Violence against men is a term for violent acts that are disproportionately or exclusively committed against men or boys. Men are over-represented as both victims and perpetrators of violence.[1][2]

Perceptions and aspects

Studies of social attitudes show violence is perceived as more or less serious depending on the gender of victim and perpetrator.[3][4] People are less likely to report a man hitting another man to the police than a man hitting a woman.[5]

Male law enforcement officers show a greater reluctance to file charges or reports when a man is the victim of domestic violence.[6] The use of stereotypes by law enforcement is a recognised issue,[7] and international law scholar Solange Mouthaan argues that, in conflict scenarios, sexual violence against men has been ignored in favor of a focus on sexual violence against women and children.[8] A possible influence for this difference in focus is the physical power that men hold over women, making people more likely to condemn violence with this gender configuration.[9]

The concept of male survivors of violence goes against social perceptions of the male gender role,[10] leading to low recognition.[11]

Due to perceptions of rape as a women's issue, services designed to help sexual assault victims are not always equipped to handle male victims.[12][13]

Men are at much higher risk of being victims of violent crime than women, while women are more fearful of violent crime.[14][15] This phenomenon is termed by researchers as the "fear of crime gender paradox".[16][17]

Violence against LGBT+ men

Main article: Violence against LGBT people

Male homosexuality has been persecuted, often violently, through history. Termed "sodomy" during the Middle Ages and the early modern period, men found guilty of "sodomy" were often subjected to capital punishment for homosexuality.[18]

In its December 2020 report, the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) found that homosexuality is criminalized in 67 of 193 UN member states and one non-independent jurisdiction, the Cook Islands,[needs update] while two UN member states, Iraq and Egypt, criminalize it de facto but not in legislation.[19] Afghanistan, Brunei, Iran, Iraq, Mauritania, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab of Emirates and Yemen still allow for the prescription of the death penalty if one engages in homosexual sexual activity.[20]

According to the Human Rights Campaign, 26 percent of gay men and 37 percent of bisexual men experience rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, compared to 29 percent of straight men.[21] Additionally, 40 percent of gay men and 47 percent of bisexual men have experienced sexual violence other than rape, compared to 21 percent of straight men.[21]

Domestic violence

Main article: Domestic violence against men

Female and male perpetrators of domestic violence tend to commit different types of acts of violence. For example, women are more likely to throw or hit with objects, kick, bite, or punch, while men are more likely to choke or strangle.[22][23] While females do assault males, males are far more frequently perpetrators and are significantly more likely to injure, harm or kill their partners.[14] Men are less likely to be murdered by an intimate partner than women. In the United States, in 2005, 329 men were killed by their intimate partners, compared to 1181 women.[24][25]

During the lockdowns and stay in place orders that were enacted to help contain the spread of COVID-19 many nations saw drastic increases in the instances of domestic violence in the homes.[26][27] This rise of domestic violence occurred globally, with an estimated 16-40% increase in calls from men to domestic violence support services.[28][29][30] At the same time, women remained the most common victims of violence.[31][32]

Men who are victims of domestic violence are often reluctant to report it or to seek help.[33] Shamita Das Dasgupta and Erin Pizzey are among those who argue that, as with other forms of violence against men, intimate partner violence is generally less recognized in society when the victims are men.[34][35] Domestic violence accusations by males against females are often trivialized or belittled by police.[1][36][37] Research since the 1990s has identified issues of perceived and actual bias when police are involved, with the male victim being negated even while injured.[38][39] Many people, both male and female, are hesitant to report domestic violence, for example, 1.9 million people aged 16–59 told the Crime Survey for England and Wales (year ending March 2017) that they were victims of domestic violence and 79% did not report their partner or ex-partner. Of the 1.9 million, approximately 713,000 were male, while 1.2 million were female.[40]

Mass killings

Main article: Androcide

In situations of structural violence that include war and genocide, men and boys are frequently singled out and killed.[41] The singling out of men and boys of military age occurs due the assumption that they are potential combatants and is a form of gender-based violence.[42][43] These acts of violence come from the assumptions of the male role in combat situations.[44] This practice goes back well into recorded history; Roman records point to the mass killing of a conquered settlement's men and the enslavement of its women.[45][46] The murder of targets by sex during the Kosovo War, estimates of civilian male victims of mass killings suggest that they made up more than 90% of all civilian casualties.[41]

Non-combatant men and boys have been targets of mass killings during war.[47] Forced conscription can also be considered gender-based violence against men.[43] Furthermore, examples may include the filtration camps set up by Russia in occupied areas during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[48]

Sexual violence

According to the 2018 Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia report, the Australian police recorded 4,100 male victims of sexual violence in 2016, as opposed to 18,900 female victims that year (thus, male victims constituted 17.8% of all victims). For male victims experiencing sexual violence since the age of 15, 55% reported a female perpetrator while 51% reported a male perpetrator (some who experienced sexual violence multiple times were victimised by men and women); by comparison, 98% of female victims since age 15 reported a male perpetrator, while 4.2% reported a female perpetrator (also some overlap here).[49]

In 2012, The UN refugee agency issued guidelines for UNHCR staff and aid workers on how to support and treat male victims of sexual violence and rape in war and human rights situations. The guidelines "include tips on the challenging task of identifying victims of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), given the stigma attached to rape".[50]

Adult men have been forcefully circumcised, most notably in the compulsory conversion of non-Muslims to Islam[51][52] and more recently especially in Kenya.[53][54] In South Africa, custom allows uncircumcised Xhosa-speaking men past the age of circumcision (i.e., 25 years or older) to be overpowered by other men and forcibly circumcised.[55] While some scholars view forced adult male circumcision as (gendered) sexual violence,[53][54] the International Criminal Court ruled in 2011 that such acts were not "sexual violence," but rather fell under the label of "other inhumane acts".[51]



Main article: Conscription and sexism

Women protest conscription and war on World Peace Day March near the Hotel Australia, King William Street, North Adelaide, 1969.

Conscription, sometimes called "the draft", is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Historically, only men have been subjected to military drafts, and currently only three countries conscript women and men on the same formal conditions: Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

Male-only conscription, or compulsory military service, has been criticized as sexist.[56][57] Critics regard it as discriminatory to compel men, but not women, into military service. They say conscription of men normalizes male violence, conscripts are indoctrinated into sexism and violence against men, and military training socializes conscripts into patriarchal gender roles.[58][59] Despite that, some feminist organizations have resisted inclusion of women in conscription, most notably the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights.[60]

Wartime sexual violence

Wartime sexual violence committed by men against men is used as psychological warfare in order to demoralize the enemy.[61] The practice is ancient, and was recorded as taking place during the Crusades.[62] During periods of armed conflict men may be raped, sexually mutilated, sexually humiliated, forced incest, or even enslaved.[63][64] Castration in particular is used as a means of physical torture with strong psychological effects, namely the loss of the ability to procreate and the loss of the status of a full man.[62] In recent conflicts such as the Bosnian war and a number of smaller conflicts across East Africa the most commonly reported act of sexual violence was genital violence.[64][65] While sexual violence in all its forms is criminalized in international law, the culture of silence around sexual violence against men often leaves male victims with no support.[66]

In one study, less than 3% of organizations that address rape as a weapon of war, mention men or provide services to male victims.[67][68][69]


Homicide statistics according to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics[70]
Male offender/Male victim 65.3%
Male offender/Female victim 22.7%
Female offender/Male victim 9.6%
Female offender/Female victim 2.4%

In the U.S., crime statistics from the 1976 onwards show that men are over-represented as victims in homicide involving both male and female offenders (74.9% of victims are male). Men also make up the majority (88%) of homicide perpetrators regardless if the victim is female or male.[70] According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, women who kill men are most likely to kill acquaintances, spouses or boyfriends while men are more likely to kill strangers.[71] One study looking at 97 women on death row showed that these people often experienced intimate partner violence by the people they murdered.[72][73]

In Australia, men are also over-represented as victims,[74] with the Australian Institute of Criminology finding that men are 11.5 times more likely than women to be killed by a stranger.[75]

Data from the U.K. also shows a homicide rate for males to be twice that of females.[76] While the proportion of homicide victims in the U.K. in the 1960s was fairly evenly split between men and women, the genders have since showed different trends: while female victim numbers remained static, male numbers increased.[76]

Police killings

In the United States, police killings are one of the leading causes of death for young men. The likelihood of dying as a result of police use of force is 1 in 2,000 men and 1 in 33,000 women.[77] Studies using recent data have found that Black, Hispanic, and Native American/Alaskan individuals are disproportionately stopped by police and killed in encounters.[78][79][80] These inequalities in turn show higher rates of death by police for people of color, particularly black men having 1 in 1,000 chance of being killed by police use of force.[77][81]

Data from Australia, the European Union, and the United Kingdom also demonstrates that death while in police custody is more frequent among men.[82][83][84]

See also


  1. ^ a b Young, Cathy (June 25, 2014). "The surprising truth about women and violence". TIME. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  2. ^ "MEN, WOMEN AND CRIME | Office of Justice Programs". Retrieved 2023-07-25.
  3. ^ Golden, Tom. "Male Bashing in Mental Health Research" (PDF). Men Are Good. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  4. ^ Feather, Norm T. (October 1996). "Domestic violence, gender, and perceptions of justice". Sex Roles. Springer. 35 (7–8): 507–519. doi:10.1007/BF01544134. S2CID 145420492.
  5. ^ Felson, Richard B.; Feld, Scott L. (November–December 2009). "When a man hits a woman: moral evaluations and reporting violence to the police". Aggressive Behavior. Wiley. 35 (6): 477–488. doi:10.1002/ab.20323. PMID 19746441.
  6. ^ Fagerlund, Monica (2021-01-15). "Gender and police response to domestic violence". Police Practice and Research. 22 (1): 90–108. doi:10.1080/15614263.2020.1749622. hdl:10138/334923. ISSN 1561-4263. S2CID 216483305.
  7. ^ Brown, Grant A. (June 2004). "Gender as a factor in the response of the law-enforcement system to violence against partners". Sexuality and Culture. Springer. 8 (3–4): 3–139. doi:10.1007/s12119-004-1000-7. S2CID 145657599.
  8. ^ Mouthaan, Solange (2013). "Sexual violence against men and international law – criminalising the unmentionable". International Criminal Law Review. Brill. 13 (3): 665–695. doi:10.1163/15718123-01303004.
  9. ^ Hamby, Sherry; Jackson, Amy (September 2010). "Size does matter: the effects of gender on perceptions of dating violence". Sex Roles. Springer. 63 (5–6): 324–331. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9816-0. S2CID 144426740.
  10. ^ Schaaf, Sarah; Lamade, Raina V.; Burgess, Ann W.; Koss, Mary; Lopez, Elise; Prentky, Robert (2019-10-03). "Student views on campus sexual assault". Journal of American College Health. 67 (7): 698–705. doi:10.1080/07448481.2018.1500476. ISSN 0744-8481. PMID 30365913. S2CID 53096839.
  11. ^ Onyango, Monica Adhiambo; Hampanda, Karen (2011). "Social constructions of masculinity and male survivors of wartime sexual violence: an analytical review". International Journal of Sexual Health. Taylor and Francis. 23 (4): 237–247. doi:10.1080/19317611.2011.608415. S2CID 143833368.
  12. ^ Depraetere, Joke; Vandeviver, Christophe; Beken, Tom Vander; Keygnaert, Ines (2020). "Big Boys Don't Cry: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of Male Sexual Victimization". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 21 (5): 991–1010. doi:10.1177/1524838018816979. ISSN 1524-8380. PMC 7444022. PMID 30554559.
  13. ^ Sable, Marjorie R.; Danis, Fran; Mauzy, Denise L.; Gallagher, Sarah K. (2006). "Barriers to Reporting Sexual Assault for Women and Men: Perspectives of College Students". Journal of American College Health. 55 (3): 157–162. doi:10.3200/JACH.55.3.157-162. ISSN 0744-8481. PMID 17175901. S2CID 21879886.
  14. ^ a b Tjaden, Patricia; Thoennes, Nancy (2000). Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women (PDF). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
  15. ^ Lane, Jodi; Fisher, Bonnie S. (2009). "Unpacking the Relationship Between Gender and Fear of Crime". Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 25 (3): 260–263. doi:10.1177/1043986209334986. S2CID 143054168.
  16. ^ "Most predators lurk in plain sight, not at dark streets corners". 21 March 2021.
  17. ^ Noon, Michelle (2018). Exploring the fear of crime gender paradox using quasi-experimental methods (PDF) (PhD). Swinburne University of Technology.
  18. ^ Reggio, Michael (1999-02-09). "History of the Death Penalty". PBS Frontline. Retrieved 2020-02-06.
  19. ^ "ILGA World updates State-Sponsored Homophobia report: "There's progress in times of uncertainty"". ILGA. 2020-12-15. Retrieved 2022-04-21.
  20. ^ Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth; York, 34th Floor | New; t, NY 10118-3299 USA | (23 April 2021). "Country Profiles: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2022-04-21.
  21. ^ a b "Sexual Assault and the LGBTQ Community". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 2022-04-21.
  22. ^ Archer, John (2000). "Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin. 126 (5): 651–680. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.5.651. ISSN 1939-1455. PMID 10989615.
  23. ^ Archer, John (2002). "Sex differences in physically aggressive acts between heterosexual partners". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 7 (4): 313–351. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1.
  24. ^ "Intimate partner violence: consequences". National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  25. ^ "Wheel gallery". The Duluth Model. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  26. ^ Richards, Tara N.; Nix, Justin; Mourtgos, Scott; Adams, Ian (2021-10-04). "Comparing 911 and Emergency Hotline Calls for Domestic Violence in Seven Cities: What Happened When People Started Staying Home Due to COVID-19?". CrimRxiv. doi:10.21428/cb6ab371.cdec20ab. S2CID 239138533.
  27. ^ Mahase, Elisabeth (2020-05-11). "Covid-19: EU states report 60% rise in emergency calls about domestic violence". BMJ. 369: m1872. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1872. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32393463. S2CID 218598683.
  28. ^ Oloniniyi, Ibidunni Olapeju; Ibigbami, Olanrewaju; Oginni, Olakunle Ayokunmi; Ugo, Victor; Adelola, Aderopo; Esan, Olufemi Abiodun; Amiola, Ayomipo; Daropale, Oluwatosin; Ebuka, Matthew; Esan, Oladoyin; Mapayi, Boladale (2022-08-18). "Prevalence and pattern of intimate partner violence during COVID-19 pandemic among Nigerian adults". Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 15 (5): 868–876. doi:10.1037/tra0001335. ISSN 1942-969X. PMID 35980718. S2CID 251644960.
  29. ^ Sun, Shufang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wei, Chongyi; Shi, Lingen; Zhang, Ying; Operario, Don; Yan, Hongjing; Zaller, Nicholas; Yang, Cui (2022-01-19). "Domestic Violence Victimization Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China During the COVID-19 Lockdown". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 37 (23–24): NP22135–NP22150. doi:10.1177/08862605211072149. ISSN 0886-2605. PMC 9502019. PMID 35044888.
  30. ^ House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, 2020. Home Office preparedness for Covid 19 (Coronavirus) domestic abuse and the risk of harm in the home. Second Report of Session 2019-21 HC321 April 27th.
  31. ^ Piquero, Alex R.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Jemison, Erin; Kaukinen, Catherine; Knaul, Felicia Marie (2021). "Domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic - Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Criminal Justice. 74: 101806. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2021.101806. PMC 9582712. PMID 36281275. S2CID 233669600.
  32. ^ Boserup, Brad; McKenney, Mark; Elkbuli, Adel (2020). "Alarming trends in US domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 38 (12): 2753–2755. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.077. PMC 7195322. PMID 32402499.
  33. ^ Huntley, Alyson L; Potter, Lucy; Williamson, Emma; Malpass, Alice; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene (2019). "Help-seeking by male victims of domestic violence and abuse (DVA): a systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis". BMJ Open. 9 (6): e021960. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021960. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 6585830. PMID 31186243.
  34. ^ Das Dasgupta, Shamita (November 2002). "A framework for understanding women's use of nonlethal violence in intimate heterosexual relationships". Violence Against Women. SAGE. 8 (11): 1364–1389. doi:10.1177/107780102237408. S2CID 145186540.
  35. ^ Pizzey, Erin (2011). This way to the revolution: a memoir. London Chicago: Peter Owen. p. 114. ISBN 9780720615210.
  36. ^ Schlesinger Buzawa, Eva; Buzawa, Carl G. (2003), "Factors affecting police response", in Schlesinger Buzawa, Eva; Buzawa, Carl G., eds. (2003). Domestic violence: the criminal justice response (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7619-2448-7.
    Citing both:
    and more recent contradictory research:
    • Buzawa, Eve S.; Hotaling, Gerald T. (2000). The police response to domestic violence calls for assistance in three Massachusetts towns: Final report. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for Justice.
  37. ^ Dutton, Donald G. (2011-01-01). Rethinking Domestic Violence. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-5987-5.
  38. ^ Buzawa, Eve S.; Austin, Thomas (May 1993). "Determining police response to domestic violence victims: the role of victim preference". American Behavioral Scientist. SAGE. 36 (5): 610–623. doi:10.1177/0002764293036005006. S2CID 145070582.
  39. ^ Bates, Elizabeth A.; Kaye, Linda K.; Pennington, Charlotte R.; Hamlin, Iain (2019-07-18). "What about the Male Victims? Exploring the Impact of Gender Stereotyping on Implicit Attitudes and Behavioural Intentions Associated with Intimate Partner Violence". Sex Roles. 81 (1–2): 1–15. doi:10.1007/s11199-018-0949-x. ISSN 0360-0025. S2CID 150156978.
  40. ^ ONS (2017). "Domestic abuse in England and Wales: year ending March 2017". Crime Survey for England and Wales, Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  41. ^ a b Jones, Adam (June 2000). "Gendercide and genocide". Journal of Genocide Research. Taylor and Francis. 2 (2): 185–211. doi:10.1080/713677599. S2CID 143867857. View online. Archived 2015-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Lindsey, Charlotte (2001). Women Facing War (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross.
  43. ^ a b Carpenter, R. Charli (2006). "Recognizing Gender-Based Violence Against Civilian Men and Boys in Conflict Situations". Security Dialogue. 37 (1): 83–103. doi:10.1177/0967010606064139. ISSN 0967-0106. S2CID 146269292.
  44. ^ Boomen, Marcus (2019), Ratuva, Steven; Compel, Radomir; Aguilar, Sergio (eds.), "Guilty by Association: The Issue of Gender Violence and the Targeted Killing of Men of Fighting Age in Times of Conflict", Guns & Roses: Comparative Civil-Military Relations in the Changing Security Environment, Singapore: Springer Singapore, pp. 343–364, doi:10.1007/978-981-13-2008-8_18, ISBN 978-981-13-2007-1, S2CID 158955370, retrieved 2022-08-31
  45. ^ Gaca, Kathy L. (2011-12-01). "Telling the Girls from the Boys and Children: Interpreting Παȋδεϛ in the Sexual Violence of Populace-Ravaging Ancient Warfare". Illinois Classical Studies. 35–36: 85–109. doi:10.5406/illiclasstud.35-36.0085. ISSN 0363-1923.
  46. ^ Colwill, David (2017). 'Genocide' and Rome, 343-146 BCE: state expansion and the social dynamics of annihilation (PhD thesis). Cardiff University.
  47. ^ HSR (2005), "Assault on the vulnerable", in HSR, ed. (2005). Human security report 2005: war and peace in the 21st century. New York Oxford: Published for the Human Security Center, University if British Columbia, Canada by Oxford University Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780195307399. Citing Jones (2000), "Gendercide and genocide Archived 2015-05-16 at the Wayback Machine" p. 186.
  48. ^ "Russian troops in Mariupol to ban all movement in the city in preparation for "filtration" and mobilisation operation". Ukrayinska Pravda. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  49. ^ "Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  50. ^ "UNHCR issues guidelines on protection of male rape victims" (Press release). UNHCR. Oct 8, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012.((cite press release)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  51. ^ a b Glass, Michael (September 2013). "Forced circumcision of men (abridged)". Journal of Medical Ethics. 40 (8): 567–571. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101626. PMID 24014634. S2CID 40529183.
  52. ^ Lerner, Natan (2006). Religion, Secular Beliefs, and Human Rights: 25 Years after the 1981 Declaration. Brill. p. 142.
  53. ^ a b Ahlberg, Beth Maina; Njoroge, Kezia Muthoni (2013). "'Not men enough to rule!': politicization of ethnicities and forcible circumcision of Luo men during the postelection violence in Kenya". Ethnicity & Health. Taylor & Francis. 18 (5).
  54. ^ a b Auchter, Jessica (2017). "Forced male circumcision: gender-based violence in Kenya". International Affairs. 93 (3): 1339–1356. doi:10.1093/ia/iix183.
  55. ^ Funani, Lumpka Sheila (1990). Circumcision among the Ama-Xhosa: A Medical Investigation. p. v.
  56. ^ Feminists oppose conscription and war:
  57. ^ Academics oppose conscription and war:
  58. ^ Michalowski, Helen (May 1982). "Five feminist principles and the draft". Resistance News (8): 2.
  59. ^ Neudel, Marian Henriquez (July 1983). "Feminism and the Draft". Resistance News (13): 7.
  60. ^ "No to female conscription – International Alliance of Women". 24 May 2015. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  61. ^ Storr, Will (17 July 2011). "The rape of men: the darkest secret of war". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  62. ^ a b Sivakumaran, Sandesh (April 2007). "Sexual violence against men in armed conflict". European Journal of International Law. Oxford Journals. 18 (2): 253–276. doi:10.1093/ejil/chm013.
  63. ^ Eichert, David (2019). "'Homosexualization' Revisited: An Audience-Focused Theorization of Wartime Male Sexual Violence". International Feminist Journal of Politics. 21 (3): 409–433. doi:10.1080/14616742.2018.1522264. S2CID 150313647.
  64. ^ a b Touquet, Heleen; Chynoweth, Sarah; Martin, Sarah; Reis, Chen; Myrttinen, Henri; Schulz, Philipp; Turner, Lewis; Duriesmith, David (2020-09-01). "From 'It Rarely Happens' to 'It's Worse for Men': Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement". Journal of Humanitarian Affairs. 2 (3): 25–34. doi:10.7227/JHA.049. ISSN 2515-6411. S2CID 234673946.
  65. ^ ""We Have a Broken Heart": Sexual Violence against Refugees in Nairobi and Mombasa, Kenya". Women's Refugee Commission. 23 October 2019. Retrieved 2022-08-26.
  66. ^ Staff writer (13 October 2011). "HEALTH: Rape as a "weapon of war" against men". Irin News. Cape Town. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  67. ^ DelZotto, Augusta; Jones, Adam (March 2002). Male-on-male sexual violence in wartime: human rights' last taboo?. Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the International Studies Association (ISA). New Orleans, LA. pp. 23–27. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  68. ^ Stemple, Lara (February 2009). "Male rape and human rights". Hastings Law Journal. Hastings College of the Law. 60 (3): 605–647. Pdf.
  69. ^ Rauhala, Emily (August 3, 2011). "Rape as a weapon of war: men suffer, too". TIME. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  70. ^ a b "Homicide trends in the United States" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  71. ^ Greenfeld, Lawrence A.; Snell, Tracy L. (December 1999). "Bureau of Justice Statistics – Special Report – Women Offenders" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. p. 14. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  72. ^ Farr, Kathryn Ann (July 1997). "Aggravating and differentiating factors in the cases of white and minority women on death row". Crime & Delinquency. SAGE. 43 (3): 260–278. doi:10.1177/0011128797043003002. S2CID 57147487. They [women on death row] typically kill people they know, primarily men - most often husbands or lovers in domestic encounters (Mann 1996; Campbell 1993; Silverman et al. 1993; Weisheit 1993; Browne 1987; Goetting 1987; Wilbanks 1983). ... Many female murderers have killed husbands or boyfriends who battered them repeatedly (Gillespie 1989; Browne 1987).
  73. ^ "Women and the death penalty: facts and figures". Death Penalty Information Center.
  74. ^ "Men are killed at a greater rate than women in Australia – what can we do to reduce their risk?". 28 June 2017.
  75. ^ "Myth Busting: The true picture of gendered violence".
  76. ^ a b "Homicide in England and Wales - Office for National Statistics". Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  77. ^ a b Esposito, Michael; Lee, Hedwig; Edwards, Frank (2019-07-31). "Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (34): 16793–16798. Bibcode:2019PNAS..11616793E. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821204116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6708348. PMID 31383756.
  78. ^ Ross, Cody T.; Hills, Peter James (November 5, 2015). "A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011–2014". PLOS ONE. 10 (11): e0141854. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1041854R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141854. PMC 4634878. PMID 26540108.
  79. ^ Ross, Cody T.; Winterhalder, Bruce; McElreath, Richard (2020-06-18). "Racial Disparities in Police Use of Deadly Force Against Unarmed Individuals Persist After Appropriately Benchmarking Shooting Data on Violent Crime Rates". Social Psychological and Personality Science. 12 (3): 323–332. doi:10.1177/1948550620916071. ISSN 1948-5506.
  80. ^ Knox, Dean; Lowe, Will; Mummolo, Jonathan (2020). "Administrative Records Mask Racially Biased Policing". American Political Science Review. 114 (3): 619–637. doi:10.1017/S0003055420000039. ISSN 0003-0554.
  81. ^ Lett, Elle; Asabor, Emmanuella Ngozi; Corbin, Theodore; Boatright, Dowin (2021). "Racial inequity in fatal US police shootings, 2015–2020". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 75 (4): 394–397. doi:10.1136/jech-2020-215097. ISSN 0143-005X. PMID 33109524. S2CID 225078910.
  82. ^ Independent Office for Police Conduct. "Deaths during or following police contact: Statistics for England and Wales 2019/20" (PDF).
  83. ^ Dalton, Vicki (1999). "Death and Dying in Prison in Australia: National Overview, 1980–1998". Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. 27 (3): 269–274. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.1999.tb01461.x. ISSN 1073-1105. PMID 11067604. S2CID 41532306.
  84. ^ Frater, Alison (2008-04-19). "Deaths in custody". BMJ. 336 (7649): 845–846. doi:10.1136/bmj.39546.635729.80. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 2323041. PMID 18420666.