Napoleon's withdrawal from Moscow
Napoleon's withdrawal from Moscow
Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river
Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river

A tactical withdrawal or retreating defensive action is a type of military operation, generally meaning that retreating forces draw back while maintaining contact with the enemy. A withdrawal may be undertaken as part of a general retreat, to consolidate forces, to occupy ground that is more easily defended, force the enemy to overextend to secure a decisive victory, or to lead the enemy into an ambush. It is considered a relatively risky operation, requiring discipline to keep from turning into a disorganized rout or at the very least doing severe damage to the military's morale.

Tactical withdrawal

A withdrawal may be anticipated, as when a defending force is outmatched or on disadvantageous ground, but must cause as much damage to an enemy as possible. In such a case, the retreating force may employ a number of tactics and strategies to further impede the enemy's progress. This could include setting mines or booby traps during or before withdrawal, leading the enemy into prepared artillery barrages, or the use of scorched earth tactics.

Rout

Main article: Rout

In warfare, the long-term objective is the defeat of the enemy. An effective tactical method is the demoralisation of the enemy by defeating their army and routing them from the battlefield. Once a force has become disorganized, losing its ability to fight, the victors can chase down the remnants and attempt to cause as many casualties or take as many prisoners as possible.

However, a commander must weigh the advantages of pursuit of a disorganised enemy against the possibility that the enemy may rally and leave the pursuing force vulnerable, with longer lines of communications vulnerable to a counterattack. Thus the value of a feigned retreat.

Feigned retreat

Main article: Feigned retreat

The act of feigning a withdrawal or rout in order to lure an enemy away from a defended position or into a prepared ambush is an ancient tactic, and has been used throughout the history of warfare.

Three famous examples are:

″It was murder. They rolled right into the muzzles of the concealed eighty-eights and all I could do was stand by and watch tank after tank blown to bits or burst into flames or just stop, wrecked. Those in the rear tried to turn back but the eighty-eights seemed to be everywhere″ [3]

References

  1. ^ Marren, Peter (2004). 1066: The Battles of York, Stamford Bridge & Hastings. Grub Street Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 9781783460021. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  2. ^ An Heroical Epistle of Hudibras to His Lady, e-text, at exclassics.com
  3. ^ Westrate, Edwin V. (1944). Forward Observer. Philadelphia: Blakiston. pp. 109–117.