It has been suggested that this article be merged with Mass rape. (Discuss) Proposed since July 2008.

Rape in the course of war dates back to antiquity, ancient enough to have been mentioned in the Bible. In the modern era, rape is considered to be a war crime when committed by soldiers in combat. This type of rape is known as 'war rape.' During war, rape is often used as means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale. Rapes in war are often systematic and thorough, and military leaders may actually encourage their soldiers to rape civilians.

When part of a widespread and systematic practice rape and sexual slavery are now recognised as crime against humanity and war crime. Rape is also now recognised as an element of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group. However, rape remains widespread in conflict zones.

Amnesty International has challenged the view that rape and sexual abuse are a by-product of war. According to Amnesty International rape is now used as deliberate military strategy rather than opportunistic rape and pillage of previous centuries.[1]

Women casualties of war

Kelly Dawn Akin observes that increasingly, the victims of war are civilians. It has been estimated that 50 million people "perished" during World War II. Male and female civilians may be subject to torture, but war rape is more frequently perpetrated on women than men. Sexual violence in warfare is frequently perpetrated against women and children, and the perpetrators of sexual assault "commonly include not only enemy civilians and troops but also allied and national civilians and even comrades in arms." [2]

The victims of war rape are usually "civilians", a notion that only consoilidated in the 19th Century. Before that military circles supported the notion that all persons, including unarmed women and children, were still the enemy, with the belligerent having conquering rights over them. [3] Although war rape of women is documented throughout history, laws protecting civilians in armed conflict has tended not to recognise sexual assault on women. Even when laws of war have recognised and forbidden sexual assault, few prosecutions have been brought. According to Kelly Dawn Akin the laws of war perpetuated the attitude that sexual assaults against women are less significant crimes, not worthy of prosecution. [4] "To the victor goes the spoils" has been a war cry for centuries and women were included as part of the spoils of war. [5] Furthermore war rape has in the past been regarded as tangible reward to soldiers (which were only paid irregularly) and as a soldier's proof of masculinity and success.[6]

War rape in international law

War rape has been until recently not been punished under international law. War crimes or humanitarian law specifically considers the treatment of the civilian population and "any devastation not justified by military necessity".[7] War rape has rarely been prosecuted as a war crime. After World War II the Nuremberg Tribunals failed to charge Nazi war criminals with rape, although witnesses testified on war rape. The War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo did convicted Japanese officers "of failing to prevent rape" in the Nanking massacre, which is known as the "Rape of Nanki". [8][9]

Justice Richard Goldstone, chief prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, said that "Rape has never been the concern of the international community." Evidence of the magnitude of rape in Bosnia however prompted the Tribunal to deal openly with these abuses.[10]

Customs of war

Main article: Laws of war

Some scholars argue that the lack of explicitly recogntion of war rape in international law or applicable humanitarian law may not be used as a defence by the perpetrator of war rape. Laws and customs of war prohibit offenses such as "inhuman treatment" or "indecent assaults", adding to this domestic military codes and domestic civil codes (national law) may make sexual assault a crime.[11]

Humanitarian law prior to World War II

Main article: Humanitarian law

In Ancient time on of the first references to the "laws of war" or "traditions of war" was by Cicero who urged soldiers to observe the rules of war, since obeying the regulations separated the "men" from the "brutes". Conquering the riches and property of a enemy was regarded as legitimate reason for war in itself (this is different now). Women were included with "property", since they were considered to be under the lawful ownership of man, whether a father, husband, slave master, or guardian. In this context the rape of a woman was considered a property crime committed against the man who owned the woman. In ancient Greece war rape of women was considered "socially acceptable behaviour well within the rules of warfare" and warriors considered the conquered women "legitimate booty, useful as wives, concubines, slave labour or battle-camp trophy". "To the victor goes the spoils" has been a war cry for centuries and women were included as part of the spoils of war. [12]

In the Middle Ages and until the 19th Century this attitude and practice prevailed, and legal protection of women in war time related directly to the legal protection women were granted in peace times. In medieval Europe women were considered as an inferior gender by law. [13]

In 1159 John of Salisbury wrote Policraticus in an attempt to regulate the conduct of armies engaged in "justifiable" wars. Salisbury believed that acts of theft and "rapine" (property crimes) should receive the most severe punishment, but also believed that obeying a superior's commands whether legal or illegal, moral or immoral, was the ultimate duty of the soldier. [14] In the 15th and 16th Century considerations and systemisation of the laws of war women remained objects to be used by the conquering male in any way whatsoever. The influential writer Francisco de Vitoria stood for a gradual emergence of the notion that wars conducted for glory or conquest were not necessarily acceptable reasons to start a war. The jurist Alberico Gentili insisted that all women, including female combatants, should be spared from sexual assault in wartime, however in practice war rape was common. It is suggested that one reason for the prevalence of war rape was that at the time, military circles supported the notion that all persons, including unarmed women and children, were still the enemy, with the belligerent having conquering rights over them. [15] In the late Middle Ages the laws of war even considered war rape as an indication of a man's success in the battlefield and "opportinties to rape and loot were among the few advantages open to...soldiers, who were paid with great irregularity by their leaders... triumph over women by rape became a way to measure victory, part of a soldier's proof of masculinity and success, a tangible reward for services rendered...an actual reward of war".[16]

During this period in history, war rape was not necessarily committed as a conscious effort of war to terrorize the enemy, but rather as earned compensation for winning a war. There is little evidence to suggest that superiors regularly ordered subordinates to commit acts of rape. [17] Throughout this period of history war became more regulated, specific and regimented. The first formal prosecution for violations of war crimes did not take place until the late Middle Ages. [18]

Hugo Grotius, considered the father of the law of nations and the first to conduct a comprehensive work on systematizing the international laws of war concluded that rape "should not go unpunished in war any more than in peace". Emmerich van Vattel emerged as an influential figure when he pleaded for the immunity of civilians against the ravages of war, considering men and women civilians as non-combatants. [19]

In the late 18th Century and 19th Century treaties and war codes started to include vague provisions for the protection of women: The Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1785) specified that in case of war "women and children... shall not be molested in their persons". Article 20 of the Order No. 20 (1847), a supplement to the US Rules and Articles of war, listed the following as severely punishable "Assassination, murder, malicious stabbing or maiming, rape". The Declaration of Brussles (1874) stated that the "honours and rights of the family.... should be respected".[20]

The 19th Century the treatment of soldiers, prisoners, the wounded, and civilians improved and core elements of the laws of war were in place. However, while the customs of war mandated more humane treatment of soldiers and civilians, new weapons and advanced technology increase destruction and altered the methods of war. [21]

The Lieber Code (1863) was the first codification of the international customary laws of land war and an important step towards humanitarian law. The Lieber Code emphasises protection of civilians and states that "all rape...(is) prohibited under the penalty of death", which was the first prohibition of rape in customary humanitarian law. [22]

Geneva Conventions

Main article: Geneva Conventions

Since 1949 Article 27 of the Fourth Geneva Convention explictly prohibits wartime rape and enforced prostitution. These prohibitions were reinforced by the 1977 Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. [23]

Rape as an element of the crime of genocide

Further information: Rwandan Genocide and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Further information: Genocide

In 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda established by the United Nations made landmark decisions that rape is a crime of genocide under international law. The trial of Jean-Paul Akayesu, the mayor of Taba Commune in Rwanda, established precedents that rape is a element of the crime of genocide. The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide."[24]

Judge Navanethem Pillay said in a statement after the verdict: “From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war.”[25] An estimated 500,000 women were raped during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.[26]

Professor Paul Walters in his April 2005 statement of support of her honorary doctorate of law at Rhodes University wrote:[25]

Under her presidency of the Rwanda Tribunal, that body rendered a judgment against the mayor of Taba Commune which found him guilty of genocide for the use of rape in “the destruction of the spirit, of the will to live, and of life itself.”

In September 1999 thw United Nations published a "Report of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States between 1 January and 31 December 1994":

The report states that on the 2 September 1998, Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, composed of Judges Laïty Kama, Presiding, Lennart Aspegren and Navanethem Pillay, found Jean Paul Akayesu guilty of 9 of the 15 counts proffered against him, including genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide and crimes against humanity (extermination, murder, torture, rape and other inhumane acts). Jean Paul Akayesu was found not guilty of the six remaining counts, including the count of complicity in genocide and the counts relating to violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II thereto.[24]

The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive", and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group, as such. It found that sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide.[24]

On 2 October 1998, Jean Paul Akayesu was sentenced to life imprisonment for each of the nine counts, the sentences to run concurrently. Both Jean Paul Akayesu and the Prosecutor have appealed against the judgement rendered by the Trial Chamber.[24]

Rape as crime against humanity and war crime

Main article: Crimes against humanity

Main article: war crimes

The Rome Statute Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court recognises rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice.[27][28]

Rape was first recognised as crime against humanity when the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia issued arrest warrants based on the Geneva Conventions and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War. Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in Foca (southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) were subjected to systematic and widespread gang rape, torture and enslavement by Bosnian Serb soldiers, policemen and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April 1992.[29]

The indictment was of major legal significance and was the first time that sexual assaults were investigated for the purpose of prosecution under the rubric of torture and enslavement as a crime against humanity.[30] The indictment was confirmed by a 2001 verdict by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia that rape and sexual enslavement are crimes again humanity. This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war.[31]

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia found three Bosnian Serb men guilty of rape of Bosniac (Bosnian Muslim) women and girls (some as young as 12 and 15 years of age), in Foca, eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina. The charges were brought as crimes against humanity and war crimes. Furthermore two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centres. Many of the women subsequently disappeared.[32]

Definition of rape

Main article: rape

Rape and sexual assault are used interchangeably by some commentators. There is no universally accepted definition of "war rape".

The Explanatory Note of the Rome Statute, which binds the International Criminal Court, defines the "rape" as follows:

"The perpetrator invaded the body of a person by conduct resulting in penetration, however slight, of any part of the body of the victim or of the perpetrator with a sexual organ, or of the anal or genital opening of the victim with any object or any other part of the body."[33] and "The invasion was committed by force, or by threat of force or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against such person or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment, or the invasion was committed against a person incapable of giving genuine consent."[34]

The concept of “invasion” is intended to be broad enough to be gender-neutral and the definition is understood to include situations where the victim may be incapable of giving genuine consent if affected by natural, induced or age-related incapacity.[35]

The effects of war rape

War rape has a sever impact on the mainly women victims. A recent study lists the physical injury to the victims as traumatic injuries, sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD) (including HIV), and pregnancy. Because war rapes take place in zones of conflict access to emergency contraception, antibiotics, and/or abortion are extremely limited. The short-term psychological injuries to the victims include a feeling of fear, helplessness and desperation. Long-term psychological injuries may include depression, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS)), multiple somatic symptoms, flashbacks, difficulty re-establishing intimate relationships, shame and persistent fears.[36]

As a military strategy war rape is reportedly used for the purpose of conquering territory by expelling the population therefrom, decimating remaining civilians by destroying their links of filiations, by the spread of AIDS, and by eliminating their cultural and religious traditions. War rape may be described as "weapon of war" or a "means of combat" in the media.[37]

History of war rape

File:The Bulgarian martyresses.jpg
Konstantin Makovsky. The Bulgarian martyresses. 1877 Atrocities of bashibazouks in Bulgaria.

Pre-World War II

Rape, in the course of war, also dates back to antiquity, ancient enough to have been mentioned in the Bible: "They must be dividing the spoil they took: there must be a damsel or two for each man…" (Judges 5:30 NAB)[38] The Israelite, Greek, Persian and Roman troops would routinely rape women and boys in the conquered towns.[citation needed]

World War II

A number of war rapes have been documented during World War II, ranging from institutionalised sexual slavery to war rapes associated with specific battles.

The term "Comfort women" is a euphemism for the estimated 200,000 Korean and Chinese women who were forced into prostitution in Japanese military brothels during World War II.[39] At the Nanking Massacre in Chine rape was used as a tool to humiliate the civilians under Japanese oppression. As many as 80,000 women were raped by the Japanese soldiers during the six weeks of the Nanking Massacre and many of them were disemboweled and left to die and some soldiers even cut off the breasts of their victims, then nailed the women alive to walls.[40]

The Wehrmacht ran "brothels" where civilian and captured partisan women were forced to work. Ruth Seifert in War and Rape: Analytical Approaches writes, "In the Eastern territories the Wehrmacht used to brand the bodies of captured partisan women - and other women as well - with the words 'Whore for Hitler's troops' and to use them accordingly."[41] There are numerous[42] cases of rapes conducted on Jewish women and girls by German soldiers during Invasion of Poland[42]. Rapes were also committed against Polish women and girls during mass executions made primarily by Selbstschutz, which were accompanied by Wehrmacht soldiers and on territory under administration of German military, the rapes were made before shooting female captives.[43] Thousands of Soviet female nurses, doctors and field medics fell victim to brutal German rapes when captured during the war, and often they were murdered afterwards[44].

Allied soldiers are also documented to have raped civilians. According to a review of "The GI War against Japan: American Soldiers in Asia and the Pacific during World War II", rape is seen as a method for soldiers to bond with each other, and also to enhance their aggressiveness, and it also "reflects a burning need to establish total dominance of the other" [the enemy].[45] French Moroccan troops known as Goumiers, committed rapes and other war crimes after the Battle of Monte Cassino,[46] and in Germany. In Italian victims of the mass rape committed after the Battle of Monte Cassino by Goumiers, colonial troops of the French Expeditionary Corps are known as Marocchinate.

At the end of World War II, Red Army soldiers are estimated to have raped around 2,000,000 German women and girls.[47][48] Norman Naimark writes in "The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949." that although the exact number of women and prepubescent girls who were raped by members of the Red Army in the months preceding and years following the capitulation will never be known, their numbers are likely in the hundreds of thousands, quite possibly as high as the 2,000,000 victims estimate made by Barbara Johr, in "Befreier und Befreite". Many of these victims were raped repeatedly. Naimark states that not only did each victim have to carry the trauma with her for the rest of her days, it inflicted a massive collective trauma on the East German nation. Naimark concludes "The social psychology of women and men in the soviet zone of occupation was marked by the crime of rape from the first days of occupation, through the founding of the GDR in the fall of 1949, until - one could argue - the present."[49] German women who became pregnant after being raped by Soviet soldiers in World War II were invariably denied abortion to further humiliate them as to carry an unwanted child. As a result, according to the book Berlin: The Downfall, 1945 by Antony Beevor, some 90% of Berlin women in 1945 had venereal diseases as results of consequential rapes and 3.7% of all children born in Germany 1945-1946 had Russian fathers. The history behind this particular rape of the German women by the Soviet troops was considered a taboo topic until 1992. (see also Red Army atrocities)

Recent History

It has been alleged that an estimated 200,000 women were raped during the Bangladesh Liberation War by the Pakistani army[50], though this has been disputed by many including the Indian academic Sarmila Bose. [51]

Systematic rapes may be employed as a form of ethnic cleansing. During the Yugoslavian Civil War, it was reported that Serbian soldiers herded enemy women into camps, who were then raped on a daily basis until pregnancy occurred.[52][53] At least 20,000 Bosnian Muslim women were raped by Serb forces during the Bosnian War.[54] Wartime propaganda often alleges mistreatment of the civilian population by enemy forces and allegations of rape figure prominently in this, as a result it is often very difficult both practically and politically to an accurate view.[55]

Commenting on rape of women and children in recent African conflict zones Unicef said in 2008 that rape was no longer just perpetrated by combatants but also by civilians. According to Unicef rape if common in countries affected by wars and natural disasters, drawing a link between the occurrence of sexual violence and significant uprooting of a society and the crumbleling of social norms. Unicef states that in Kenya reported cases of sexual violence doubled within days of recent post-election conflict erupting. According to Unicef rape was prevalent in conflict zones in Sudan, Chad and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[56] It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 surviving rape victims living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today.[57][58]

Recent occurance of war rape

According to Amnesty International recent documented cases of war rape include ongoing conflicts in Colombia, Iraq, Sudan, Chechnya, Nepal and Afghanistan.[59]

Eastern Congo

An October 2007 New York Times article[60] reported on the large numbers of rapes occurring in the Eastern Congo near Rwanda. It reported:

Eastern Congo is going through another one of its convulsions of violence, and this time it seems that women are being systematically attacked on a scale never before seen here. According to the United Nations, 27,000 sexual assaults were reported in 2006 in South Kivu Province alone, and that may be just a fraction of the total number across the country.

The article also reported on the conclusions of Wilhelmine Ntakebuka, who coordinates a sexual violence program in Bukavu in South Kivu Province adjacent to Rwanda:

Instead, she said, the epidemic of rapes seems to have started in the mid-1990s. That coincides with the waves of Hutu militiamen who escaped into Congo’s forests after exterminating 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus during Rwanda’s genocide 13 years ago. Mr. Holmes said that while government troops might have raped thousands of women, the most vicious attacks had been carried out by Hutu militias.

Bukavu
ProvinceSouth Kivu
South Kivu Province:
South Kivu Province
South Kivu Province

Darfur, Sudan

Darfur region is shaded.
Darfur villages destroyed as of August 2, 2004

See also: War in Darfur

An October 19, 2004 UN News Centre article[61] titled "UNICEF adviser says rape in Darfur, Sudan continues with impunity" reported:

Armed militias in Sudan’s strife-torn Darfur region are continuing to rape women and girls with impunity, an expert from the United Nations children’s agency said today on her return from a mission to the region. Pamela Shifman, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) adviser on violence and sexual exploitation, said she heard dozens of harrowing accounts of sexual assaults – including numerous reports of gang-rapes – when she visited internally displaced persons (IDPs) at one camp and another settlement in North Darfur last week. “Rape is used as a weapon to terrorize individual women and girls, and also to terrorize their families and to terrorize entire communities,” she said in an interview with the UN News Service. “No woman or girl is safe.”

In that article Pamela Shifman also reported:

Ms. Shifman said every woman or girl she spoke to had either endured sexual assault herself, or knew of someone who had been attacked, particularly when they left the relative safety of their IDP camp or settlement to find firewood.

Abu Ghraib, Iraq

See also: Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse

Besides all the other sexual abuse and humiliation that occurred at the Abu Ghraib prison while under U.S. control, the Taguba Report found a sodomy claim ("Sodomizing a detainee with a chemical light and perhaps a broom stick") to be credible.[62]


See also

References

  1. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura. "How did rape become a weapon of war?". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
  2. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9041104860.
  3. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9041104860.
  4. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 9041104860.
  5. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 10–21. ISBN 9041104860.
  6. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 27. ISBN 9041104860.
  7. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, page 5.
  8. ^ Simons, Marlise (June 1996). "For first time, Court Defines Rape as War Crime". The New York Times.
  9. ^ Rosenberg, Tine (April 1998). "Editorial Observer; New punishment for an ancient war crime". The New York Times.
  10. ^ Simons, Marlise (June 1996). "For first time, Court Defines Rape as War Crime". The New York Times.
  11. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 9041104860.
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  21. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 9041104860.
  22. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 35–36. ISBN 9041104860.
  23. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn. War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 9041104860.
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  26. ^ Violence Against Women: Worldwide Statistics
  27. ^ As quoted by Guy Horton in Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360
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  30. ^ http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/rape.html
  31. ^ http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR630042001?open&of=ENG-BIH
  32. ^ http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR630042001?open&of=ENG-BIH
  33. ^ http://www.icc-cpi.int/library/about/officialjournal/Element_of_Crimes_English.pdf
  34. ^ http://www.icc-cpi.int/library/about/officialjournal/Element_of_Crimes_English.pdf
  35. ^ Minzoni - Deroche, Angela (November 2005). "Rape as a tactic of war – Advocacy Paper" (PDF). Caritas France.
  36. ^ http://apha.confex.com/apha/133am/techprogram/paper_108859.htm
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  38. ^ Nowell, Irene. Women in the Old Testament. Liturgical Press. p. 69. ISBN 0814624111.
  39. ^ Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  40. ^ Chinese city remembers Japanese 'Rape of Nanjing'
  41. ^ http://www.wilpf.int.ch/publications/1992ruthseifert.htm
  42. ^ a b "55 Dni Wehrmachtu w Polsce" Szymon Datner Warsaw 1967 page 67 Cite error: The named reference "Datner" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  43. ^ http://www.kki.net.pl/~museum/rozdz3,2.htm
  44. ^ "Zbrodnie Wehrmachtu na jeńcach wojennych w II Wojnie Światowej Szymon Datner Warsaw 1961 page 215
  45. ^ A Heterology of American GIs during World War II by Xavier Guillaume, Department of Political Science, University of Geneva July 2003, (H-NET review of Peter Schrijvers. The GI War against Japan: American Soldiers in Asia and the Pacific during World War II. New York: New York University Press, 2002)
  46. ^ Italian women win cash for wartime rapes
  47. ^ "'They raped every German female from eight to 80'". guardian.co.uk. ((cite web)): Text "Guardian Unlimited" ignored (help); Text "The Guardian" ignored (help)
  48. ^ "Red Army troops raped even Russian women as they freed them from camps - Telegraph". www.telegraph.co.uk.
  49. ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Harvard University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-674-78405-7 pp. 132,133
  50. ^ How did rape become a weapon of war?
  51. ^ Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan
  52. ^ new Internationalist issue 244, June 1993. Rape: Weapon of War by Angela Robson.
  53. ^ Human Rights News Bosnia: Landmark Verdicts for Rape, Torture, and Sexual Enslavement: Criminal Tribunal Convicts Bosnian Serbs for Crimes Against Humanity 02/22/01
  54. ^ Bosnian kids born of war rape asking questions
  55. ^ Insert footnote text here
  56. ^ "Africa war zones' 'rape epidemic'". BBC News. February 2008.
  57. ^ Kira Cochrane talks to filmmaker Lisa F Jackson on her documentary about rape in the Congo
  58. ^ A Conversation with Eve Ensler: Femicide in the Congo
  59. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura. "How did rape become a weapon of war?". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
  60. ^ "Rape Epidemic Raises Trauma of Congo War." By Jeffrey Gettleman. October 7, 2007. New York Times.
  61. ^ "UNICEF adviser says rape in Darfur, Sudan continues with impunity". October 19, 2004. UN News Centre.
  62. ^ Taguba Report: "Iraq Prisoner Abuse Investigation of the U.S. 800th Military Police Brigade". By Major General Antonio M. Taguba. May 2, 2004. Findlaw.com. Section called "Regarding part one of the investigation, I make the following specific findings of fact."


Further reading