An honor killing (American English), honour killing (Commonwealth English), or shame killing[1] is the murder of an individual, either an outsider or a member of a family, by someone seeking to protect what they see as the dignity and honor of themselves or their family. Honor killings are often connected to religion, caste and other forms of hierarchical social stratification, or to sexuality, and those murdered will often be more liberal than the murderer rather than genuinely "dishonorable". Most often, it involves the murder of a woman or girl by male family members, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought dishonor or shame upon the family name, reputation or prestige.[2][3][4][5] Honour killings are believed to have originated from tribal customs.[6] They are prevalent in various parts of the world, as well as in immigrant communities in countries which do not otherwise have societal norms that encourage honor killings.[7] Honor killings are often associated with rural and tribal areas, but they occur in urban areas too.[8][9]

Although condemned by international conventions and human rights organizations, honor killings are often justified and encouraged by various communities. In cases where the victim is an outsider, not murdering this individual would, in some regions, cause family members to be accused of cowardice, a moral defect, and subsequently be morally stigmatized in their community. In cases when the victim is a family member, the murdering evolves from the perpetrators' perception that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the entire family, which could lead to social ostracization, by violating the moral norms of a community. Typical reasons include being in a relationship or having associations with social groups outside the family that may lead to social exclusion of a family (stigma-by-association). Examples are having premarital, extramarital or postmarital sex (in case of divorce or widow(er)ship), refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, seeking a divorce or separation, engaging in interfaith relations or relations with persons from a different caste, being the victim of a sexual crime, dressing in clothing, jewelry and accessories which are associated with sexual deviance, engaging in a relationship in spite of moral marriage impediments or bans, and homosexuality.[10][11][12][13][14][15][5][16]

Though both men and women commit and are victims of honor killings, in many communities conformity to moral standards implies different behavior for men and women, including stricter standards for chastity for women. In many families, the honor motive is used by men as a pretext to restrict the rights of women.


Human Rights Watch defines "honor killings" as follows:

Honor crimes are acts of violence, usually murder, committed by male family members against female family members who are perceived to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by her family for a variety of reasons including, refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce—even from an abusive husband—or committing adultery. The mere perception that a woman has acted in a manner to bring "dishonor" to the family is sufficient to trigger an attack.[17]

Men can also be the victims of honor killings, either committed by members of the family of a woman with whom they are perceived to have an inappropriate relationship; or by the members of their own families, the latter often connected to homosexuality.[18][19]

General characteristics

Many honor killings are planned by multiple members of a family, sometimes through a formal "family council". The threat of murder is used as a means to control behavior, especially concerning sexuality and marriage, which may be seen as a duty for some or all family members to uphold. Family members may feel compelled to act to preserve the reputation of the family in the community and avoid stigma or shunning, particularly in tight-knit communities.[20] Perpetrators often do not face negative stigma within their communities, because their behavior is seen as justified.[21]


Reliable figures of honor killings are hard to obtain, in large part because "honor" is either improperly defined or is defined in ways other than in Article 12 of the UDHR (block-quoted above) without a clear follow-up explanation. As a result, criteria are hardly ever given for objectively determining whether a given case is an instance of honor killing. Because of the lack of both a clear definition of "honor" and coherent criteria, it is often presupposed that more women than men are victims of honor killings, and victim counts often contain women exclusively.[22]

Honor killings occur in many parts of the world, but are most widely reported in the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa.[23] [24] [25]

Historically, honor killings were also common in Southern Europe, and "there have been acts of ‘honour’ killings within living memory within Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Greece."[26]


Methods of murdering include stoning, stabbing, beating, burning, beheading, hanging, throat slashing, lethal acid attacks, shooting, and strangulation.[27] The murdering are sometimes performed in public to warn the other individuals within the community of possible consequences of engaging in what is seen as illicit behavior.[27]

Use of minors as perpetrators

Often, minor girls and boys are selected by the family to act as the murders, so that the murder may benefit from the most favorable legal outcome. Boys and sometimes women in the family are often asked to closely control and monitor the behavior of their sisters or other females in the family, to ensure that the females do not do anything to tarnish the 'honor' and 'reputation' of the family. The boys are often asked to carry out the murder, and if they refuse, they may face serious repercussions from the family and community for failing to perform their "duty".[27][28]


General cultural features

Further information: Namus

The cultural features which lead to honor killings are complex. Honor killings involve violence and fear as a tool for maintaining control. Honor killings are argued to have their origins among nomadic peoples and herdsmen: such populations carry all their valuables with them and risk having them stolen, and they do not have proper recourse to law. As a result, inspiring fear, using aggression, and cultivating a reputation for violent revenge to protect property is preferable to other behaviors. In societies where there is a weak rule of law, people must build fierce reputations.[29]

In many cultures where honor is of a central value, men are sources, or active generators/agents, of that honor, while the only effect that women can have on honor is to destroy it.[29] Once the family's or clan's honor is considered to have been destroyed by a woman, there is a need for immediate revenge to restore it, for the family to avoid losing face in the community. As Amnesty International statement notes:

The regime of honor is unforgiving: women on whom suspicion has fallen are not allowed to defend themselves, and family members have no socially acceptable alternative but to remove the stain on their honor by attacking the woman.[30]

The relation between social views on female sexuality and honor killings are complex. The way through which women in honor-based societies are considered to bring dishonor to men is often through their sexual behavior. Indeed, violence related to female sexual expression has been documented since Ancient Rome, when the pater familias had the right to kill an unmarried sexually active daughter or an adulterous wife. In medieval Europe, early Jewish law mandated stoning for an adulterous wife and her partner.[29]

Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, an anthropology professor at Rhode Island College, writes that an act, or even alleged act, of any female sexual misconduct, upsets the moral order of the culture, and bloodshed is the only way to remove any shame brought by the actions and restore social equilibrium.[31] However, the relation between honor and female sexuality is a complicated one, and some authors argue that it is not women's sexuality per se that is the 'problem', but rather women's self-determination in regard to it, as well as fertility. Sharif Kanaana, professor of anthropology at Birzeit University, says that honor killing is:

A complicated issue that cuts deep into the history of Islamic society. .. What the men of the family, clan, or tribe seek control of in a patrilineal society is reproductive power. Women for the tribe were considered a factory for making men. Honor killing is not a means to control sexual power or behavior. What's behind it is the issue of fertility or reproductive power.[32]

In some cultures, honor killings are considered less serious than other murders simply because they arise from long-standing cultural traditions and are thus deemed appropriate or justifiable.[31] Additionally, according to a poll done by the BBC's Asian network, 1 in 10 of the 500 young South Asians surveyed said they would condone any murder of someone who threatened their family's honor.[33]

Nighat Taufeeq of the women's resource center Shirkatgah in Lahore, Pakistan says: "It is an unholy alliance that works against women: the killers take pride in what they have done, the tribal leaders condone the act and protect the killers and the police connive the cover-up."[34] The lawyer and human rights activist Hina Jilani says, "The right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions."[35]

A July 2008 Turkish study by a team from Dicle University on honor killings in the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the predominantly Kurdish area of Turkey, has so far shown that little if any social stigma is attached to honor killing. It also comments that the practice is not related to a feudal societal structure, "there are also perpetrators who are well-educated university graduates. Of all those surveyed, 60 percent are either high school or university graduates or at the very least, literate."[36][37]

In contemporary times, the changing cultural and economic status of women has also been used to explain the occurrences of honor killings. Women in largely patriarchal cultures who have gained economic independence from their families go against their male-dominated culture. Some researchers argue that the shift towards greater responsibility for women and less for their fathers may cause their male family members to act in oppressive and sometimes violent manners to regain authority.[38]

This change of culture can also be seen to affect Western cultures such as Britain among South Asian and Middle Eastern communities where honor killings often target women seeking greater independence and adopting seemingly Western values. For families who trace their ancestry back to the Middle East or South Asia, honor killings have targeted women for wearing clothes that are considered Western, having a boyfriend, or refusing to accept an arranged marriage[39]

Fareena Alam, editor of a Muslim magazine, writes that honor killings which arise in Western cultures such as Britain are a tactic for immigrant families to cope with the alienating consequences of urbanization. Alam argues that immigrants remain close to the home culture and their relatives because it provides a safety net. She writes that

In villages "back home", a man's sphere of control was broader, with a large support system. In our cities full of strangers, there is virtually no control over who one's family members sit, talk or work with.

Alam argues that it is thus the attempt to regain control and the feelings of alienation that ultimately leads to an honor killing.[40]

Specific triggers of honor killings

Refusal of an arranged or forced marriage

Main article: Forced marriage

Refusal of an arranged marriage or forced marriage is often a cause of an honor killing. The family that has prearranged the marriage risks disgrace if the marriage does not proceed[41][42][43] and the betrothed is indulged in a relationship with another individual without prior knowledge of the family members.

Seeking a divorce

A woman attempting to obtain a divorce or separation without the consent of the husband/extended family can also be a trigger for honor killings. In cultures where marriages are arranged and goods are often exchanged between families, a woman's desire to seek a divorce is often viewed as an insult to the men who negotiated the deal.[44] By making their marital problems known outside the family, the women are seen as exposing the family to public dishonor.[20]

Allegations and rumors about a family member

In certain cultures, an allegation against a woman can be enough to tarnish her family's reputation, and to trigger an honor killing: the family's fear of being ostracized by the community is enormous.[45][46][47]

Victims of rape

Main article: Victim blaming

In many cultures, victims of rape face severe violence, including honor killings, from their families and relatives. In many parts of the world, women who have been raped are considered to have brought 'dishonor' or 'disgrace' to their families.[48] This is especially the case if the victim becomes pregnant.[49]

Central to the code of honor, in many societies, is a woman's virginity, which must be preserved until marriage.[50] Suzanne Ruggi writes, "A woman's virginity is the property of the men around her, first her father, later a gift for her husband; a virtual dowry as she graduates to marriage."[51]


Further information: Violence against LGBT people

There is evidence that homosexuality can also be perceived as grounds for honor killing by relatives. It is not only same-sex sexual acts that trigger violence—behaviors that are regarded as inappropriate gender expression (e.g. male acting or dressing in a "feminine way") can also raise suspicion and lead to honor violence.[28]

In one case, a gay Jordanian man was shot and wounded by his brother.[52] In another case, in 2008, a homosexual Turkish-Kurdish student, Ahmet Yildiz, was shot outside a cafe and later died in the hospital. Sociologists have called this Turkey's first publicized gay honor killing.[53][54][55][56][57] In 2012, a 17-year-old gay youth was murdered by his father in Turkey in the southeastern province of Diyarbakır.[58][59]

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees states that "claims made by LGBT persons often reveal exposure to physical and sexual violence, extended periods of detention, medical abuse, the threat of execution and honor killing."[60]

A 2019 study found that antigay "honor" abuse found more support in four surveyed Asian countries (India, Iran, Malaysia, and Pakistan) and among Asian British people than in a White British sample. The study also found that women and younger people were less likely to support such "honor" abuse. Muslims and Hindus were substantially more likely to approve of "honor" abuse than Christians or Buddhists, who scored lowest of the examined religious groups.[61]

Forbidden male partners

In many honor-based cultures, a woman maintains her honor through her modesty. If a man disrupts a woman's modesty, through dating her, having sex with her (especially if her virginity was lost), the man has dishonored the woman, even if the relationship is consensual. Thus to restore the woman's lost honor, the male members of her family will often beat and murder the offender. Sometimes, violence extends to the offender's family members, since honor feud attacks are seen as family conflicts.[62]

Interfaith and outside the caste relations

Further information: Interfaith marriage and Caste

Some cultures have very strong caste social systems, based on social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution. The caste system in India is such an example. In such cultures, it is often expected that one marries and forms closed associations only within one's caste, and avoids lower castes. When these rules are violated, including relations with people of a different religion, this can result in violence, including honor killings.[63][16][64][65][66]

Socializing outside the home

Further information: Purdah

In some cultures, women are expected to have a primarily domestic role. Such ideas are often based on practices like purdah. Purdah is a religious and social practice of female seclusion prevalent among some Muslim and Hindu communities; it often requires having women stay indoors, the avoiding of socialization between men and women, and full body covering of women, including burqa. When these rules are violated, including by dressing in a way deemed inappropriate or displaying behavior seen as disobedient, the family may respond with violence up to honor killings.[67][68][69]


There are multiple causes for which honor killings occur, and numerous factors interact with each other.

Views on women

Honor killings are often a result of strongly misogynistic views towards women and the position of women in society. In these traditionally male-dominated societies, women are dependent first on their father and then on their husbands, whom they are expected to obey. Women are viewed as property and not as individuals with their own agency. As such, they must submit to male authority figures in the family—failure to do so can result in extreme violence as punishment. Violence is seen as a way of ensuring compliance and preventing rebellion.[70][71] According to Shahid Khan, a professor at the Aga Khan University in Pakistan: "Women are considered the property of the males in their family irrespective of their class, ethnic, or religious group. The owner of the property has the right to decide its fate. The concept of ownership has turned women into a commodity which can be exchanged, bought and sold".[72] In such cultures, women are not allowed to take control over their bodies and sexuality: these are the property of the males of the family, the father (and other male relatives) who must ensure virginity until marriage; and then the husband to whom his wife's sexuality is subordinated—a woman must not undermine the ownership rights of her guardian by engaging in premarital sex or adultery.[28]

Cultures of honor and shame

The concept of family honor is extremely important in many communities worldwide. The UN estimates that 5,000 women and girls are murdered each year in honor killings, which are widely reported in the Middle East and South Asia, but they occur in countries as varied as Brazil, Canada, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Egypt, Sweden, Syria, Uganda, United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries.[73][74] In honor cultures, managing reputation is an important social ethic. Men are expected to act tough and be intolerant of disrespect and women are expected to be loyal to the family and be chaste.[75] An insult to your personal or family honor must be met with a response, or the stain of dishonor can affect many others in the family and the wider community. Such acts often include female behaviors that are related to sex outside marriage or way of dressing, but may also include male homosexuality (like the emo killings in Iraq). The family may lose respect in the community and may be shunned by relatives. The only way they perceive that shame can be erased is through an honor killing.[70][71] The cultures in which honor killings take place are usually considered "collectivist cultures", where the family is more important than the individual, and individual autonomy is seen as a threat to the family and its honor.[76]

Though it may seem in a modern context that honor killings are tied to certain religious traditions, the data does not support this claim.[77][75] Research in Jordan found that teenagers who strongly endorsed honor killings in fact did not come from more religious households than teens who rejected it.[75] The ideology of honor is a cultural phenomenon that does not appear to be related to religion, be it Middle Eastern or Western countries, and honor killings likely have a long history in human societies which predate many modern religions.[78] In the US, a rural trend known as the "small-town effect" exhibit elevated incidents of argument-related homicides among white males, particularly in honor-oriented states in the South and the West, where everyone "knows your name and knows your shame." This is similarly observed in rural areas in other parts of the world.[75]

Honor cultures pervade in places of economic vulnerability and with the absence of the rule of law, where law enforcement cannot be counted on to protect them.[78] People then resort to their reputations to protect them from social exploitation and a man must "stand up for himself" and not rely on others to do so.[78] To lose your honor is to lose this protective barrier. Possessing honor in such a society can grant social status and economic and social opportunities. When honor is ruined, a person or family in an honor culture can be socially ostracized, face restricted economic opportunities, and have a difficult time finding a mate.[75][78]

Laws and European colonialism

Imperial powers in 1898
Imperial powers in 1898

Legal frameworks can encourage honor killings. Such laws include on one side leniency towards such murdering, and on the other side criminalization of various behaviors, such as extramarital sex, "indecent" dressing in public places, or homosexual sexual acts, with these laws acting as a way of reassuring perpetrators of honor killings that people engaging in these behaviors deserve punishment.[79][80]

In the Roman Empire the Roman law Lex Julia de adulteriis coercendis implemented by Augustus Caesar permitted the murder of daughters and their lovers who committed adultery at the hands of their fathers and also permitted the murder of the adulterous wife's lover at the hand of her husband.[81]

Provocation in English law and related laws on adultery in English law, as well as Article 324 of the French penal code of 1810 were legal concepts which allowed for reduced punishment for the murder committed by a husband against his wife and her lover if the husband had caught them in the act of adultery.[82] On 7 November 1975, Law no. 617/75 Article 17 repealed the 1810 French Penal Code Article 324. The 1810 penal code Article 324 passed by Napoleon was copied by Middle Eastern Arab countries. It inspired Jordan's Article 340 which permits the murder of a wife and her lover if caught in the act at the hands of her husband. France's 1810 Penal Code Article 324 also inspired the 1858 Ottoman Penal Code's Article 188, both the French Article 324 and Ottoman article 188 were drawn on to create Jordan's Article 340 which was retained even after a 1944 revision of Jordan's laws which did not touch public conduct and family law so Article 340 still applies to this day.[83][84][85] France's Mandate over Lebanon resulted in its penal code being imposed there in 1943–1944, with the French-inspired Lebanese law for adultery allowing the mere accusation of adultery against women resulting in a maximum punishment of two years in prison while men have to be caught in the act and not merely accused, and are punished with only one year in prison.

France's Article 324 inspired laws in other Arab countries such as:

In Pakistan, the law was based upon on the code imported by Britain to rule colonial India in 1860, which allowed for mitigation of punishment for assault or criminal force in the case of 'grave and sudden provocation'. This clause was used to justify the legal status of honor killing in Pakistan, although the British code makes no mention of it.[86] In 1990, Pakistan reformed this law to bring it in terms with the Shari'a, and the Pakistani Federal Shariat Court declared that "according to the teachings of Islam, provocation, no matter how grave and sudden it is, does not lessen the intensity of crime of murder". However, judges still sometimes hand down lenient sentences for honor killings, justified by still citing the British law's "grave and sudden provocation."[87][88]

Forced suicide as a substitute

Main article: Forced suicide

A forced suicide may be a substitute for an honor killing. In this case, the family members do not directly murder the victim themselves, but force him or her to commit suicide, in order to avoid punishment. Such suicides are reported to be common in southeastern Turkey.[89][90] It was reported that in 2001, 565 women lost their lives in honor-related crimes in Ilam, Iran, of which 375 were reportedly staged as self-immolation.[91][92] In 2008, self-immolation "occurred in all the areas of Kurdish settlement (in Iran), where it was more common than in other parts of Iran".[91] It is claimed that in Iraqi Kurdistan many deaths are reported as "female suicides" in order to conceal honor-related crimes.[93]

Restoring honor through a forced marriage

Main article: Forced marriage

In the case of an unmarried woman or girl associating herself with a man, losing virginity, or being raped, the family may attempt to restore its 'honor' with a 'shotgun wedding'. The groom will usually be the man who has 'dishonored' the woman or girl, but if this is not possible the family may try to arrange a marriage with another man, often a man who is part of the extended family of the one who has committed the acts with the woman or girl. This being an alternative to an honor killing, the woman or girl has no choice but to accept the marriage. The family of the man is expected to cooperate and provide a groom for the woman.[29][94][95]


Widney Brown, the advocacy director of Human Rights Watch, said that the practice "goes across cultures and religions".[44]

Resolution 1327 (2003) of the Council of Europe states that:[96]

The Assembly notes that whilst so-called "honor crimes" emanate from cultural and not religious roots and are perpetrated worldwide (mainly in patriarchal societies or communities), the majority of reported cases in Europe have been among Muslim or migrant Muslim communities (although Islam itself does not support the death penalty for honor-related misconduct).

Many Muslim commentators and organizations condemn honor killings as an un-Islamic cultural practice.[97] There is no mention of honor killing (extrajudicial killing by a woman's family) in either the Koran,[98] and the practice violates Islamic law.[98][99] Tahira Shaid Khan, a professor of women's issues at Aga Khan University, blames such murdering on attitudes (across different classes, ethnic, and religious groups) that view women as property with no rights of their own as the motivation for honor killings.[44] Salafi scholar Muhammad Al-Munajjid asserts that the punishment of any crime is only reserved for the Islamic ruler.[100] Ali Gomaa, Egypt's former Grand Mufti, has also spoken out forcefully against honor killings.[97]

As a more generic statement reflecting the wider Islamic scholarly trend, Jonathan A. C. Brown says that "questions about honor killings have regularly found their way into the inboxes of muftis like Yusuf Qaradawi or the late scholar Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah. Their responses reflect a rare consensus. No Muslim scholar of any note, either medieval or modern, has sanctioned a man killing his wife or sister for tarnishing her or the family's honor. If a woman or man found together were to deserve the death penalty for fornication, this would have to be established by the evidence required by the Koran: either a confession or the testimony of four male witnesses, all upstanding in the eyes of the court, who actually saw penetration occur."[101]

Further, while honor killings are common in Muslim countries like Pakistan and the Arab nation, it is a practically unknown practice in other Muslim countries, such as Indonesia, Bangladesh and Senegal. This fact supports the idea that honor killings are to do with culture rather than religion.[102][103]

The late Yemeni Muslim scholar Muḥammad Shawkānī wrote that one reason the Shari'a stipulates execution as a potential punishment for men who murder women is to counter honor killings for alleged slights of honor. He wrote, "There is no doubt that laxity on this matter is one of the greatest means leading to women's lives being destroyed, especially in the Bedouin regions, which are characterized by harsh-hardheartedness and a strong sense of honor and shame stemming from Pre-Islamic times".[104][77]

In history

Matthew A. Goldstein, J.D. (Arizona), has noted that honor killings were encouraged in ancient Rome, where male family members who did not take action against the female adulterers in their families were "actively persecuted".[105]

The origin of honor killings and the control of women is evidenced throughout history in the cultures and traditions of many regions. The Roman law of pater familias gave complete control to the men of the family over both their children and wives. Under these laws, the lives of children and wives were at the discretion of the men in their families. Ancient Roman Law also justified honor killings by stating that women who were found guilty of adultery could be killed by their husbands. During the Qing dynasty in China, fathers and husbands had the right to kill daughters who were deemed to have dishonored the family.[106]

Among the Indigenous Aztecs and Incas, adultery was punishable by death.[105] During John Calvin's rule of Geneva, women found guilty of adultery were punished by being drowned in the Rhône river.[106]

Honor killings have a long tradition in Mediterranean Europe.[106][107][108] According to the Honour Related Violence – European Resource Book and Good Practice (page 234): "Honor in the Mediterranean world is a code of conduct, a way of life and an ideal of the social order, which defines the lives, the customs and the values of many of the peoples in the Mediterranean moral".[109]

By region

According to the UN in 2002:

The report of the Special Rapporteur... concerning cultural practices in the family that are violent towards women (E/CN.4/2002/83), indicated that honor killings had been reported in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon (the Lebanese Parliament abolished the Honor killing in August 2011), Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Yemen, and other Mediterranean and Persian Gulf countries, and that they had also taken place in western countries such as France, Germany and the United Kingdom, within migrant communities.[110][111]

In addition, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights gathered reports from several countries and considering only the countries that submitted reports it was shown that honor killings have occurred in Bangladesh, Great Britain, Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Pakistan, Morocco, Sweden, Turkey, and Uganda.[44][112]

According to Widney Brown, advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, the practice of honor killing "goes across cultures and religions."[44]


Memorial plaque for Hatun Sürücü in Berlin, Germany. The Turkish woman that was murdered at age of 23 by her brothers in an honor killing.
Memorial plaque for Hatun Sürücü in Berlin, Germany. The Turkish woman that was murdered at age of 23 by her brothers in an honor killing.

The issue of honor killings has risen to prominence in Europe in recent years, prompting the need to address the occurrence of honor killings. The 2009 European Parliamentary Assembly noted this in their Resolution 1681 which noted the dire need to address honor crimes. The resolution stated that:

On so-called 'honor crimes', the Parliamentary Assembly notes that the problem, far from diminishing, has worsened, including in Europe. It mainly affects women, who are its most frequent victims, both in Europe and the rest of the world, especially in patriarchal and fundamentalist communities and societies. For this reason, it asked the Council of Europe member states to 'draw up and put into effect national action plans to combat violence against women, including violence committed in the name of so-called 'honor', if they have not already done so.[113]

The Honour Based Violence Awareness Network (HBVA) writes:[114]

Certain Eastern European countries have recorded cases of HBV [honor-based violence] within the indigenous populations, such as Albania and Chechnya, and there have been acts of 'honor' killings within living memory within Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Greece.

According to Charles Stewart, the majority of honor killings are committed by first generation migrants against "second and third generation migrants" who have become Westernized.[115]

According to a study investigating 67 honor killings in Europe 1989-2009 by psychologist Phyllis Chesler, published in the non-peer reviewed Middle East Quarterly journal, 96% of honor murder perpetrators in Europe were Muslim and 68% of victims were tortured before they died.[116]


Main article: Gjakmarrja

Honor-based violence has a long tradition in Albania, and although it is much rarer today than it was in the past, it still exists.[citation needed] The Kanun is a set of traditional Albanian laws and customs. Honor (in Albanian: Nderi) is one of the four pillars on which the Kanun is based. Honor crimes happen, especially in northern Albania. In Albania (and in other parts of the Balkans) the phenomenon of blood feuds between males was more common historically than honor killings of females, but honor-based violence against women and girls has become more common in recent years.[70][117][118]


Further information: Honor killing of Sadia Sheikh

In 2011, Belgium held its first honor killing trial, in which four Pakistani family members were found guilty of murdering their daughter and sibling, Sadia Sheikh.[119]

As a legacy of the very influential Napoleonic Code, before 1997, Belgian law provided for mitigating circumstances in the case of a killing or an assault against a spouse caught in the act of adultery.[120][121] (Adultery itself was decriminalized in Belgium in 1987.)[122]


Main article: Honor killing of Ghazala Khan

Ghazala Khan was shot and murdered in Denmark in September 2005, by her brother, after she had married against the will of the family. She was of Pakistani origin. Her murder was ordered by her father to save her family's 'honor' and several relatives were involved. Sentences considered harsh by Danish standards were handed out to all nine accused members of her family,[123] and permanent banishment was ordered for those who were not Danish citizens.


The first case of an honor killing in Finland happened in 2015 when an Iraqi man was sentenced to two years in prison for planning to murder his 16-year-old sister. He was also sentenced for assault. He and their mother had forbidden his sister from meeting people her own age and leaving the home beyond going to school.[124]

In 2019, a 48-year-old Iraqi attempted to murder his 40-year-old ex-wife because she was associated with other men. The stabbing was done at an educational institution where both were studying. When she turned around, he stabbed her in the back. She was seriously wounded but survived. According to the accused, he was ridiculed by his friends because the couple had arrived in Finland in 2015 and divorced shortly after arriving.[125]


Map showing former territories of the French colonial empire. Jurisdictions in these areas have been legally influenced by the Napoleonic Code of 1804
Map showing former territories of the French colonial empire. Jurisdictions in these areas have been legally influenced by the Napoleonic Code of 1804

France has a large immigrant community from North Africa (especially from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) and honor-based violence occurs in this community, according to a 1995 article.[126] A 2009 report by the Council of Europe cited the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, France, and Norway as countries where honor crimes and honor killings occur.[127]

France traditionally provided for leniency concerning honor crimes, particularly when they were committed against women who had committed adultery. The Napoleonic Code of 1804, established under Napoleon Bonaparte, is one of the origins of the legal leniency concerning adultery-related killings in a variety of legal systems in several countries around the world. Under this code, a man who killed his wife after she had been caught in the act of adultery could not be charged with premeditated murder—although he could be charged with other lesser offenses. This defense was available only for a husband, not for a wife. The Napoleonic Code has been very influential, and many countries, inspired by it, provided for lesser penalties or even acquittal for such crimes. This can be seen in the criminal codes of many former French colonies.[128][129]


External video
video icon Hatun Sürücü "honor" Killing in Germany

Investigating criminal records for partner homicides from the years 1996–2005, the German Federal Criminal Police Office concluded that there were about 12 cases of honor killings in Germany per year, including cases involving collective family honor and individual male honor, out of an average about 700 annual homicides. An accompanying study of all homicides in Baden-Württemberg shows that men from Turkey, Yugoslavia, and Albania have a between three and five times overrepresentation for partner homicides, both honor and non-honor-related. The causes for the higher rate were given as low education and social status of these groups along with cultural traditions of violence against women.[130] A 2009 book on honor killings reported that in some cases of honor killing that were brought before German courts, murder charges had been reduced to manslaughter. This has been called the "honor defense".[131]

In 2005 Der Spiegel reported: "In the past four months, six Muslim women living in Berlin have been murdered by family members". The article went on to cover the case of Hatun Sürücü, a Turkish woman who was murdered by her brother for not staying with the husband she was forced to marry, and for "living like a German". Precise statistics on how many women die every year in such honor killings are hard to come by, as many crimes are never reported, said Myria Boehmecke of the Tübingen-based women's group Terre des Femmes. The group tries to protect Muslim girls and women from oppressive families. The Turkish women's organization Papatya has documented 40 instances of honor killings in Germany since 1996.[132][133] Hatun Sürücü's brother was convicted of murder and jailed for nine years and three months by a German court in 2006.[134] In 2001, Turkish immigrant Mikdat Sacin murdered his 18-year-old daughter Funda Sacin as she refused to marry her cousin from Ankara, Turkey in a forced marriage and secretly married her boyfriend instead. Mikdat S. has fled to his home country Turkey and has yet to come before a court.[135] In 2005, twenty-five-year-old Turkish man Ali Karabey murdered his sister Gönul Karabey for having a German boyfriend. "She disgraced the family", he testified and he felt called upon to punish her with death. He was sentenced to life imprisonment by a German court in 2006.[136]

In 2008, Afghan Morsal Obeidi was murdered by her brother in Hamburg.[137] In 2010, Turkish immigrant and devout Muslim Mehmet Özkan murdered his 15-year-old daughter Büsra Özkan because she refused to live an Islamic lifestyle and would chat with a young man she recently met.[138][139] In 2016 an Arab woman was shot dead at her wedding in Hannover for allegedly refusing to marry her cousin in a forced marriage.[140]

In 2021, a 34-year-old Afghan woman and mother of two identified solely as Maryam H., was murdered by her two younger brothers. On 13 July, Sayed, 26, and Seyed, 22, lured their sister to a meeting in Berlin before strangulating her and slitting her throat. They claimed to have killed her for giving up following Islamic practices, which they said harmed their family's honor. Her dismembered body was found in a suitcase dumped in a shallow grave in near their elder brother's residence in Bavaria, and the brothers were arrested on 3 August. Maryam had been forced into marriage at the age of sixteen. She then fled from Afghanistan to Germany and obtained a divorce. The brothers were charged with murder in December.[141][142]


Similar to other Southern/Mediterranean European areas, the honor was traditionally important in Italy. Indeed, until 1981, the Criminal Code provided for mitigating circumstances for such murdering; until 1981 the law read: "Art. 587: He who causes the death of a spouse, daughter, or sister upon discovering her in illegitimate carnal relations and in the heat of passion caused by the offense to his honor or that of his family will be sentenced from three to seven years. The same sentence shall apply to whom, in the above circumstances, causes the death of the person involved in illegitimate carnal relations with his spouse, daughter, or sister."[143][144] Traditionally, honor crimes used to be more prevalent in Southern Italy.[108][145]

In 1546, Isabella di Morra, a young poet from Valsinni, Matera, was stabbed to death by her brothers for a suspected affair with a married nobleman, whom they also murdered.[146] In 2006, twenty-year-old Hina Saleem, a Pakistani woman who lived in Brescia, Italy, was murdered by her father who claimed he was "saving the family's honor". She had refused an arranged marriage, and was living with her Italian boyfriend.[147][148] In 2009, in Pordenone, Italy, Sanaa Dafani, an 18-year-old girl of Moroccan origin, was murdered by her father because she had a relationship with an Italian man.[149][150] In 2011, in Cerignola, Italy, a man stabbed his brother 19 times because his homosexuality was a "dishonor to the family".[151] In 2021 Saman Abbas was murdered by her uncle because she refused her arranged marriage.[152]


Main article: Honor killing of Anooshe Sediq Ghulam

Anooshe Sediq Ghulam was a 22-year-old Afghan refugee in Norway, who was murdered by her husband in an honor killing in 2002. She had reported her husband to the police for domestic violence and was seeking a divorce.


See also: Honor-related violence in Sweden and Family honor § Sweden

The Swedish National Police Board and the Swedish Prosecution Authority define honor-related crime as crimes against a relative who, according to the perpetrator and his family's point of view, has dishonored the family. These crimes are intended to prevent the family from honor being damaged or to restore damaged or lost family honor.[153]

The most serious honor-related crime is often organized and deliberate and not limited to murdering. Incidents include torture, forced suicides, forced marriages, rapes, kidnapping, assault, mortal threats, extortion, and protecting a criminal.[153]

The 26-year-old Turkish woman Fadime Şahindal was murdered by her father in 2002 in Uppsala in Sweden.[154][155][156] Kurdish organizations were criticized by prime minister Göran Persson for not doing enough to prevent honor killings.[155] Pela Atroshi was a Kurdish girl who was shot by her uncle in an honor killing in Iraqi Kurdistan.[157] The murder of Pela and Fadime gave rise to the formation of GAPF (the acronym stands for Never Forget Pela and Fadime), a politically and religiously independent and secular nonprofit organization working against honor-related violence and oppression. The organization's name is taken from Pela Atroshi and Fadime Şahindal which are Sweden's best-known and high-profile cases of honor killings.[156][158]

The honor killing of Sara, an Iraqi Kurdish girl, was the first publicized honor killing in Sweden.[156][159][160] Sara was murdered by her brother and cousin when she was 15 years old. According to statements by her mother, Sara's brother believed that she "was a whore who slept with Swedish boys", and that even though he himself also slept with Swedish girls that "was different, because he is a male, and he would not even think of sleeping with Iraqi girls, only with Swedish girls, with whores".[161] These three prominent cases brought the notion of honor killings into Swedish discourse.[155]

In 2016 ten out of the 105 murder cases were honor killings, with 6 females and 4 male victims. The 6 female victims represented a third of the 18 murders of women in Sweden that year.[162]

In May 2019 the court of appeals found a man guilty of murdering his wife in front of the Afghan couple's children who were minor at the time. He was sentenced to life in prison, deportation and a lifetime ban against returning to Sweden.[163]

In December 2020, a 47-year-old Afghan man and his two sons were found guilty by Gällivare district court of honor killing a 20-year-old man together in Kiruna. They suspected that the victim had a relationship with the man's ex-wife.[164]


In 2010, a 16-year-old Pakistani girl was murdered near Zürich, Switzerland, by her father who was dissatisfied with both her lifestyle and her Christian boyfriend.[165][166] In 2014, a forty-two-year-old Syrian Kurd murdered his wife (and cousin) because she had a boyfriend and wanted to live separately. The suspect defended himself by claiming that honor killing is part of Kurdish culture.[167][168]

United Kingdom

Further information: Murder of Shafilea Ahmed, Murder of Samaira Nazir, and Murder of Tulay Goren

Every year in the United Kingdom (UK), officials estimates that at least a dozen women are victims of honor killings, almost exclusively within Asian and Middle Eastern families.[169] Often, cases cannot be resolved due to the unwillingness of families, relatives and communities to testify. A 2006 BBC poll for the Asian network in the UK found that one in ten of the 500 young Asians polled said that they could condone the killing of someone who had dishonored their families.[170] In the UK, in December 2005, Nazir Afzal, Director, west London, of Britain's Crown Prosecution Service, stated that the United Kingdom has seen "at least a dozen honour killings" between 2004 and 2005.[171]

In 2010, Britain saw a 47% rise in the number of honor-related crimes. Data from police agencies in the UK report 2283 cases in 2010, and an estimated 500 more from jurisdictions that did not provide reports. These "honor-related crimes" also include house arrests and other parental punishments.[172] Most of the attacks were conducted in cities that had high immigrant populations.[173]

One of the earliest prosecuted cases in the UK was that of 19-year-old Rukhsana Naz, who was forced to marry her second cousin from Pakistan at age 15. She embarked on an affair with the man she had really wanted to marry, fell pregnant and was murdered by her mother and brother for refusing to terminate her pregnancy and remain in her forced marriage.[174]

Banaz Mahmod, a 20-year-old Iraqi Kurdish woman from Mitcham, south London, was murdered in 2006, in a murder orchestrated by her father, uncle and cousins.[175] Her life and murder were presented in a documentary called Banaz: A Love Story, directed and produced by Deeyah Khan. The investigation into her disappearance and murder was dramatised in the 2020, two-part ITV mini-series, Honour, starring Keeley Hawes.[176]

Another well-known case was Heshu Yones, stabbed to death by her Kurdish father in London in 2002, because he thought she'd become too "westernized" and was involved in a relationship of which he didn't approve.[177] Other examples include the killing of Tulay Goren, a Kurdish Shia Muslim girl who immigrated with her family from Turkey,[178] and Samaira Nazir (Pakistani Muslim).[178]

A highly publicized case was that of Shafilea Iftikhar Ahmed, a 17-year-old British Pakistani girl from Great Sankey, Warrington, Cheshire, who was murdered in 2003 by her parents.[179] However, a lesser-known case is that of Gurmeet Singh Ubhi, a Sikh man who, in February 2011, was found guilty of the murder of his 24-year-old daughter, Amrit Kaur Ubhi in 2010.[180] Ubhi was found to have murdered his daughter because he disapproved of her being "too westernized". Likewise, he also disapproved of the fact that she was dating a non-Sikh man.[181] In 2012, the UK had the first white victim of an honor killing: 17-year-old Laura Wilson was murdered by her Asian boyfriend, Ashtiaq Ashgar, because she revealed details of their relationship to his family, challenging traditional cultural values of the Asian family. Laura Wilson's mother said, "I honestly think it was an honour killing for putting shame on the family. They needed to shut Laura up and they did." Wilson was repeatedly knifed to death as she walked along a canal in Rotherham.[182]

In 2013, Mohammed Inayat was jailed for murdering his wife and injuring three daughters by setting his house on fire in Birmingham. Inayat wanted to stop his daughter from flying to Dubai to marry her boyfriend, because he believed the marriage would dishonor his family.[183]

In 2013, the husband of Syrian-born 25-year-old Rania Alayed was jailed for her murder. His two brothers were also jailed for perverting the course of justice in relation to the disposal of her body, which has never been found. According to the prosecution, the motive for the murder was that she had become "too westernised" and was "establishing an independent life".[184][185][186]

Middle East and North Africa

Honor killings in Maghreb are not as common as in the Asian countries of the Middle East and South Asia, but they do occur.[44][187] In Libya, it can also be committed against rape victims.[188]

In a poll with respondents across countries in the Arab world such as Algeria (27%), Morocco (25%), Sudan (14%), Jordan (21%), Tunisia (8%), Lebanon (8%), and the Palestinian territory of the West Bank (8%), it was found that honor killings were more acceptable than homosexuality.[189]


Honor killings in Egypt can occur due to reasons such as a woman meeting an unrelated man, even if this is only an allegation; or adultery (real or suspected). The exact number of honor killings is not known, but a report in 1995 estimated about 52 honor killings that year.[190] In 2013, a woman and her two daughters were murdered by 10 male relatives, who strangled and beat them, and then threw their bodies in the Nile. Honor killings are illegal in Egypt and five of the ten men were arrested.[191][192]


In Iran, there have been a number of recorded cases of honor killings that made international headlines.[193][194][195]


In 2008, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) has stated that honor killings are a serious concern in Iraq, particularly well documented in Iraqi Kurdistan.[196] There are conflicting estimates on the number of honor killings in Iraqi Kurdistan. The Free Women's Organization of Kurdistan (FWOK) released a statement on International Women's Day 2015 noting that "6,082 women were killed or forced to commit suicide during the past year in Iraqi Kurdistan, which is almost equal to the number of the Peshmerga martyred fighting Islamic State (IS)," and that a large number of women were victims of honor killings or enforced suicide—mostly self-immolation or hanging.[197] According to Zhin Woman magazine, published in December 2015 in Sulaimaniya, from January to August 2015, in the three main Kurdish provinces of Sulaimaniya, Erbil, and Duhok, there were a total of 122 cases of honor killings and 124 women's suicides.[198] According to KRG Ministry of Interior's Directorate-General of Countering Violence Committed Against Women, only 14 women were victims of "so-called" honor killings in 2017. The practice is reportedly declining due to increased numbers of women's rights organizations and government initiatives.[199] About 500 honor killings per year are reported in hospitals in Iraqi Kurdistan, although real numbers are likely higher.[200] It is speculated that alone in Erbil there is one honor killing per day.[201] The UNAMI reported that at least 534 honor killings occurred between January and April 2006 in the Kurdish Governorates.[202] It is claimed that many deaths are reported as "female suicides" in order to conceal honor-related crimes.[93] Aso Kamal of the Doaa Network Against Violence claimed that they have estimated that there were more than 12,000 honor killings in Iraqi Kurdistan from 1991 to 2007. He also said that the government figures are much lower, and show a decline in recent years, and Kurdish law has mandated since 2008 that an honor killing be treated like any other murder.[203] Honor killings and other forms of violence against women have increased since the creation of Iraqi Kurdistan, and "both the KDP and PUK claimed that women's oppression, including 'honor killings', are part of Kurdish 'tribal and Islamic culture'".[204] The honor killing and self-immolation condoned or tolerated by the Kurdish administration in Iraqi Kurdistan has been labeled as "gendercide" by Mojab (2003).[205]

As many as 133 women were murdered in the Iraqi city of Basra alone in 2006. Seventy-nine were murdered for violation of "Islamic teachings" and 47 for honor, according to IRIN, the news branch of the U.N.'s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Amnesty International says that armed groups, not the government, also kill politically active women and those who did not follow a strict dress code, as well as women who are perceived as human rights defenders.[206] Seventeen-year-old Du'a Khalil Aswad, an Iraqi girl of the Yazidi faith, was stoned to death in front of a mob of about 2,000 men in 2007, possibly because she was allegedly planning to convert to Islam.[207] A video of the brutal incident was released on the Internet. According to the crowd she had "shamed herself and her family" for failing to return home one night and there were suspicions of her converting to Islam to marry her boyfriend, who was in hiding in fear of his own safety.[208]


According to Aida Touma-Suleiman the subject of ‘honor crimes’ was a taboo among Arabs in Israel until protests in the 1990s by the Israeli Palestinian feminist women's groups Al-Fanar and al-Badeel forced open discussion within Arab society. Although there reportedly exist safe houses for women and girls at risk, the Israel police, social work and court authorities have not always utilized such shelters. [209]


A 2008 report of the National Council of Family Affairs in Jordan, an NGO affiliated with the Queen of Jordan, indicated that the National Forensic Medicine Center recorded 120 murdered women in 2006, with 18 cases classified officially as crimes of honor.[210] In 2013, the BBC cited estimates by the National Council of Family Affairs in Jordan, an NGO, that as many as 50 Jordanian women and girls had been murdered in the preceding 13 years. But the BBC indicated "the real figure" was probably "far higher," because "most honor killings go unreported."[211]

Men used to receive reduced sentences for killing their wives or female family members if they are deemed to have brought dishonor to their family. Families often get sons under the age of 16—legally minors—to commit honor killings; the juvenile law allows convicted minors to serve time in a juvenile detention center and be released with a clean criminal record at the age of 16. Rana Husseini, a leading journalist on the topic of honor killings, states that "under the existing law, people found guilty of committing honor killings often receive sentences as light as six months in prison".[212] According to UNICEF, there are an average of 23 honor killings per year in Jordan.[213]

On 1 August 2017, article 98 in the penal codes were amended to exclude honor criminals from receiving lenient punishments for being in "a state of great fury". However, article 340 which sees reduced penalties when a man attacks or kills a female relative having found her in the act of "adultery", is still in effect.[214]

A 2013 survey of "856 ninth-graders—average age of 15—from a range of secondary schools across Amman—including private and state, mixed-sex and single-gender" showed that attitudes favoring honor killings are present in the "next generation" Jordanians: "In total, 33.4% of all respondents either "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with situations depicting honor killings. Boys were more than twice as likely to support honor killings: 46.1% of boys and 22.1% of girls agreed with at least two honor killing situations in the questionnaire." The parents' education was found to be a significant correlation: "61% of teenagers from the lowest level of educational background showed supportive attitudes towards honor killing, as opposed to only 21.1% where at least one family member has a university degree."[215][216]


Kuwait is relatively liberal and honor killings are rare, but not unheard of—in 2006 a young woman was murdered in an honor killing committed by her brothers. In 2008, a girl was given police protection after reporting that her family intended to murder her for having an affair with a man.


There are no exact official numbers about honor killings of women in Lebanon; many honor killings are arranged to look like accidents, but the figure is believed to be 40 to 50 per year. A 2007 report by Amnesty International said that the Lebanese media in 2001 reported 2 or 3 honor killings per month in Lebanon, although the number is believed to be higher by other independent sources.

On 4 August 2011, however, the Lebanese Parliament agreed by a majority to abolish Article 562, which for the past years had worked as an excuse to commute the sentence given for honor killing.[217][218]


According to UNICEF estimates in 1999, two-thirds of all murders in the Palestinian territories were likely honor killings.[213]

In 2005, 22-year-old Faten Habash, a Christian from West Bank, was said to have dishonored her family by falling for a young Muslim man, Samer. Following their thwarted attempts to elope to Jordan, she suffered her relatives' wrath after rejecting the options of either marrying her cousin or becoming a nun in Rome. She had spent a period of time in hospital recovering from a broken pelvis and various other injuries caused by an earlier beating by her father and other family members. Still fearing her family after her release from the hospital, she approached a powerful Bedouin tribe, which took her under its care. Her father then wept and gave his word that he would not harm her. She returned to him, only to be bludgeoned to death with an iron bar days later.[219]

The Palestinian Authority, using a clause in the Jordanian penal code still in effect in the West Bank as of 2011, exempted men from punishment for killing a female relative if she has brought dishonor to the family.[220] The Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights has reported 29 women were murdered 2007–2010, whereas 13 women were murdered in 2011 and 12 in the first seven months of 2012.[221] According to a PA Ministry of Women's Affairs report[222] the rate of 'Honor Killings' went up by 100% in 2013, "reporting the number of 'honor killing' victims for 2013 at 27".[223]

Mahmoud Abbas, president of the Palestinian Authority, issued a decree in May 2014 under which the exemption of men was abolished in cases of honor killings.[224]

The death of Israa Ghrayeb took place on 22 August 2019 in the Palestinian city of Bethlehem.[225] Israa Ghrayeb, 21 years old, was reportedly beaten to death by her brother because she posted a selfie with her partner a day before they were supposed to get engaged.[225]

Saudi Arabia

In 2008 a woman was murdered in Saudi Arabia by her father for "chatting" with a man on Facebook. The murdered became public only when a Saudi cleric referred to the case, to criticize Facebook for the strife it caused.[226]

The 1980 film Death of a Princess implies that the execution of Princess Misha'al in 1977 was actually an honor killing, rather than a sentence handed down by a court.[227]


Some estimates suggest that more than 200 honor killings occur every year in Syria.[228] The Syrian civil war has been reported as leading to an increase in honor killings in the country, mainly due to the common occurrence of war rape, which led to the stigmatization of victims by their relatives and communities, and in turn to honor killings.[229]


A report compiled by the Council of Europe estimated that over 200 women were murdered in honor killings in Turkey in 2007.[230] A June 2008 report by the Turkish Prime Ministry's Human Rights Directorate said that in Istanbul alone there was one honor killing every week, and reported over 1,000 during the previous five years. It added that metropolitan cities were the location of many of these, due to growing immigration to these cities from the East.[231][232] The mass migration during the past decades of rural population from Southeastern Turkey to big cities in Western Turkey has resulted in relatively more developed cities such as Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, and Bursa having the highest numbers of reported honor killings.[233]

A report by UNFPA identified the following situations as being common triggers for honor killings: a married woman having an extra-marital relationship; a married woman running away with a man; a married woman getting separated or divorced; a divorced woman having a relationship with another man; a young unmarried girl having a relationship; a young unmarried girl running away with a man; a woman (married or unmarried) being kidnapped and/or raped.[94]

In Turkey, young boys are often ordered by other family members to commit the honor killing, so that they can get a shorter jail sentence (because they are minors).[234] Forced suicides—where the victim who is deemed to have 'dishonored' the family is ordered to commit suicide in an attempt by the perpetrator to avoid legal consequences—also take place in Turkey, especially in Batman in southeastern Turkey, which has been nicknamed "Suicide City".[235][236][237]

In 2009 a Turkish news agency reported that a 2-day-old boy who was born out of wedlock had been murdered for honor in Istanbul. The maternal grandmother of the infant, along with six other persons, including a doctor who had reportedly accepted a bribe to not report the birth, were arrested. The grandmother is suspected of fatally suffocating the infant. The child's mother, 25, was also arrested; she stated that her family had decided to kill the child.[238]

In 2010 a 16-year-old girl was buried alive by relatives for befriending boys in Southeast Turkey; her corpse was found 40 days after she went missing.[239]

Honor killings continue to receive some support in the conservative regions of Turkey. In 2005, a small survey in Diyarbakir in southeastern Turkey found that, when asked the appropriate punishment for a woman who has committed adultery, 37% of respondents said she should be killed, while 21% said her nose or ears should be cut off.[240] A July 2008 Turkish study by a team from Dicle University on honor killings in the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the predominantly Kurdish area of Turkey, has so far shown that little if any social stigma is attached to honor killing. It also comments that the practice is not related to a feudal societal structure, "there are also perpetrators who are well-educated university graduates. Of all those surveyed, 60 percent are either high school or university graduates or at the very least, literate."[36][37] There are well-documented cases, where Turkish courts have sentenced whole families to life imprisonment for an honor killing. The most recent was on 13 January 2009, where a Turkish court sentenced five members of the same Kurdish family to life imprisonment for the honor killing of Naile Erdas, a 16-year-old girl who got pregnant as a result of rape.[241][242]

Honor killings also affect gay people. In 2008 a man had to flee from Turkey after his Kurdish boyfriend was killed by his own father.[53][54][243][244] Ahmet Yıldız, 26, a Turkish-Kurdish physics student who represented his country at an international gay conference in the United States in 2008, was shot dead leaving a cafe in Istanbul.[53][54][55] Yıldız, who came from a deeply religious family was believed to have been the victim of the country's first gay honor killing.[245]


Honor killings are common in Yemen. In some parts of the country, traditional tribal customs forbid contact between men and women before marriage.[246] Yemeni society is strongly male dominated, Yemen being ranked last of 135 countries in the 2012 Global Gender Gap Report.[247] It was estimated that in 1997 about 400 women and girls died in honor killings in Yemen.[248] In 2013, a 15-year-old girl was killed by her father, who burned her to death, because she talked to her fiancé before the wedding.[246][249]

South Asia


Main article: Women's rights in Afghanistan

In 2012, Afghanistan recorded 240 cases of honor killings, but the total number is believed to be much higher. Of the reported honor killings, 21% were committed by the victims' husbands, 7% by their brothers, 4% by their fathers, and the rest by other relatives.[250][251]

In May 2017, United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan concluded that the vast majority of cases involving honor killings and murders of women, perpetrators were not punished. Of the 280 recorded cases in the January 2016-December 2017 time span, 50 cases ended in a conviction. UNAMA concluded that the vast majority offences could be committed with impunity.[252]


See also: Women in India § Crimes against women

Honor killings have been reported in northern regions of India, mainly in the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and the southern state of Tamil Nadu. The main reason for these crimes is a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance, especially when it is between members of two different castes or religious groups, or, more particular to northwestern India, between members of the same gotra, or exogamous clan. In contrast, honor killings are less prevalent but are not completely non-existent[253][254][255] in the western Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Honor killings are reflected in nationwide data from the National Crime Records Bureau. That data showed 251 honor killings in 2015, though activists considered that a significant undercount.[256] The same records bureau reported only 24 honor killings in 2019.[257] According to a survey by AIDWA, over 30 percent of honor killings in the country take place in Western Uttar Pradesh.[258] In some other parts of India, notably West Bengal, honor killings completely ceased about a century ago, largely due to the activism and influence of reformists such as Vivekananda, Ramakrishna, Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Roy.[259]

Haryana has had many incidences of honor killings, mainly among Meenas, Rajputs and Jats.[260][261] Role of khap panchayats (caste councils of village elders) has been questioned.[262] Madhu Kishwar, a professor at Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, claims that only 2% to 3% honor killings are related to gotra killings by the khap or caste panchayats, rest are done by the families. "Will you ban families? there are plenty of tyrannical police officials, plenty of incompetent and corrupt judges in India who pass very retrogressive judgments, but no one says ban the police and the law courts. By what right do they demand a ban on khaps, simply because some members have undemocratic views? Educated elite in India don't know anything about the vital role played by these age-old institutions of self-governance."[263][264] In March 2010, Karnal district court ordered the execution of five perpetrators of an honor killing and imprisoning for life the khap (local caste-based council) chief who ordered the killings of Manoj Banwala (23) and Babli (19), a man and woman of the same gotra who eloped and married in June 2007. Despite having been given police protection on court orders, they were kidnapped; their mutilated bodies were found a week later in an irrigation canal.[265][266][267] In 2013, a young couple who were planning to marry were murdered in Garnauthi village, Haryana, due to having a love affair. The woman, Nidhi, was beaten to death and the man, Dharmender, was dismembered alive. People in the village and neighbouring villages approved of the killings.[268]

The Indian state of Punjab also has a large number of honor killings. According to data compiled by the Punjab Police, 34 honor killings were reported in the state between 2008 and 2010: 10 in 2008, 20 in 2009, and four in 2010.[269] Bhagalpur in the eastern Indian state of Bihar has also been notorious for honor killings.[270] Jagir Kaur a prominent Sikh leader was also charged with allegation of Honor Killing of her daughter and she was sent to jail .[271] However murder charges were dropped later by court .[272] Recent cases include a 16-year-old girl, Imrana, from Bhojpur who was set on fire inside her house in a case of what the police called 'moral vigilantism'. The victim had screamed for help for about 20 minutes before neighbors arrived, only to find her smoldering body. She was admitted to a local hospital, where she later died from her injuries.[273] In May 2008, Jayvirsingh Bhadodiya shot his daughter Vandana Bhadodiya and struck her on the head with an axe.[274] Honor killings occur even in Delhi.[275][276]

Honor killings take place in Rajasthan, too.[277][278][279] In June 2012, a man chopped off his 20-year-old daughter's head with a sword in Rajasthan after learning that she was dating men.[280][281] According to police officer, "Omkar Singh told the police that his daughter Manju had relations with several men. He had asked her to mend her ways several times in the past. However, she did not pay heed. Out of pure rage, he chopped off her head with the sword".[282]

In 1990, the National Commission for Women set up a statutory body to address the issues of honor killings among some ethnic groups in North India. This body reviewed constitutional, legal, and other provisions as well as challenges women face. The NCW's activism has contributed significantly towards the reduction of honor killings in rural areas of North India.[283] According to Pakistani activists Hina Jilani and Eman M Ahmed, Indian women are considerably better protected against honor killings by Indian law and government than Pakistani women, and they have suggested that governments of countries affected by honor killings use Indian law as a model to prevent honor killings in their respective societies.[284]

In June 2010, scrutinizing the increasing number of honor killings, the Supreme Court of India demanded responses about honor killing prevention from the federal government and the state governments of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.[285]

Alarmed by the rise of honor killings, the Government planned to bring a bill in the Monsoon Session of Parliament July 2010[needs update] to provide for deterrent punishment for 'honor' killings.[286]

In 2000, Jaswinder Kaur Sidhu (nicknamed Jassi), a Canadian Punjabi who married rickshaw driver Sukhwinder Singh Sidhu (nicknamed Mithu) against her family's wishes, was brutally murdered in India following orders from her mother and uncle in Canada so that "the family honor was restored". Her body was found in an irrigation canal. Mithu was kidnapped, beaten and left to die, but survived.[287]

Tamil Nadu has had 192 cases of honor killings, most relating to marriages between a woman higher in the caste hierarchy than the man she marries. These marriages in particular are considered "dishonorable" since the women of the caste are responsible for its continuation, by having children. According to Kathir of anti-caste group Evidence, "There is this firm belief that if I get my daughter married to someone of my own caste, I have succeeded in safeguarding it.  And if not, one's prestige is challenged, and then there is barbaric anger".[288] In 2016, Chinnaswamy, a member of the Thevar community dominant in the southern part of the state, ordered the killing of his daughter Kausalya and her husband Shankar, belonging to the Dalit Pallar community. The crime, taking place at Udumalaipettai Bus station, was caught on video with Shankar hacked to death in broad daylight, while his wife barely escaped alive. The accused in the case were at first sentenced to death, but later Chinnaswamy was ruled "not guilty" and the other killer's sentences were reduced.[289]

Once unheard of in Kerala, honor killings related to inter-caste marriages are becoming more prevalent in the southern state also.[290]


Honor killings have been reported in Nepal, with much of them linked with the caste system that is deeply rooted in Nepalese tradition. Most honor killings are reportedly undetected.[291] Gender-based violence has been the deadliest form of violence in Nepal as of 2017, which includes honor killings[292] and have been rising in the country as of 2012.[293][294]


Main article: Honor killing in Pakistan

In Pakistan honor killings are known locally as karo-kari. An Amnesty International report noted "the failure of the authorities to prevent these killings by investigating and punishing the perpetrators."[295] Official data put the number of women killed in honor killings in 2015 at nearly 1,100.[296] Recent cases include that of three teenage girls who were buried alive after refusing arranged marriages.[297] Another case was that of Taslim Khatoon Solangi, 17, of Hajna Shah village in Khairpur district, which was widely reported after her father, 57-year-old Gul Sher Solangi, publicized the case. He alleged his eight-months-pregnant daughter was tortured and killed on 7 March on the orders of her father-in-law, who accused her of carrying a child conceived out of wedlock.[298][299] Statistically, honor killings have a high level of support in Pakistan's rural society, despite widespread condemnation from human rights groups.[300] In 2002 alone over 382 people, about 245 women and 137 men, became victims of honor killings in the Sindh province of Pakistan.[301] Over the course of six years, more than 4,000 women have died as victims of honor killings in Pakistan from 1999 to 2004.[302] In 2005 the average annual number of honor killings for the whole nation was stated to be more than 1,000 per year.[303]

A 2009 study by Muazzam Nasrullah et al. reported a total of 1,957 honor crime victims reported in Pakistan's newspapers from 2004 to 2007.[304] Of those killed, 18% were below the age of 18 years, and 88% were married. Husbands, brothers, and close relatives were direct perpetrators of 79% of the honor crimes reported by mainstream media. The method used for honor crime included firearms (most common), stabbing, axe, and strangulation.[304]

According to women's rights advocates, "the concepts of women as property, and of honor, are so deeply entrenched in the social, political and economic fabric of Pakistan that the government mostly ignores the regular occurrences of women being killed and maimed by their families."[305] Frequently, women killed in honor killings are recorded as having committed suicide or died in accidents.[305] Savitri Goonesekere states that tribal leaders in Pakistan use religious justifications for sanctioning honor killings.[284]

On 27 May 2014, a pregnant woman was stoned to death by her own family in front of a Pakistani high court for marrying the man she loved. "I killed my daughter as she had insulted all of our family by marrying a man without our consent, and I have no regret over it," the father reportedly told the police investigator.[306] Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif described the stoning as "totally unacceptable," and ordered the chief minister of Punjab province to provide an immediate report. He demanded to know why police did nothing, despite the killing taking place outside one of the country's top courts, in the presence of police.[307] Scholars suggest that the Islamic law doctrine of Qisas and Diyya encourages honor killings, particularly against females, as well as allows the murderer to go unpunished. However it has been pointed out that criminals can still be punished under tazir or fasad doctrine which is often ignored by judges sympathetic to killers.[308][309][310] In 2016, Pakistan repealed the loophole which allowed the perpetrators of honor killings to avoid punishment by seeking forgiveness for the crime from another family member, and thus be legally pardoned.[311]

In January 2017 a Pakistani mother was sentenced to death for killing her daughter that had married against her family's wishes.[312] On 14 May 2020, two women in North Waziristan province of Pakistan were murdered and buried by their family members in an act of honor killing, after a video of the women kissing a man circulated on social media platforms.[313]

East Asia

Honor killing is rare in modern East Asia. Only one case in China is considered by some as an honor killing. On 15 April 2017, Ma Ruibao, a Hui resident of Zhongning County in Ningxia, murdered his daughter, her boyfriend asurnamed Li and the taxi driver who drove the couple home. Ma Ruibao confessed that he murdered his daughter and Li on April 15 because he was not "satisfied" with Li. Though some civilian speculators believed it to be an honor killing, Ding Liyu, a police officer from the Qingtongxia police bureau, said he did not know what an honor killing is and why it has anything to do with the murder.[314]

The Americas


Throughout the 20th century, husbands have used the "legitimate defense of their honor" (legítima defesa da honra) as justification for adultery-related killings in court cases. Although this defense was not explicitly stipulated in the 20th-century Criminal Code, it has been successfully pleaded by lawyers throughout the 20th century, in particular in the interior of the country, though less so in the coastal big cities. In 1991 Brazil's Supreme Court explicitly rejected the "honor defense" as having no basis in Brazilian law.[315][316][317]


Honor killings have become such a pressing issue in Canada that the Canadian citizenship study guide mentions it specifically, saying, "Canada's openness and generosity do not extend to barbaric cultural practices that tolerate spousal abuse, 'honour killings', female genital mutilation, forced marriage or other gender-based violence."[318]

Canada has been host to a number of high-profile killings, including the murder of Jaswinder Kaur Sidhu,[319] the murder of Amandeep Atwal,[320] the double murder of Khatera Sadiqi and her fiancé,[318] and the Shafia family murders.[318][321]

A 2007 study by Dr. Amin Muhammad and Dr. Sujay Patel of Memorial University, Canada, investigated how the practice of honor killings was brought to Canada. The report explained that "When people come and settle in Canada they can bring their traditions and forcefully follow them. In some cultures, people feel that some boundaries are never to be crossed, and if someone would violate those practices or go against them, then killing is justified to them." The report noted that "In different cultures, they can get away without being punished—the courts actually sanction them under religious contexts". The report also said that the people who commit these crimes are usually mentally ill and that the mental health aspect is often ignored by Western observers because of a lack of understanding of the insufficiently developed state of mental healthcare in developing countries in which honor killings are prevalent.[322]

United States

Main article: Honor killing in the United States

Several honor killings have occurred in the U.S. during recent years. In 1989, in St. Louis, Missouri, 16-year-old Palestina "Tina" Isa was murdered by her Palestinian father with the aid of his wife. Her parents were dissatisfied with her "westernized" lifestyle.[323] In 2008, in Georgia, 25-year-old Sandeela Kanwal was murdered by her Pakistani father for refusing an arranged marriage.[324][325][326] Amina and Sarah Said, two teenage sisters from Texas were murdered, allegedly by their Egyptian father, Yaser Abdel Said, who was at large until his capture in Texas in August 2020.[327][328][329] Aasiya Zubair was, together with her husband Muzzammil Hassan, the founder and owner of Bridges TV, the first American Muslim English-language television network. She was murdered by her husband in 2009. Phyllis Chesler argues that this crime was an honor killing.[330] In 2009, in Arizona, Noor Almaleki, aged 20, was murdered by her father, an Iraqi immigrant, because she had refused an arranged marriage and was living with her boyfriend.[331]

The extent of honor-based violence in the U.S. is not known, because no official data is collected. There is controversy about the reasons why such violence occurs, and about the extent to which culture, religion, and views on women cause these incidents.[332]

Latin America

Crimes of passion within Latin America have also been compared to honor killings.[44] As with honor killings, crimes of passion often feature the murder of a woman by a husband, family member, or boyfriend, and the crime is often condoned or sanctioned. In Peru, for example, 70 percent of the murders of women in one year were committed by a husband, boyfriend, or lover, and most often jealousy or suspicions of infidelity are cited as the reasons for the murders.[333] El Salvador ranks the worst in the world on the UN rankings of femicide.[334]

The view that violence can be justified in the name of honor and shame exists traditionally in Latin American societies, and machismo is often described as a code of honor. While some ideas originated in the Spanish colonial culture, others predate it: in the early history of Peru, the laws of the Incas allowed husbands to starve their wives to death if they committed adultery, while Aztec laws in early Mexico stipulated stoning or strangulation as punishment for female adultery.[335]

Until the 1990s, the marriage of a girl or woman to the man who had raped her was considered a "solution" to the incident in order to restore her family's 'honor'. In fact, although laws that exonerate the perpetrator of rape if he marries his victim after the rape are often associated with the Middle East, such laws were very common around the world until the second half of the 20th century. As late as 1997, fourteen Latin American countries had such laws[336] although most of these countries have since abolished them. Such laws were ended in Mexico in 1991,[337] El Salvador in 1996,[338] Colombia in 1997, Peru in 1999,[337] Chile in 1999,[339][340] Brazil in 2005,[341][342] Uruguay in 2005,[343] Guatemala in 2006,[344] Costa Rica in 2007,[345] Panama in 2008,[346] Nicaragua in 2008,[347] Argentina in 2012,[348] and Ecuador in 2014.[349]



Jim Spigelman (who served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales from 19 May 1998 until 31 May 2011) said that Australia's increasing diversity was creating conflicts about how to deal with the customs and traditions of immigrant populations. He said: "There are important racial, ethnic and religious minorities in Australia who come from nations with sexist traditions which, in some respects, are even more pervasive than those of the West." He said that honor crimes, forced marriages and other violent acts against women were becoming a problem in Australia.[350]

In 2010, in New South Wales, Indonesian born Hazairin Iskandar and his son murdered the lover of Iskandar's wife. Iskandar stabbed the victim with a knife while his son bashed him with a hammer. The court was told that the reason for the murder was the perpetrators' belief that extramarital affairs were against their religion; and that the murder was carried out to protect the honor of the family and was a "pre-planned, premeditated and executed killing". The judge said that: "No society or culture that regards itself as civilized can tolerate to any extent, or make any allowance for, the killing of another person for such an amorphous concept as an honor".[351][352][353]

Pela Atroshi was a Kurdish 19-year-old girl who was murdered by her uncle in Iraqi Kurdistan in 1999. The decision to murder her was taken by a council of her male relatives, led by Pela's grandfather, Abdulmajid Atroshi, who lived in Australia. One of his sons, Shivan Atroshi, who helped with the murder, also lived in Australia. Pela Atroshi was living in Sweden, but was taken by family members to Iraqi Kurdistan to be murdered, as ordered by a family council of male relatives living in Sweden and Australia because they claimed she had tarnished the family honor. Pela Atroshi's murder was officially deemed an honor killing by authorities.[354]

International response

Honor killings are condemned as a serious human rights violation and are addressed by several international instruments.

Honor killings are opposed by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 55/66 (adopted in 2000) and subsequent resolutions, which have generated various reports.[355]

The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence addresses this issue. Article 42 reads:[356]

Article 42 – Unacceptable justifications for crimes, including crimes committed in the name of so-called honor

1. Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that, in criminal proceedings initiated following the commission of any of the acts of violence covered by the scope of this Convention, culture, custom, religion, tradition, or so-called honor shall not be regarded as justification for such acts. This covers, in particular, claims that the victim has transgressed cultural, religious, social, or traditional norms or customs of appropriate behavior.

2. Parties shall take the necessary legislative or other measures to ensure that incitement by any person of a child to commit any of the acts referred to in paragraph 1 shall not diminish the criminal liability of that person for the acts committed.

The World Health Organization (WHO) addressed the issue of honor killings and stated: "Murders of women to 'save the family honor' are among the most tragic consequences and explicit illustrations of embedded, culturally accepted discrimination against women and girls."[357] According to the UNODC: "Honour crimes, including killing, are one of history's oldest forms of gender-based violence. It assumes that a woman's behavior casts a reflection on the family and the community. ... In some communities, a father, brother, or cousin will publicly take pride in a murder committed to preserving the 'honor' of a family. In some such cases, local justice officials may side with the family and take no formal action to prevent similar deaths."[358]

In national legal codes

Legislation on this issue varies, but today the vast majority of countries no longer allow a husband to legally murder a wife for adultery (although adultery itself continues to be punishable by death in some countries) or to commit other forms of honor killings. However, in many places, adultery and other "immoral" sexual behaviors by female family members can be considered mitigating circumstances in the case when they are murdered, leading to significantly shorter sentences.

In the Western world, a country that is often associated with "crimes of passion" and adultery related violence is France, and indeed, recent surveys have shown the French public to be more accepting of these practices than the public in other countries. One 2008 Gallup survey compared the views of the French, German and British public and those of French, German and British Muslims on several social issues: 4% of the French public said "honor killings" were "morally acceptable" and 8% of the French public said "crimes of passion" were "morally acceptable"; honor killings were seen as acceptable by 1% of German public and also 1% of the British public; crimes of passion were seen as acceptable by 1% of German public and 2% of the British public. Among Muslims, 5% in Paris, 3% in Berlin, and 3% in London saw honor killings as acceptable, and 4% in Paris (less than the French public), 1% in Berlin, and 3% in London saw crimes of passion as acceptable.[359]

According to the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 2002 concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women (E/CN.4/2002/83):

The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honor defense in Brazil, and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defence in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela and the Palestinian National Authority.[110]

The legal aspects of honor killings in different countries are discussed below:

Support and sanction

Actions of Pakistani police officers and judges (particularly at the lower level of the judiciary[375]) have, in the past, seemed to support the act of honor killings in the name of family honor. Police enforcement, in situations of admitted murder, does not always take action against the perpetrator. Also, judges in Pakistan (particularly at the lower level of the judiciary[375]), rather than ruling cases with gender equality in mind, also seem to reinforce inequality and in some cases sanction the murder of women considered dishonorable.[375] Often, a suspected honor killing never even reaches court, but in cases where they do, the alleged killer is often not charged or is given a reduced sentence of three to four years in jail. In a case study of 150 honor killings, the proceeding judges rejected only eight claims that the women were murdered for the honor. The rest were sentenced lightly.[376] In many cases in Pakistan, one of the reasons honor killing cases never make it to the courts, is because, according to some lawyers and women's right activists, Pakistani law enforcement do not get involved. Under the encouragement of the killer, police often declare the killing as a domestic case that warrants no involvement. In other cases, the women and victims are too afraid to speak up or press charges. Police officials, however, claim that these cases are never brought to them, or are not major enough to be pursued on a large scale.[377] The general indifference to the issue of honor killing within Pakistan is due to a deep-rooted gender bias in law, the police force, and the judiciary. In its report, "Pakistan: Honor Killings of Girls and Women",[378] published in September 1999, Amnesty International criticized governmental indifference and called for state responsibility in protecting human rights of female victims. To elaborate, Amnesty strongly requested the Government of Pakistan to take 1) legal, 2) preventive, and 3) protective measures. First of all, legal measures refer to a modification of the government's criminal laws to guarantee equal legal protection of females. On top of that, Amnesty insisted the government assure legal access for the victims of crime in the name of honor. When it comes to preventive measures, Amnesty underlined the critical need to promote public awareness through the means of media, education, and public announcements. Finally, protective measures include ensuring a safe environment for activists, lawyers, and women's groups to facilitate the eradication of honor killings. Also, Amnesty argued for the expansion of victim support services such as shelters.

Kremlin-appointed Chechen president Ramzan Kadyrov said that honor killings were perpetrated on those who deserved to die. He said that those who are killed have "loose morals" and are rightfully shot by relatives in honor killings. He did not vilify women alone but added that "If a woman runs around and if a man runs around with her, both of them are killed."[379][380]

In 2007, a famous Norwegian Supreme Court advocate stated that he wanted the punishment for the killing from 17 years in prison to 15 years in the case of honor killings practiced in Norway. He explained that the Norwegian public did not understand other cultures who practiced honor killings, or understand their thinking, and that Norwegian culture "is self-righteous".[381]

In 2008, Israr Ullah Zehri, a Pakistani politician in Balochistan, defended the honor killings of five women belonging to the Umrani tribe by a relative of a local Umrani politician.[382] Zehri defended the murdering in Parliament and asked his fellow legislators not to make a fuss about the incident. He said, "These are centuries-old traditions, and I will continue to defend them. Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid."[383][384]

Nilofar Bakhtiar, Minister for Tourism and Advisor to Pakistan Prime Minister on Women's Affairs, who had struggled against the honor killing in Pakistan, resigned in April 2007 after the clerics accused her of bringing shame to Pakistan by para-jumping with a male and hugging him after landing.[385][386]


This is an incomplete list of notable victims of Honor killing. See also Category:Victims of honor killing

Comparison to other forms of killing

Honor killings are, along with dowry killings (most of which are committed in South Asia), gang-related killings of women as revenge (killings of female members of rival gang members' families—most of which are committed in Latin America) and witchcraft accusation killings (most of which are committed in Africa and Oceania) are some of the most recognized forms of femicide.[27][357]

Human rights advocates have compared "honor killings" to "crimes of passion" in Latin America (which are sometimes treated extremely leniently) and the killing of women for lack of dowry in India.[44]

Some commentators have stressed the point that the focus on honor killings should not lead people to ignore other forms of gender-based killings of women, in particular those which occur in Latin America ("crimes of passion" and gang-related killings); the murder rate of women in this region is extremely high, with El Salvador being reported as the country with the highest rate of murders of women in the world.[390] In 2002, Widney Brown, advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated that "crimes of passion have a similar dynamic in that the women are killed by male family members and the crimes are perceived as excusable or understandable".[44]

See also


  2. ^ "Honor killing | sociology".
  3. ^ "Honor killing Definition & Meaning - Merriam-Webster".
  4. ^ Oberwittler, Dietrich; Kasselt, Julia (2014). "Honor Killings". In Gartner, Rosemary; McCarthy, Bill (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199838707.013.0033. ISBN 978-0-19-983870-7.
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ "BBC - Ethics - Honour crimes".
  7. ^
  8. ^ "'Honour killings increasing in urban areas'". 22 December 2016.
  9. ^ "Urban honour killings: Backlash against change - Times of India". The Times of India.
  10. ^ "Ethics: Honour Crimes". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  11. ^ "Honor killing: Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". 31 August 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  12. ^ "Honor killing definition". Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  13. ^ "Shocking gay honor killing inspires movie". CNN. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  14. ^ "Iraqi immigrant convicted in Arizona 'honor killing' awaits sentence". CNN. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  15. ^ "Why do families kill their daughters?". BBC News. 29 May 2014.
  16. ^ a b Team, Delhi City (12 February 2018). "Love in the time of honour killings". The Hindu.
  17. ^ "Violence Against Women and "Honor" Crimes". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 April 2001.
  18. ^ Razzall, Katie; Khan, Yasminara (11 April 2017). "Male 'honour' cases 'underreported'". Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  19. ^ Afghan couple stoned to death – Central & South Asia. Al Jazeera English (16 August 2010). Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  20. ^ a b "FAQ". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Introduction – Preliminary Examination of so-called Honour Killings in Canada". 24 September 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  22. ^ Malik, I.H. (2005). Culture and Customs of Pakistan. Greenwood Press, Westport; Çakır, R., Yavuz, M. F., and Demircan, T. (2004). Türkiye'de, Namus Saikiyle İşlenen Adam Öldürme Suçlarının Değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of Honor Related Homicides in Turkey] Adli Tıp Dergisi [Journal of Forensic Medicine], 18(3-4):27–33. Öztürk,M.and Demirdağ, M.A. (2013). Namusunu Kanla Temizleyenler: Mardin Cezaevi'nde Namus Davası Nedeniyle Yatan Mahkûmlar Üzerine bir Araştırma [The Ones Who Restored Their Honour With Blood: A Sociological Research On Prisoners Convicted for Honour Related Issues in the Mardin Jailhouse]. Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları, 7(30):117–135. See also Ermers, R., 2018. Honor Related Violence. A New Social Psychological Perspective, Routledge, p. 196-197.
  23. ^ "The Horror of 'Honor Killings', Even in US". 10 April 2012.
  24. ^ "'Honor killings': 5 things to know".
  25. ^ "Honor killings – UAB Institute for Human Rights Blog".
  26. ^ "Honour Killings By Region".
  27. ^ a b c d "Femicide: A Global Issue that demands Action" (PDF). Academic Council on the United Nations System. p. 60. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  28. ^ a b c "Honour Related Violence" (PDF). Kvinnoforum. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  29. ^ a b c d "Historical Context – Origins of Honour Killing / Honour Killing – Worldwide / Honour Killing – In Countries with Islamic Law – Preliminary Examination of so-called Honour Killings in Canada". 24 September 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  30. ^ "Broken bodies, shattered minds: Torture and ill-treatment of women". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2001.
  31. ^ a b Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban. "Cultural Relativism and Universal Rights" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  32. ^ Suzanne Ruggi (8 June 1998). "Commodifying Honor in Female Sexuality: Honor Killings in Palestine". Middle East Research and Information Project. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  33. ^ "One in 10 'backs honor killings'". BBC News. Retrieved 8 December 2001.
  34. ^ Culture of Discrimination: A Fact Sheet on "Honor" Killings Archived 19 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Amnesty International. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  35. ^ "PAKISTAN Honour killings of girls and women". Amnesty International. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  36. ^ a b Murat Gezer. "Honor killing perpetrators welcomed by society, study reveals". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  37. ^ a b AYSAN SEV'ER. "Feminist Analysis of Honor Killings in Rural Turkey" (PDF). University of Toronto. Retrieved 2 January 2015.[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ Hilal Onur Ince, Aysun Yarali and Dogancan Ozsel (2009). "Customary Killings in Turkey and Turkish Modernization". Middle Eastern Studies. 45 (4): 537–551. doi:10.1080/00263200903009593. S2CID 144871658.
  39. ^ Palash R. Ghosh. "Honor Crimes in Britain Far More Prevalent than Formerly Thought". International Business Times. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  40. ^ Fareena Alam (6 July 2004). "Take the Honor Out of Killing". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  41. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ "Ethics: Honour crimes". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  43. ^
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mayell, Hillary (12 February 2002). "Thousands of Women Killed for Family "Honor"". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 22 August 2019. Pdf via
  45. ^ "Ethics: Honour crimes". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  46. ^ Bhaskar Dasgupta (21 February 2004). "No Honour in Honour Killings". Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  47. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ "Ethics – Honour crimes". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  49. ^ Harter, Pascale (14 June 2011). "Libya rape victims 'face honour killings'". BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  50. ^
  51. ^ "Dafka". Dafka. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  52. ^ Marina Jimenez. "Gay Jordanian now 'gloriously free' in Canada". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2004.
  53. ^ a b c Bilefsky, Dan (25 November 2009). "Soul-Searching in Turkey After a Gay Man Is Killed". The New York Times.
  54. ^ a b c Yücel, Deniz (7 September 2009). "Ehrenmord in der Türkei: "Jeder soll wissen, ich bin schwul"". die Tageszeitung.
  55. ^ a b The German Democratic Turkey Forum (DTF) has prepared a report with details on the killing and the subsequent court case. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  56. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (26 November 2009). "Soul-Searching in Turkey After a Gay Man Is Killed". The New York Times. pp. A16. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
  57. ^ Nicholas Birch (19 July 2008). "Was Ahmet Yildiz the victim of Turkey's first gay honor killing?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  58. ^ "Father confesses to killing his own son in landmark homosexual murder case – LOCAL". Hürriyet Daily News. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  59. ^ "Father gets life imprisonment for murdering gay son in Turkey – LGBTQ Nation". 2 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  60. ^ UNHCR Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, II, B. para 14. United Nations High Commission for (21 November 2008). Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  61. ^ Lowe, Michelle; Khan, Roxanne; Thanzami, Vanlal; Barzy, Mahsa; Karmaliani, Rozina (2021). "Anti-gay "Honor" Abuse: A Multinational Attitudinal Study of Collectivist- Versus Individualist-Orientated Populations in Asia and England" (PDF). Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 36 (15–16): 7866–7885. doi:10.1177/0886260519838493. PMID 30924715. S2CID 85566154.
  62. ^ "Male Asylum Applicants Who Fear Becoming the Victims of Honor Killings: The Case for Gender Equality".
  63. ^ "In south India, a 20-year-old survivor of honor killing turns crusader". 29 December 2017 – via
  64. ^ "In Tamil Nadu, anatomy of a caste crime: Families devastated by honour killings speak of the scourge".
  65. ^ "Caste kills more in India than coronavirus". 15 March 2020.
  66. ^ "India killing: 'My father ordered my husband's murder'". BBC News. 20 September 2018.
  67. ^ "In Pakistan, five girls were killed for having fun. Then the story took an even darker twist". The Washington Post.
  68. ^ "Pakistani women murdered after leaked video circulates online".
  69. ^ "Why do families kill their daughters?". BBC News. 29 May 2014.
  70. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  71. ^ a b Krishan Bir Singh (1 January 1970). "Honour Killing – A Study of the Causes and Remedies in its SocioLegal Aspect". Academia. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  72. ^ "International Domestic Violence Issues". Sanctuary for Families. 15 October 2008. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  73. ^ "The Horror of 'Honor Killings', Even in US". Amnesty International USA. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  74. ^ "Indian Society and Ways of Living". Asia Society.
  75. ^ a b c d e Brown, Ryan. "How to Understand Honor Killings". Psychology Today. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  76. ^ "FAQ". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  77. ^ a b Brown, Jonathan (25 October 2016). "Islam is not the Cause of Honor Killings. It's part of the Solution". Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  78. ^ a b c d Cooney, Mark. "Honor Cultures and Violence". Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  79. ^ Women of the Jordan: Islam, Labor, and the Law. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  80. ^ 'Honour': Crimes, Paradigms and Violence Against Women. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  81. ^ Greg Woolf (2007). Ancient civilizations: the illustrated guide to belief, mythology, and art. Barnes & Noble. p. 386. ISBN 978-1-4351-0121-0.
  82. ^ "France: Penal Code of 1810".
  83. ^ "Secular Islam – Center for Inquiry". Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  84. ^
  85. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  86. ^ "Section 352 in The Indian Penal Code". Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  87. ^ Welchman, Lynn; Hossain, Sara (2013). 'Honour': Crimes, Paradigms, and Violence Against Women. Zed Books Ltd. pp. 84–97. ISBN 978-1-84813-698-4. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  88. ^ Idzikowski, Lisa (2017). Honor Killings. Greenhaven Publishing LLC. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-5345-0133-1. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  89. ^ "UNICEF Turkey: Protective Environment for Children; Honour Crimes and Forced Suicides". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  90. ^ "UN probes Turkey 'forced suicide'". BBC News. 24 May 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  91. ^ a b Amnesty International (July 2008). Human Rights Abuses against the Kurdish Minority. London: Amnesty International. Available at [downloaded 15 July 2009]
  92. ^ "Document". Amnesty International.
  93. ^ a b Kurdish Human Rights Project European Parliament Project: The Increase in Kurdish Women Committing Suicide Final Report "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  94. ^ a b "United Nations Population Fund | Publications" (PDF). UNFPA. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  95. ^ "FAQ". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  96. ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  97. ^ a b John Esposito (2011), What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, p. 177. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3.
  98. ^ a b "Preliminary Examination of so-called 'Honour Killings' in Canada". Ottawa: Department of Justice of Canada. 24 September 2013. § Honour Killing – In Countries with Islamic Law.
  99. ^ Clarke, Donald C.; et al. "Punishment". Encyclopædia Britannica. § Punishment in Islamic law.
  100. ^ "Islam QA Fatwa 101972: Ruling on honour killings". Retrieved 2 December 2014. Even if we assume that she deserves to be executed (if she was previously-married and committed zina), no one should do that but the ruler – as stated above. Moreover, in many cases killing is done on the basis of accusations and speculation, without proving whether the immoral action even took place.
  101. ^ Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy, Oneworld Publications (2014), p. 180
  102. ^ "The History of Honor Killings in Asia".
  103. ^ "Preliminary Examination of so-called "Honour Killings" in Canada". 24 September 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  104. ^ Muḥammad b.ʿAlī al-Shawkānī, Nayl al-Awṭār, ed. ʿIzz al-Dīn Khaṭṭāb, 8 vols. (Beirut: Dār Iḥyā' al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 2001), 7:24
  105. ^ a b Matthew A. Goldstein (September 2002). "The biological roots of heat-of-passion crimes and honor killings" (PDF). Politics and the Life Sciences. p. 29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  106. ^ a b c "Historical Overview".
  107. ^ "How the West should treat 'honor' killings". Reuters. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  108. ^ a b "Explainer: Why Is It So Hard To Stop 'Honor Killings'?". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  109. ^
  110. ^ a b "Working towards the elimination of crimes against women committed in the name of honour" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  111. ^ "Abu-Ghanem women speak out against serial 'honor killings'". Haaretz. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
  112. ^ "International Domestic Violence Issues". Sanctuary For Families. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  113. ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly". 26 June 2009. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  114. ^ a b "Honour Killings by Region".
  115. ^ Stewart, Charles. Honor and Shame (PDF). Department of Anthropology, University College London. p. 12. Retrieved 18 November 2017. First generation migrants commit the majority of honor killings against second and third-generation migrants who have become Westernized.[permanent dead link]
  116. ^ Chesler, Phyllis (1 March 2010). "Worldwide Trends in Honor Killings". Middle East Quarterly.
  117. ^ "Albania's Ancient Blood Feuds Trap Entire Generations". Fair Observer. 17 July 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  118. ^
  119. ^ "Pakistani family guilty of Belgian honor killing: media". Agence France-Presse. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  120. ^ "ORBi: Invalid identifier".
  121. ^ "La loi du 24 novembre 1997 visant a combattre la violence au sein du couple". 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  122. ^ "Document législatif n° 4-162/1".
  123. ^ "Dom vil sende chokbølger I indvandrermiljøet" [Sentence to send shock‐waves through immigrant communities]. (in Danish). 27 June 2006. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  124. ^ "HS: Man dömd för planerat "hedersmord"". (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  125. ^ "VBL: Österbottens tingsrätt behandlar mordförsök som motiverades av mannens heder". (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  126. ^ Geesy, Patricia "North African Immigrants in France: Integration and Change" 1995 Substance 77(76) p137.
  127. ^ "Number of Honor Killings in Europe Higher Than Thought". VOA. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  128. ^ "Honour Killings By Region". 18 March 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  129. ^ Lethal Imagination: Violence and Brutality in American History. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  130. ^ Oberwittler, Dietrich; Kasselt, Julia (2011). Ehrenmorde in Deutschland 1996-2005 Eine Untersuchung Auf der Basis von Prozessakten. Köln: Luchterhand. pp. 172–173. ISBN 9783472080459. OCLC 765999746.
  131. ^ Foblets, Marie-Claire; Renteln, Alison Dundes (16 January 2009). Multicultural Jurisprudence: Comparative Perspectives on the Cultural Defense. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84731-481-9.
  132. ^ Biehl, Jody K. (2 March 2005). "The Whore Lived Like a German". Der Spiegel. Der Spiegel, Germany.
  133. ^ Geiger, Eric (4 December 2005). "Muslim girls in Austria fighting forced marriages – Program for women helps them escape from family pressures, unwanted weddings – and violence". San Francisco Chronicle.
  134. ^ "Turkish man in Berlin jailed for 'honor killing' of sister". Expatica. 13 April 2006.
  135. ^ "Ehre verletzt: Da brachte der Vater die Tochter um".
  136. ^ ""Ehrenmord"-Prozeß endet mit lebenslänglich". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 29 September 2006.
  137. ^ Gutsch, Jochen-Martin; Per Hinrichs; Susanne Koelbl; Gunther Latsch; Sven Röbel; Andreas Ulrich (27 May 2008). "The High Price of Freedom". Der Spiegel. Translated by Christopher Sultan. Retrieved 30 November 2019. - Original German version: Gutsch, Jochen-Martin; Hinrichs, Per; Koelbl, Susanne; Latsch, Gunther; Röbel, Sven; Ulrich, Andreas (25 May 2008). "Eigentum des Mannes". Der Spiegel. - PDF page
  138. ^ "Abseits des Weges". Süddeutsche Zeitung.
  139. ^ "Die türkische Gemeinde nach dem Fall Büsra - der Imam spricht". 29 March 2010.
  140. ^ "Kurdish woman shot dead at wedding for refusing to marry her cousin". The Daily Telegraph. 11 March 2016.
  141. ^ "Unter Maryams verscharrter Leiche fanden Ermittler die DNA-Spur eines Bruders". Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  142. ^ News, A. B. C. "Germany: 2 men charged in killing of their sister". ABC News. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  143. ^
  144. ^ "Omicidio e lesione personale a causa di onore". Diritto24. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  145. ^ "Revista de italianistica - Revista italia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  146. ^ Marilyn Migiel, Juliana Schiesari, Refiguring Woman: Perspectives on Gender and the Italian Renaissance, Cornell University Press, 1991, p.247
  147. ^ Kennedy, Duncan (10 February 2011). "Murdered by her father for becoming a Western woman". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  148. ^ Popham, Peter (20 August 2006). "Murder of Muslim girl 'rebel' by her father shocks all Italy". The Independent.
  149. ^ "Ama un italiano, Sanaa uccisa dal padre". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  150. ^ "Italy – Moroccan Father on Trial for Daughter's Honour Killing". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  151. ^ ""Sei il disonore della famiglia" e accoltella il fratello gay". La Repubblica (in Italian). 5 August 2011.
  152. ^ "Saman 'rowed with family on evening before went missing' - English". 7 June 2021.
  153. ^ a b Sverige. Nationella samordnaren mot våld i nära relationer (2014). Våld i nära relationer - en folkhälsofråga : förslag för ett effektivare arbete: betänkande. Stockholm: Fritze. pp. 218, 220. ISBN 9789138241394. OCLC 941451364.
  154. ^ "Kurd killing sparks ethnic debate". CNN. 5 February 2002. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  155. ^ a b c Hellgren, Zenia; Hobson, Barbara (1 September 2008). "Cultural dialogues in the good society: The case of honour killings in Sweden". Ethnicities. 8 (3): 385–404. doi:10.1177/1468796808092449. S2CID 210759790.
  156. ^ a b c [1]
  157. ^ "Australian links to brutal honour killing".
  158. ^ "Riksorganisationen GAPF – Glöm aldrig Pela och Fadime".
  159. ^ Russell Hardin (2004). Distrust. Russell Sage Foundation. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-61044-269-5.
  160. ^ Vandekerckhove, Marie; Scheve, Christian von; Ismer, Sven; Jung, Susanne; Kronast, Stefanie (16 March 2009). Regulating Emotions: Culture, Social Necessity, and Biological Inheritance. John Wiley & Sons. p. 277. ISBN 9781444301793.
  161. ^ Hardin, Russell (20 May 2004). Distrust. Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 9781610442695 – via Google Books.
  162. ^ "Var tionde mord förra året var hedersmord". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  163. ^ Jens; Jens, Ersson. "Han mördade mamman – inför ögonen på barnen". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  164. ^ "Pappa och två söner döms för hedersmord Kiruna". Dagens Juridik (in Swedish). 11 December 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  165. ^ "Dad killed daughter in brutal axe murder". 13 January 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  166. ^ "Procès à Zurich: Plus de 13 ans de prison pour avoir tué sa fille à la hache". 26 November 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  167. ^ "20 Jahre Gefängnis für 'Ehrenmord'". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 25 August 2017.
  168. ^ "GERICHT: Ehrenmord in Kriens: 20 Jahre Gefängnis für Syrer".
  169. ^ "BBC: Honour killings in the UK". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  170. ^ "One in 10 'backs honour killings'". BBC News. 4 September 2006. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  171. ^ Lily Gupta (9 January 2008). "Multicultural sensitivity is no excuse for moral blindness ..." The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  172. ^ "Nearly 3000 cases of 'honour' violence every year in the UK". 3 December 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  173. ^ Ashis Ray (4 December 2011). "Honor Killing Cases Among South Asians in the UK Rising". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  174. ^ "Shame". The Independent. 27 May 1999.
  175. ^ "Banaz Mahmod 'honour' killing cousins jailed for life". BBC News. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  176. ^ "ITV commissions two part drama, Honour, starring Keeley Hawes". ITV Press Centre. 24 June 2019.
  177. ^ "Execute me, pleads Muslim who killed his daughter over her Western". The Independent. 30 September 2003.
  178. ^ a b Bingham, John (17 December 2009). "Honour killing: father convicted of the killing of Tulay Goren". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  179. ^ "Shafilea Ahmed murder trial: Parents guilty of killing". BBC News. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  180. ^ "Telford man guilty of daughter's murder". BBC News. 11 February 2011.
  181. ^ Sikh dad strangled daughter who was in a relationship with white soldier. Daily Mirror. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  182. ^ "Teenager is 'first' white victim of honor killing". The Telegraph. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  183. ^ "Tyseley ' honor killing' father jailed for blaze murder". BBC News. 30 October 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  184. ^ "Rania Alayed murder: Husband jailed for 'honour killing'". BBC News. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  185. ^ Association, Press (4 June 2014). "Husband jailed for life over Rania Alayed murder". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  186. ^ "Rania Alayed case: jealous husband jailed for 20 years for honour killing of his wife". The Independent. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  187. ^ "Five dead in Algeria 'honour' killings". News24. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  188. ^ "Libya rape victims 'face honour killings'". BBC News. 14 June 2011.
  189. ^ "Are Arabs turning their backs on religion?". 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  190. ^
  191. ^ "Three Egyptian Women Killed In 'Honor Killing,' Five Men Arrested". The Inquisitr News. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  192. ^ "News". Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  193. ^ "Durrës locals protest MEK members' burial in local cemetery". The New York Times.
  194. ^ "From poisonings to beheadings, 'honor killings' in Iran gets a fresh spotlight with social media". Fox News Channel.
  195. ^ "Third 'Honor Killing' In One Month Shakes Many Iranians". Radio Farda.
  196. ^ "At a Crossroads". 21 February 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  197. ^ "Kurdistan: Over 6,000 Women Killed in 2014". BasNews. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  198. ^ "Honor Killing through Sulaimaniya's Lens". 6 July 2017.
  199. ^ "KRG: 14 women dead in reported 'honor' killings... |".
  200. ^ "Kurdish Human Rights Project European Parliament Project: The Increase in Kurdish Women Committing Suicide Final Report Vian Ahmed Khidir Pasha, Member of Kurdistan National Assembly, Member of Women's Committee, Erbil, Iraq, 25 January 2007" (PDF).
  201. ^ "Kurdish Human Rights Project European Parliament Project: The Increase in Kurdish Women Committing Suicide Final Report Reported by several NGOs and members of Kurdistan National Assembly over course of study to Project Team Member Tanyel B. Taysi" (PDF).
  202. ^ Kurdish Human Rights Project European Parliament Project: The Increase in Kurdish Women Committing Suicide Final Report "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  203. ^ Leland, John; Abdulla, Namo (20 November 2010). "Honor Killing in Iraqi Kurdistan: Unhealed Wound". The New York Times.
  204. ^
  205. ^ Shahrzad Mojab. (2003). Kurdish Women in the Zone of Genocide and Gendercide. Al-Raida 21(103): 20–25. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) PDF
  206. ^ Arwa Damon (8 February 2008). "Violations of 'Islamic teachings' take deadly toll on Iraqi women". CNN. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  207. ^ "Iraq: Amnesty International appalled by stoning to death of Yezidi girl and subsequent killings" (PDF) (Press release). Amnesty International. 27 April 2007.
  208. ^ "AIUK : Iraq: 'Honour Killing' of teenage girl condemned as abhorrent". 2 May 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  209. ^ Touma-Sliman, Aida (2005). "Culture, National Minority and the State: Working against the 'Crime of Family Honour' within the Palestinian Community in Israel" (PDF). Women Against Violence (Israel wavo org). Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  210. ^ "Status of Violence against Women in Jordan" Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, National Council for Family Affairs, 2008, Amman, Jordan
  211. ^ Maher, Ahmed, ["Many Jordan teenagers 'support honour killings'"], 20 June 2013, BBC News
  212. ^ "Jordan: Special Report on Honour Killings". Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  213. ^ a b UNICEF Executive Director targets violence against women. UNICEF. 7 March 2000
  214. ^ "'Historic Day for Jordanian Women': Joy as Marriage Loophole for Rapists Removed". Al Bawaba. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  215. ^ "Belief that honour killings are 'justified' still prevalent among Jordan's next-generation, study shows". University of Cambridge. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  216. ^ Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana (2013). "Honor Killing Attitudes Amongst Adolescents in Amman, Jordan". Aggressive Behavior. 39 (5): 405–417. doi:10.1002/ab.21485. PMID 23744567.
  217. ^ "Lebanon at last removes honor crime article from its penal code". Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  218. ^ "Hedersmord". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 15 December 2005. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  219. ^ Guerin, Orla (7 May 2005). "Killed for the family's honour". BBC News.
  220. ^ Is the Palestinian Authority doing enough to stop honor killings?. Haaretz. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  221. ^ Tzvi Ben Gedalyah: Rise in PA 'Honor Killings' Despite US Aid Arutz 7, 21 August 2012.
  222. ^ Marcus, Itamar and Nan Jacques Zilberdik. "100% rise in Palestinian "family honor" killings". Palestinian Media Watch. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  223. ^ Yashar, Ari. "PA 'Honor Killings' Up 100% in 2013". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  224. ^ Arabic title: Palestinian president abolishes "reduced" penalty against honor killings. Retrieved 20 April 2015 Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  225. ^ a b Alghoul, Diana (31 August 2019). "#WeAreIsraa: Outrage as Palestinian woman 'tortured to death' in honour killing". alaraby. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  226. ^ Damien McElroy (31 March 2008). "Saudi woman killed for chatting on Facebook". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  227. ^ The 'Death of a Princess' film, an interview writer and director Antony Thomas from the BBC World Service program Witness History, originally broadcast 9 April 2015 [2]
  228. ^ Sinjab, Lina (12 October 2007). "Honour crime fear of Syria women". BBC News.
  229. ^ "Syrian war causing 'honour killings', child marriages – doctor". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  230. ^ "Number of Honor Killings in Europe Higher Than Thought". Voice of America. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  231. ^ "Honor killings claim 1,000 lives in five years". Turkish Daily News. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  232. ^ "Women told: 'You have dishonored your family, please kill yourself'". 27 March 2009.
  233. ^ "Middlebury" (PDF).
  234. ^ "Turkish boys commit 'honour' crimes". BBC News. 28 August 2006.
  235. ^ "UN probes Turkey 'forced suicide'". BBC News. 24 May 2006.
  236. ^ Navai, Ramita (27 March 2009). "Women told: 'You have dishonoured your family, please kill yourself'". The Independent. London.
  237. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (16 July 2006). "How to Avoid Honor Killing in Turkey? Honor Suicide". The New York Times.
  238. ^ (Fr) Le Monde (France), Un bébé de 2 jours victime d'un "crime d'honneur" en Turquie. Le Monde.FR with Reuters. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  239. ^ "Girl buried alive in honour killing in Turkey: Report". Agence France-Presse. 4 February 2010. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  240. ^ Rainsford, Sarah (19 October 2005). "'Honour' crime defiance in Turkey". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  241. ^ a b Daughter pregnant by rape, killed by family – World. BrisbaneTimes (13 January 2009). Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  242. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  243. ^ "Turkish man tried in absentia for 'honour killing' of gay son". Pink News. 9 September 2009. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  244. ^ "Partner of Turkish gay man shot in 'honour killing' to address London audience tomorrow". Pink News. 8 December 2011.
  245. ^ Birch, Nicholas (19 July 2008). "The victim of Turkey's first gay honour killing?". The Independent. London.
  246. ^ a b "Yemeni 'burns daughter to death for contacting fiance'". BBC. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  247. ^
  248. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  249. ^ "Yemeni girl, 15, 'burned to death by father'". CNN. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  250. ^ Zada, Ahmad Shah Ghani (9 June 2013). "240 cases of honor killing recorded in Afghanistan". The Khaama Press News Agency. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  251. ^ "AIHRC: 400 rape, honor killings registered in Afghanistan in 2 years". 10 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  252. ^ Injustice and Impunity Mediation of Criminal Offences of Violence against Women (PDF). Kabul: United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. May 2018. p. 8.
  253. ^ "Mandya honour killing: Police claim parents' confession". Deccan Herald. 5 April 2016.
  254. ^ "Caste and violence in Tamil Nadu: Honour killings haunt the state". Hindustan Times. 14 March 2016.
  255. ^ "Suspected honour killing: Dalit man hacked to death in Tamil Nadu". The News Minute. 27 March 2016.
  256. ^ India sees huge spike in 'honour' killings, Al Jazeera 8 December 2016.
  257. ^ Suri, Manveena; Woodyatt, Amy (5 March 2021). "Father arrested in India for beheading teenage daughter". CNN. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  258. ^ "30% honour killings of the country in west UP: AIDWA survey". News 18. 29 October 2015.
  259. ^ "Honour Killings in India". Daily Life in India. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  260. ^ Mayell, Hillary (12 February 2002). "Thousands of Women Killed for Family "Honor"". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
  261. ^ Indian village proud after double "honour killing". Reuters. 16 May 2008.
  262. ^ "Indian media express anger over 'honour killings'". BBC News. 20 September 2013.
  263. ^ When a feminist turns right,, 2 April 2014.
  264. ^ Does India Still Need Khap Panchayats?, The New York Times, 23 October 2012.
  265. ^ "Five to be executed for honour killings". ABC News. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  266. ^ "5 get death penalty in honour killing case". CNN-IBN. 30 March 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  267. ^ "Death penalty in India 'honour killings' case". BBC News. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  268. ^ "India 'honour killings': Paying the price for falling in love". BBC. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  269. ^ Honour killing in India Archived 27 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (23 June 2010). Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  270. ^ Eight beheaded in Indian 'honor killing'. United Press International. 12 February 2009.
  271. ^ "The resource cannot be found".
  272. ^ "Bibi Jagir Kaur jailed for role in daughter's kidnapping; murder charges dropped".
  273. ^ Kumar, Lalit (25 March 2009). "16-year-old burnt in Gzb honour killing". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013.
  274. ^ Father kills daughter in "honour killing" in western India Archived 19 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Monsters and Critics (14 June 2008). Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  275. ^ "Delhi police make arrests after 'honour killing'". BBC News. 15 June 2010.
  276. ^ "India: Parents held for 'honour killing' of Delhi woman". BBC News. 20 November 2014.
  277. ^ "Community condones 'honour killing' of Rajasthan teenager". Archived from the original on 21 April 2015.
  278. ^ "Honour killing: Girl murdered by mother, brother in Rajasthan". 19 October 2011.
  279. ^ "Honour killing: Man beheads daughter in Rajasthan". 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012.
  280. ^ "Indian Man Beheads Daughter in Rage Over Lifestyle". ABC. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  281. ^ "Ogad Singh, India Man, Reportedly Beheads Daughter in Rage Over Lifestyle". HuffPost. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  282. ^ "Man beheads daughter in gory Rajasthan". 17 June 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  283. ^ "Women : Government Intervention". Archived from the original on 26 November 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2010.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), National Commission for Women.
  284. ^ a b Goonesekere, Savitri (2004). Violence, Law and Women's Rights in South Asia. SAGE Publications. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7619-9796-2.
  285. ^ "India court seeks 'honor killing' response". BBC News. 21 June 2010.
  286. ^ "Bill in Parliament to curb honor killing: Moily". 23 June 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  287. ^ Brown, DeNeen L.; Lakshmi, Rama; Post, Washington (5 October 2003). "Mom gave long-distance order for honor killing, police say". The Boston Globe.
  288. ^ "In Tamil Nadu, the anatomy of a caste crime: Families devastated by honor killings speak of the scourge". Firstpost. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  289. ^ "Opinion: For One of India's Most Brazen "Honour Killings", Justice Denied". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  290. ^ "With two honour killings this year, Kerala now competes with northern states". The week.
  291. ^ "Honour killing comes to Nepal". The Times of India.
  292. ^ "More women killed in gender violence than armed conflicts in parts of Asia". 15 October 2017.
  293. ^ "Nepalese women suffering". 20 August 2011.
  294. ^ "Nepal: Rising in the Himalayas". 5 October 2012.
  295. ^ "Pakistan: Honour killings of women and girls". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015.
  296. ^ "Pakistan honor killings on the rise, the report reveals". BBC News. 1 April 2016.
  297. ^ "Three teenagers buried alive in Pakistan ' honor killing'". Irish Time. 9 September 2008.
  298. ^ "Pakistan to investigate 'honour killing' case". Th National Newspaper, Abu Dhabi. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008.
  299. ^ "Pakistan rejects pro-women bill". BBC News. 2 March 2005.
  300. ^ Pakistan's honor killings enjoy high-level support. Taipei Times (24 September 2011). Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  301. ^ Medscape: Medscape Access[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  302. ^ "Pakistan rejects pro-women bill". BBC News. 2 March 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  303. ^ Sohail Warraich, "'Honour Killings' and the Law in Pakistan", in Sara Hossain and Lynn Welchman, Honour, Crimes, Paradigms, and Violence against Women, Zed Books (10 November 2005), ISBN 1-84277-627-4
  304. ^ a b Muazzam Nasrullah et al. (March 2009), The epidemiological patterns of honor killing of women in Pakistan, The European Journal of Public Health, Oxford University Press, pp. 1–5, doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp021
  305. ^ a b Yasmeen Hassan, "The Haven Becomes Hell: A Study of Domestic Violence in Pakistan", The Fate of Pakistani Women, 1995 August, 72 p. (Special Bulletin), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg
  306. ^ "Pregnant Pakistani woman stoned to death by family". Yahoo News India. 27 May 2014. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  307. ^ "Nawaz Sharif orders action on stoning of pregnant Pakistani woman". Pakistan Telegraph. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  308. ^ Shahid M. Shahidullah (2012), Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: Global and Local Perspectives, ISBN 978-1449604257, pp. 511
  309. ^ Stephanie Palo (2008), A Charade of Change: Qisas and Diyat Ordinance Allows Honor Killings to Go Unpunished in Pakistan, UC Davis Journal Int'l Law & Policy, 15, pp. 93–99
  310. ^ RA Ruane (2000), Murder in the Name of Honor: Violence Against Women in Jordan and Pakistan. Emory Int'l Law Review, 14, pp. 1523–1532
  311. ^ a b "'Honour killings': Pakistan closes loophole allowing killers to go free". BBC News. 6 October 2016.
  312. ^ "Pakistani mother sentenced to death for burning daughter alive". The Guardian. Reuters. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  313. ^ "Two Pakistani women murdered in a so-called honor killing after a leaked video circulates online". CNN International. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  314. ^ "Murder of daughter, her boyfriend suspected as 'honor killing'".
  315. ^ Brooke, James (29 March 1991). "'Honor' Killing of Wives Is Outlawed in Brazil". The New York Times.
  316. ^ "Decriminalization of adultery and defenses". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  317. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  318. ^ a b c "The History of Honor Killings". CBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  319. ^ "Jaswinder Sidhu 'honour killing' case will put Canada's extradition laws to the test". National Post. 8 June 2000. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  320. ^ "Father guilty of murdering daughter". 4 March 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  321. ^ "Chronology of events in the Shafia murders". 29 January 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  322. ^ Jamie Baker. "Cultural ' honor' killing brought to Canada". The Telegram. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  323. ^ "Terror and Death at Home Are Caught in F.B.I. Tape". The New York Times. 28 October 1991.
  324. ^ ABC News (7 July 2008). "Daughter Rejects Marriage, Ends Up Dead". ABC News. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  325. ^ "Dad charged with murdering reluctant bride". CNN. 9 July 2008.
  326. ^ "Jonesboro man convicted of killing daughter". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  327. ^ "Reward offered for Lewisville cabbie wanted in daughters' deaths". 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  328. ^ "Man accused of killing 2 teen daughters in 2008 has been captured, Irving police and FBI announce". Dallas News. 27 August 2020.
  329. ^ "Maintenance Worker's Tip Led To Arrest of Capital Murder Suspect Yaser Said". 28 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  330. ^ "Are Some Honor Killings More Equal Than Others?". Fox News Channel. 12 July 2010.
  331. ^ "Iraqi guilty of murder in daughter's "honor killing"". Reuters. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  332. ^ Dahl, Julia (5 April 2012). ""Honor killing" under growing scrutiny in the U.S." CBS News.
  333. ^ "Peru Hundreds of Women Murdered in the Name of 'Honour' and 'Passion'". Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  334. ^ "Everyday aggression". The Economist. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  335. ^ Communications, Government of Canada, Department of Justice, Electronic (24 September 2013). "Preliminary Examination of so-called "Honour Killings" in Canada".
  336. ^ Sims, Calvin (12 March 1997). "Justice in Peru: Victim Gets Rapist for a Husband". The New York Times.
  337. ^ a b Warrick, Catherine. (2009). Law in the service of legitimacy: Gender and politics in Jordan. Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Pub. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7546-7587-7.
  338. ^ "1998 Human Rights Report – El Salvador". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  339. ^ No Paradise Yet: The World's Women Face the New Century, edited by Judith Mirsky, Marty Radlett, pg 145
  340. ^ Barad, E.; E. Slattery; Enikő Horváth; Monwabisi Zukani; Desmond Eppel; Monica Kays; Abdoul Konare; Yeora S. Park; Ekaterina Y. Pischalnikova; Nathaniel Stankard; Tally Zingher (2007). With the assistance of: Alana F. Montas and Nicole Manara. "Gender-Based Violence Laws in Sub-Saharan Africa". Report Prepared for the Committee on African Affairs of the New York City Bar: 30.
  341. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  342. ^ "Decriminalization of adultery and defenses". Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  343. ^ "The Secretary Generals database on violence against women". Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  344. ^ "Until 2006, a rapist could be exonerated if he promised to marry his victim, unless she was under twelve years old." Guatemala Human Rights Commission/USA, "For Women's Right to Live: FAQs."
  345. ^
  346. ^ "2009 Human Rights Report: Panama". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  347. ^ "Nicaragua: Código Penal (Ley Nº 641)".
  348. ^ "Página/12 :: Sociedad :: Punto final para una cláusula retrógrada". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  349. ^ "August 2014, a new criminal code came into force and it no longer contains such provisions".
  350. ^ "Honour killings coming to our courts: top judge". WA Today. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  351. ^ "'Honour' killing abhorrent, says judge, as man convicted and son starts 18-year term". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  352. ^ "Search Results | The Advertiser".
  353. ^ "Murder verdict over honor killing of wife's lover". ABC News. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  354. ^ "Australian links in honour killing of Pela Atroshi". The Australian. 26 April 2008.
  355. ^ "UN Division for the Advancement of Women - Reports and resolutions on violence against women". United Nations.
  356. ^ "Council of Europe – Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (CETS No. 210)". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  357. ^ a b
  358. ^
  359. ^ "Common Ground for Europeans and Muslims Among Them". Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  360. ^ "Belief that honour killings are 'justified' still prevalent among Jordan's next generation, study shows". University of Cambridge. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  361. ^ "Decriminalization of adultery and defenses". Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  362. ^ "The Secretary Generals database on violence against women". Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  363. ^ "Le Moniteur: Journal Official de la Republique D'Haiti" (PDF). 11 August 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  364. ^ a b "Syria: No Exceptions for Honor Killings". Human Rights Watch. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  365. ^ Dan Bilefsky. "'Virgin suicides' save Turks' 'honor'". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 12 July 2006.
  366. ^ "Pakistan's honor killings enjoy high-level support". Taipei Times. Retrieved 24 July 2004.
  367. ^ Masood, Salman (27 October 2004). "Pakistan Tries to Curb 'Honor Killings'". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2004.
  368. ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah. The Honor Code: How Moral Revolutions Happen. W.W. Norton and Company.
  369. ^ Shahid Qazi; Carol Grisanti. "Honor Killings Persist in 'Man's World'". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
  370. ^ "Honour: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence Against Women". School of Oriental and African Studies. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  371. ^ "Ley N° 19580".
  372. ^ "Uruguay no condena el homicidio por adulterio - Infobae".
  373. ^ "Uruguay's 'shadow pandemic' of violence against women is out of control | openDemocracy".
  374. ^ "Muerte de mujeres ocasionada por su pareja o ex-pareja íntima | Observatorio de Igualdad de Género".
  375. ^ a b c "Honor Killings in Pakistan" . Amnesty International. Retrieved 10/19/11.
  376. ^ Suzanne Goldberg (27 May 1999). "A Question of Honor". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  377. ^ Pamela Constable. "In Pakistan, Women Pay the Price of Honor". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  378. ^ "Honor Killings in Pakistan Retrieved 06/03/12". Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  379. ^ "Chechen leader imposes strict brand of Islam". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). Associated Press.
  380. ^ "President Kadyrov defends honour killings". The Belfast Telegraph. 1 March 2009.
  381. ^ "Staff vil gi strafferabatt for æresdrap". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 29 November 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  382. ^ "PAKISTAN: Five women buried alive, allegedly by the brother of a minister". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  383. ^ Hussain, Zahid (5 September 2008). "Three teenagers buried alive in 'honour killings'". The Times. London. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  384. ^ Foreign, Our (1 September 2008). "Pakistani women buried alive 'for choosing husbands'". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  385. ^ David, Ruth (10 April 2007). "Hug Sparks Fatwa Against Pakistani Minister". Forbes. Archived from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  386. ^ "Nilofer Bakhtiar – Pakistan tourism minister resigns for obscenity". 29 May 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  387. ^ "Us Weekly" – via Facebook.
  388. ^ "Justice For Jassi". Archived from the original on 10 August 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  389. ^ Welcome to Frontline : Vol. 28 :: No. 20[usurped!]. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  390. ^ "Femicide in Latin America". headQuarters. Retrieved 20 April 2015.

Further reading