri ... was a devotee of the shrines of the Bibi Pak Daman ...
  473. ^ "Do not stop Allah's women-slave from going to Allah's Mosques." (Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:13:23.)
  474. ^ Mattson, Ingrid. "Women, Islam, and Mosques." In Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.). Indiana University Press (2006), p616. ISBN 0-253-34688-6.
  475. ^ Mattson, Ingrid (2006). Women, Islam, and Mosques in: Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.) Indiana University Press. Indiana University Press. pp. 615–17. ISBN 0-253-34685-1. ISBN 0-253-34688-6
  476. ^ a b Smith, Jane L. Islam in America. Columbia University Press (2000): p111. ISBN 0-231-10967-9.
  477. ^ Mattson, Ingrid (2006). Women, Islam, and Mosques in Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.) Indiana University Press. Indiana University Press. p. 616. ISBN 0-253-34685-1.ISBN 0-253-34688-6
  478. ^ "American Muslim Poll 2018: Key Findings | ISPU". Institute for Social Policy and Understanding. April 30, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  479. ^ Abou-Bakr, Omaima (2010). "Articulating Gender: Muslim Women Intellectuals in the Pre-Modern Period". Arab Studies Quarterly. 32 (3).
  480. ^ a b c Power, Carla. "A Secret History." New York Times (February 25, 2007).
  481. ^ Nadwī, Muḥammad Akram (2007). Al-Muḥaddithāt: The Women Scholars in Islam. Oxford: Interface Publications.
  482. ^ Khaled Abou El Fadl. "In Recognition of Women." Archived October 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Originally published (in a slightly different form) in The Minaret (July/Aug 1991) and reprinted in Voices vol. 1, no. 2 (Dec/Jan 1992).
  483. ^ a b Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, "Religious leadership of women in Islam", April 24, 2005, Daily Times, Pakistan
  484. ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya' al-Turath al- 'Arabi, n.d.) vol.5, 3:1375
  485. ^ Maria Jaschok; Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own. Routledge. p. 203. ISBN 0-7007-1302-6. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  486. ^ Chebel, Malek (2009). L'islam explique par Malek Chabel. Perrin. p. 138. ISBN 978-2-262-02982-1.
  487. ^ Ziauddin Sardar & Zafar Abbas Malik (2009). Islam: A graphic guide. Totem. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-84831-084-1.
  488. ^ Amatul Rahman Omar, "Authors of 'The Holy Qur'an, English Translation' – First English Translation by a Woman", The Holy Qur'an, English Translation, 1990
  489. ^ Ziauddin Sardar & Zafar Abbas Malik (2009). Islam: A graphic guide. Totem. pp. 160–2. ISBN 978-1-84831-084-1.
  490. ^ a b Beale, Thomas William and Henry George Keene. An Oriental Biographical Dictionary. W.H. Allen (1894), p.392.
  491. ^ Anne Sofie Roald. Women in Islam: The Western Experience, p186-7.
  492. ^ "Muslim Heritage in the Knowledge-Economy Conference in Jeddah". February 8, 2008. Archived from the original on November 11, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  493. ^ Jimmy Dunn writing as Ismail Abaza. "Shajarat (Shaggar, Shagar) al-Durr And her Mausoleum in Cairo". Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  494. ^ Bland, Ben (December 11, 2015). "Women of 2015: Tsai Ing-wen, Taiwanese presidential candidate". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2022. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  495. ^ "Result". Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  496. ^ "Photos: Pakistan's iron lady, Benazir Bhutto". CNN. December 1, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  497. ^ Khan, Kashmali (June 30, 2010). "What Benazir did (not do) for women". The Express Tribune. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  498. ^ "Tansu Çiller." Archived January 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  499. ^ Ali A. Mazrui, Pretender to Universalism: Western Culture in a Globalizing Age, Archived May 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume 21, Number 1, April 2001
  500. ^ Karon, Tony. "Megawati: The Princess Who Settled for the Presidency." Archived February 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Time (July 27, 2001).
  501. ^ Qena, Nebi (April 7, 2011). "Atifete Jahiaga Elected As Kosovo's First Female President". The World Post. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  502. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (June 13, 2014). "Kyrgyzstan: democracy under pressure". Financial Times. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  503. ^ Haqqie, Aziza (June 14, 2015). "The new president of Mauritius is a Muslim woman". Times Union. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  504. ^ Robinson, Francis (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 303. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1.
  505. ^ Dridi, Daikha. "Louisa Hanoune, First female candidate to stand for the Algerian presidential elections". babel Med. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  506. ^ "Only woman in Algeria presidential race 'won't hold back'". The National. April 9, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  507. ^ Chong, Liz (September 22, 2016). "At Work with the FT: Susi Pudjiastuti, Indonesia's fisheries chief". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  508. ^ Malsin, Jared (July 14, 2017). "Turkey's 'Iron Lady' Meral Aksener Is Getting Ready to Challenge Erdogan". TIME. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  509. ^ Astrasheuskaya, Nastassia (March 22, 2019). "Dariga Nazarbayeva: Kazakhstan's understudy president". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2022. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  510. ^ "Female quotas for Indonesia poll". BBC News. February 19, 2003. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  511. ^ Ten Cate, Daniel (July 16, 2013). "Indonesia Penalizes Parties in Fight for Women: Southeast Asia". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  512. ^ Mok, Opalyn (October 31, 2014). "DAP lawmaker moots 30pc quota for women in politics as Malaysia trails Indonesia's democracy". The Malay Mail. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  513. ^ Kottoor, Naveena (January 28, 2014). "Tunisia's Ennahda and Ettakattol women MPs celebrate". BBC News. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  514. ^ "Tunisia passes landmark election law for November vote". France 24. May 2, 2014. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  515. ^ a b Bachelet, Michelle (May 16, 2012). "UN Women welcomes increased number of women in Algeria's Parliament". UN Women welcomes increased number of women in Algeria's Parliament. United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women). Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  516. ^ "Senegal's President Macky Sall wins national assembly landslide". BBC News. July 5, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  517. ^ Hirsch, Afua (November 15, 2012). "Has Senegal's gender parity law for MPs helped women?". The Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  518. ^ Fracolli, Erin (January 5, 2017). "Women and Quotas in Egypt's Parliament". The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  519. ^ "For the first time, 8 female ministers in Egypt's Cabinet". Egypt Today. June 14, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  520. ^ Wood, Nicholas (November 29, 2001). "Kosovo leads Europe in woman power". BBC News. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  521. ^ "In style and politics, Kosovo women see Clinton as role model". AFP. April 20, 2016.
  522. ^ "Saudi women take part in election," BBC News.
  523. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "Saudi Arabia." World Factbook (2007).
  524. ^ Breakthrough in Saudi Arabia: women allowed in parliament Al Arabiya (January 11, 2013)
  525. ^