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The French Navy commando unit Jaubert storms a naval vessel in a mock assault

A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.

Originally "a commando" was a type of combat unit, as opposed to an individual in that unit. In other languages, commando and kommando denote a "command", including the sense of a military or an elite special operations unit.

In the militaries and governments of most countries, commandos are distinctive in that they specialize in assault on unconventional high-value targets. However, the term commando is sometimes used in relation to units carrying out the latter tasks (including some civilian police units).

In English, occasionally to distinguish between an individual commando and the unit Commando, the unit is capitalized.[1]

Green Berets and training origins

Since the 20th century and World War II, commandos have been set apart from other military units by virtue of their extreme training regimes; these are usually associated with the green beret which originated with British Commandos. The British Commandos were instrumental in founding many other international commando units during World War II. Some international commando units were formed from members who served as part of or alongside British Commandos, such as the Dutch Korps Commandotroepen (who still wear the recognition flash insignia of the British Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife), Belgian 5th Special Air Service, or Greek Sacred Band (World War II). In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS, and the Belgian 5th SAS. The French Army special force (1er RPIMa) still use the motto Qui Ose Gagne, a translation of the SAS motto "Who Dares Wins."

In addition, many Commonwealth nations were part of the original British Commando units. They developed their own national traditions, including the Australian Special Air Service Regiment, the New Zealand Special Air Service, and the Southern Rhodesian Special Air Service, all of whom share the same insignia and motto as their British counterparts. During the Second World War, the British SAS quickly adopted sand-colored berets, since they were almost entirely based in the North African theatre; they used these rather than the green berets to distinguish themselves from other British Commando units. (See History of the Special Air Service. Other Commonwealth commando units were formed after the Second World War directly based on the British Commando units, such as the Australian 1st Commando Regiment (Australia), distinct from the Australian special operations 2nd Commando Regiment (Australia), who originated with the jungle-fighting 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment during the Second World War.

The US Rangers were founded by Major General Lucian Truscott of the US Army, a liaison officer with the British General Staff. In 1942, he submitted a proposal to General George Marshall that an American unit be set up "along the lines of the British Commandos". The original US Rangers trained at the British Commandos centre at Achnacarry Castle. The US Navy SEALs' original formation, the Observer Group, was also trained and influenced by British Commandos.[2] The US Special Forces originated with the First Special Service Force, formed under British Combined Operations.

Malaysian green beret special forces PASKAL[3] and Grup Gerak Khas (who still wear the Blue Lanyard of the Royal Marines) were originally trained by British Commandos. The Brazilian marine special operations COMANF also originated with Royal Marines mentoring. Other British units, such as the SAS, led to the development of many international special operations units that are now typically referred to as commandos, including the Pakistani Special Services Group, Indian MARCOS, and Jordanian special forces.


The word stems from the Afrikaans word kommando, which translates roughly to "mobile infantry regiment". This term originally referred to mounted infantry regiments, who fought against the British Army in the first and second Boer Wars.

The Dutch word has had the meaning of "a military order or command" since at least 1652; it likely came into the language through the influence of the Portuguese word comando (meaning "command").[1] (In Dutch, "commando" can also mean a command given to a computer, e.g., "het mkdir-commando" (= "create a directory").) It is also possible the word was adopted into Afrikaans from interactions with Portuguese colonies.[4] Less likely, it is a High German loan word, which was borrowed from Italian in the 17th century, from the sizable minority of German settlers in the initial European colonization of South Africa.[1]

The officer commanding an Afrikaans kommando is called a kommandant, which is a regimental commander equivalent to a lieutenant-colonel or a colonel.

The Oxford English Dictionary ties the English use of the word meaning "[a] member of a body of picked men ..." directly into its Afrikaans' origins:[5]

1943 Combined Operations (Min. of Information) i. Lt. Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke... produced the outline of a scheme.... The men for this type of irregular warfare should, he suggested, be formed into units to be known as Commandos.... Nor was the historical parallel far-fetched. After the victories of Roberts and Kitchener had scattered the Boer army, the guerrilla tactics of its individual units (which were styled ‘Commandos’)... prevented decisive victory.... His [sc. Lt.-Col. D. W. Clarke's] ideas were accepted; so also, with some hesitation, was the name Commando.

During World War II, newspaper reports of the deeds of "the commandos" led to readers thinking that the singular meant one man rather than one military unit, and this new usage became established.


After the Dutch Cape Colony was established in 1652, the word was used to describe bands of militia. The first "Commando Law" was instated by the original Dutch East India Company chartered settlements and similar laws were maintained through the independent Boer Orange Free State and South African Republic. The law compelled Burghers to equip themselves with a horse and a firearm when required in defense. The implementation of these laws was called the "Commando System". A group of mounted militiamen were organized in a unit known as a commando and headed by a Commandant, who was normally elected from inside the unit.[1] Men called up to serve were said to be "on commando".[6] British experience with this system lead to the widespread adoption of the word "commandeer" into English in the 1880s.[7]

During the "Great Trek", conflicts with Southern African peoples such as the Xhosa and the Zulu caused the Boers to retain the commando system despite being free of colonial laws. Also, the word became used to describe any armed raid. During this period, the Boers also developed guerrilla techniques for use against numerically superior but less mobile bands of natives such as the Zulu who fought in large complex formations.[1]

In the First Boer War, Boer commandos were able to use superior marksmanship, fieldcraft, camouflage and mobility to expel an occupying British force (poorly trained in marksmanship, wearing red uniforms and unmounted) from the Transvaal. These tactics were continued throughout the Second Boer War. In the final phase of the war, 75,000 Boers carried out asymmetric warfare against the 450,000-strong British Imperial forces for two years after the British had captured the capital cities of the two Boer republics. During these conflicts the word entered English, retaining its general Afrikaans meaning of a "militia unit" or a "raid". Robert Baden-Powell recognised the importance of fieldcraft and was inspired to form the scouting movement.

In 1941, Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke of the British Imperial General Staff, suggested the name Commando for specialized raiding units of the British Army Special Service in evocation of the effectiveness and tactics of the Boer commandos.[1] During World War II, American and British publications, confused over the use of the plural "commandos" for that type of British military units, gave rise to the modern common habit of using "a commando" to mean one member of such a unit, or one man engaged on a raiding-type operation.[1]

World War I


The first country to establish commando troops was Italy, in the summer 1917, shortly before Germany.

Italy used specialist trench-raiding teams to break the stalemate of static fighting against Austria-Hungary, in the Alpine battles of World War I. These teams were called "Arditi" (meaning "daring, brave ones"); they were almost always men under 25 in top physical condition and, possibly at first, bachelors (due to fear of very high casualty rates). Actually the Arditi (who were led to the lines just a few hours before the assault, having been familiarised with the terrain via photo-reconnaissance and trained on trench systems re-created ad hoc for them) suffered fewer casualties than regular line infantry and were highly successful in their tasks. Many of them volunteered for extreme-right formations in the turbulent years after the war and (the Fascist Party took pride in this and adopted the style and the mannerism of Arditi), but some people of left-wing political persuasions created the "Arditi del Popolo" (People's Arditi) and for some years held the fascist raids in check, defending Socialist and Communist Party sections, buildings, rallies and meeting places.[8]

During the Liberation of Rome in 1944, US troops broke into the Italian Ministry of Defence building in Rome and seized all World War I materials and documents pertaining to Arditi units in the archives.[citation needed]


In World War I in 1918, raiding troops called "Sturmtruppen" or Storm Troopers carrying submachine guns, mostly the MP-18, were sent by the Germans to try to disrupt or even break into no man's land and into the trenches of British and French lines.

World War II


In December 1939, following the success of German infiltration and sabotage operations in the Polish campaign, the German Office for Foreign and Counter-Intelligence (OKW Amt Ausland/Abwehr) formed the Brandenburger Regiment (known officially as the 800th Special Purpose Training and Construction Company). The Brandenburgers conducted a mixture of covert and conventional operations but became increasingly involved in ordinary infantry actions and were eventually converted into a Panzer-Grenadier Division, suffering heavy losses in Russia. Otto Skorzeny (most famed for his rescue of Benito Mussolini) conducted many special operations for Adolf Hitler. Skorzeny commanded Sonderlehrgang z.b.V. Oranienburg, Sonderverband z.b.V. Friedenthal, and SS-Jäger-Bataillon 502, 500th SS Parachute Battalion, SS-Jagdverband Mitte and all other SS commando units.

A report written by Major-General Robert Laycock in 1947 said there was a German raid on a radar station on the Isle of Wight in 1941.[9][10]


In 1944–45, Japanese Teishin Shudan ("Raiding Group") and Giretsu ("heroic") detachments made airborne assaults on Allied airfields in the Philippines, Marianas and Okinawa. The attacking forces varied in size from a few paratroopers to operations involving several companies. Due to the balance of forces concerned, these raids achieved little in the way of damage or casualties, and resulted in the destruction of the Japanese units concerned. Considering that there were no plans to extract these forces, and the reluctance to surrender by Japanese personnel during that era, they are often seen in the same light as kamikaze pilots of 1944–45.

Nakano School trained intelligence and commando officers and organized commando teams for sabotage and guerrilla warfare.

The navy had commando units "S-toku" (Submarine special attack units, see Kure 101st JSNLF(in Japanese) ) for infiltrating enemy areas by submarine. It was called the Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces of Kure 101st, Sasebo 101st and 102nd.


Italy's most renowned commando unit of World War II was Decima Flottiglia MAS ("10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla"), which, from mid-1940, sank or damaged a considerable tonnage of Allied ships in the Mediterranean.

After Italy surrendered in 1943, some of the Decima Flottiglia MAS were on the Allied side of the battle line and fought with the Allies, renaming themselves the Mariassalto. The others fought on the German side and kept their original name but did not operate at sea after 1943, being mostly employed against Italian partisans; some of its men were involved in atrocities against civilians.[11]

In post-war years the Italian marine commandos were re-organised as the "Comsubin" (an abbreviation of Comando Subacqueo Incursori, or Underwater Raiders Command). They wear the green Commando beret.

United Kingdom

Main article: British Commandos

The Commando Memorial unveiled in 1952 in Scotland is dedicated to the World War II British Commandos

In 1940, the British Army also formed "independent companies", later reformed as battalion sized "commandos", thereby reviving the word. The British intended that their commandos be small, highly mobile surprise raiding and reconnaissance forces. They intended them to carry all they needed and not remain in field operations for more than 36 hours. Army Commandos were all volunteers selected from existing soldiers still in Britain.

During the war the British Army Commandos spawned several other famous British units such as the Special Air Service, the Special Boat Service and the Parachute Regiment. The British Army Commandos themselves were never regimented and were disbanded at the end of the war.

The Special Operations Executive (SOE) also formed commando units from British and displaced European personnel (e.g., Cichociemni) to conduct raiding operations in occupied Europe. They also worked in small teams, such as the SAS, which was composed of ten or fewer commandos because that was better for special operations. One example is Norwegian Independent Company 1, which destroyed heavy water facilities in Norway in 1941.

The Royal Navy also controlled Royal Navy Beach Parties, based on teams formed to control the evacuation of Dunkirk in 1940.[12] These were later known simply as RN Commandos, and they did not see action until they successfully fought for control of the landing beaches (as in the disastrous Dieppe Raid of 19 August 1942). The RN Commandos, including Commando "W" from the Royal Canadian Navy, saw action on D-Day.[13]

In 1942, the Royal Navy's nine Royal Marines infantry battalions were reorganized as Commandos, numbered from 40 to 48, joining the British Army Commandos in combined Commando Brigades. After the war the Army Commandos were disbanded. The Royal Marines form an enduring Brigade-strength capability as 3 Commando Brigade with supporting Army units.[14]

The Royal Air Force also formed 15 commando units in 1942, each of which was 150 strong. These units consisted of trained technicians, armourers and maintainers who had volunteered to undertake the commando course. These RAF commandos accompanied the Allied invasion forces in all theatres; their main role was to allow the forward operation of friendly fighters by servicing and arming them from captured air fields. However, due to the forward position of these airfields, the Royal Air Force Commandos were also trained to secure and make safe these airfields and to help defend them from enemy counterattack.[15]

As of 1 September 1999 Great Britain's 16 Air Assault Brigade is a formation of the British Army based in Colchester in the county of Essex. It is the Army's rapid response airborne formation and is the only Operational Brigade in the British Army capable of delivering Air Manoeuvre, Air Assault and Airborne operations.[16]


Main article: Australian commandos

The Australian Army formed commando units, known as Australian independent companies in the early stages of World War II. They first saw action in early 1942 during the Japanese assault on New Ireland, and in the Battle of Timor. Part of the 2/1st Independent Company was wiped out on New Ireland, but on Timor, the 2/2nd Independent Company formed the heart of an Allied force that engaged Japanese forces in a guerrilla campaign. The Japanese commander on the island drew parallels with the Boer War, and decided that it would require a 10:1 numerical advantage to defeat the Allies. The campaign occupied the attention of an entire Japanese division for almost a year. The independent companies were later renamed commando squadrons, and they saw widespread action in the South West Pacific Area, especially in New Guinea and Borneo. In 1943, all the commando squadrons except the 2/2nd and 2/8th were grouped into the 2/6th, 2/7th and 2/9th Cavalry Commando Regiments.

Later in the war the Royal Australian Navy also formed commando units along the lines of the Royal Naval Commandos to go ashore with the first waves of major amphibious assaults, to signpost the beaches and carry out other naval tasks. These were known as RAN Commandos. Four were formed—lettered A, B, C and D like their British counterparts—and they took part in the Borneo campaign.

Z Force, an Australian-British-New Zealand military intelligence commando unit, formed by the Australian Services Reconnaissance Department, also carried out many raiding and reconnaissance operations in the South West Pacific theatre, most notably Operation Jaywick, in which they destroyed tonnes of Japanese shipping at Singapore Harbour. An attempt to replicate this success, with Operation Rimau, resulted in the death of almost all those involved. However, Z Force and other SRD units continued operations until the war's end.

New Zealand

New Zealand formed the Southern Independent Commando in Fiji 1942. Its primary function was to wage a guerrilla war on any Japanese forces should they attempt to capture the strategically important Fiji islands. 200 native Fijians were recruited and organised by 44 New Zealanders. Training focused intensely on jungle warfare, and many successful 'mock' raids were made on American garrisons who awoke to find dummy time bombs placed on their ammunition dumps, or chalk crosses drawn on the equipment of their guards.

When it became apparent that a Japanese invasion of Fiji was no longer likely, the commando was deployed to undertake scouting tasks for US forces around Guadalcanal and New Georgia. Recruiting was further expanded to include men from other pacific islands such as the Solomons and Tonga, and occasionally British or American personnel took part in training or accompanied the commandos on missions. After many successful operations and engagements, the harsh conditions of extended jungle living took their toll, and many men began to suffer from ill-health. As a result, the commando was reduced in strength until it was declared unfit for further service, and was disbanded in May 1944.

The commando's contribution to the Solomon Island campaign was significant, with senior American officers referring to the unit as "most capable", "invaluable" and "unquestionably ... of great aid in the campaign".[17]

New Zealanders were also a notable component of the Long Range Desert Group, which undertook reconnaissance and occasional strike missions deep behind enemy lines during the North African Campaign.


A joint Canadian-American Commando unit, the 1st Special Service Force, nicknamed the Devil's Brigade, was formed in 1942 under the command of Colonel Robert Frederick. The unit initially saw service in the Pacific, in August 1943 at Kiska in the Aleutians campaign. However most of its operations occurred during the Italian campaign and in southern France. Its most famous raid, which was documented in the film Devil's Brigade, was the battle of Monte la Difensa. In 1945, the unit was disbanded; some of the Canadian members were sent to the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion as replacements, and the American members were sent to either the 101st Airborne Division or the 82nd Airborne Division as replacements or the 474th Regimental Combat Team. Ironically they were sent to service in Norway in 1945, the country they were formed to raid.


Main article: Sacred Band (World War II)

The Sacred band (Greek: Ιερός Λόχος) was a Greek special forces unit formed in 1942 in the Middle East, composed entirely of Greek officers and officer cadets under the command of Col. Christodoulos Tsigantes. It fought alongside the SAS in the Libyan Desert and with the SBS in the Aegean, as well as with General Leclerc's Free French Forces in Tunisia. It was disbanded in August 1945.

United States

Main articles: United States Army Rangers, Marine Raiders, Paramarines, Underwater Demolition Team, and Air Commando

Two reconnaissance teams of U.S. Army Rangers, Quang Tri, Vietnam.

During 1941, the United States Marine Corps formed commando battalions. The USMC commandos were known collectively as Marine Raiders. On orders from President Franklin D. Roosevelt through a proposal from OSS Director Colonel William J. Donovan and the former Commander of the United States Marine Detachment Major Evans F Carlson, directed the formation of what became the Marine Raiders. Initially this unit was to be called Marine Commandos and were to be the counterpart to the British Commandos. The name Marine Commandos met with much controversy within the Marine Corps leading Commandant Thomas J. Holcomb to state, "the term 'Marine' is sufficient to indicate a man ready for duty at any time, and the injection of a special name, such as commando, would be undesirable and superfluous." President Roosevelt's son James Roosevelt served with The Marine Raiders. The Raiders initially saw action at the Battle of Tulagi and the Battle of Makin, as well as the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, and other parts of the Pacific Ocean Areas. In February 1944 the four Raider battalions were converted to regular Marine units. Additionally, as parachuting special forces units, Paramarines arguably also qualified as commandos[18]- though they too were assimilated into regular Marine units in 1944.

In mid-1942, the United States Army formed its Army Rangers in Northern Ireland under William O. (Bill) Darby. The Rangers were designed along the similar lines to the British Commandos. The first sizable Ranger action took place in August 1942 at the Dieppe Raid, where 50 Rangers from the 1st Ranger Battalion were dispersed among Canadian regulars and British Commandos. The first full Ranger action took place in November 1942 during the invasion of Algiers in Northwest Africa in (Operation Torch), again by members of the 1st Ranger Battalion.[19]

The 82nd Airborne Division and the 101st Airborne Division built their legacies during World War Two as light infantry divisions. The 101st Airborne Division is one of the U.S. Army's most decorated divisions and is famous for its defense of Bastogne, Belgium during the Siege of Bastogne during the Battle of the Bulge. The 101st Airborne Division was renowned for its role in Operation Overlord (the D-Day landings and airborne landings on June 6, 1944, in Normandy, France), Operation Market Garden, the liberation of the Netherlands. During the Vietnam War, the 101st Airborne Division fought in several major campaigns and battles including the fight for Hamburger Hill in May 1969.[16] In November 2001, the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) was the first unit to deploy in support of the American War on Terrorism.[20]

101st Airborne troops posing with a captured Nazi vehicle air identification sign two days after landing at Normandy.
173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team Soldiers conduct air assault training in Germany (2007)

After 1945

Weapons of the modern commando Jaubert are clearly visible

After World War II there was much publicity about the deeds of "the commandos"; many civilians reading these accounts, guessing a meaning from the context, thought in error that the singular "a commando" meant one man, and that usage became general.


In Australia, the Army's commando squadrons were disbanded at the end of the war. However, in 1954, two Citizens Military Force (reserve) units, 1 and 2 Commando Companies, were raised.

1st Commando Regiment (1 Cdo Regt), a regimental structure for the reserve commando companies—and 126 Signal Squadron (Special Forces)—was formed during the 1980s. It adopted the green berets worn by its World War II predecessors.

In 1997, the Australian government ordered the conversion of 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (4RAR) into a permanent, non-reserve commando battalion, with instructors from 1st Commando Regiment and Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR). 126 Signal Squadron was reassigned to 4RAR and 301 Signal Squadron re-raised to join 1 Cdo Regt. In 2009, 4RAR was renamed 2nd Commando Regiment (2 Cdo Regt).

1 Cdo and 2 Cdo utilise identical selection and training courses. One company of 2 Cdo is responsible for counter-terrorism operations and response in eastern Australia and is officially known as Tactical Assault Group-East (TAG-E). This company mirrors its sister unit (the original Tactical Assault Group) in the West (TAG-W), which is part of the SASR.

Commandos from 1CDO and 2CDO have been deployed on peacekeeping and combat missions in several countries, including East Timor, the Solomon Islands, Iraq and Afghanistan.


Commando units belonging to Belgium are the Para-Commando Regiments and Brigade Immediate Reaction Cell.


Canadian commando forces were disbanded and recreated at various times in the post-war years, and in 1968 the Canadian Airborne Regiment was formed. It was divided into three Airborne Commandos each of company strength. This resulted in a ceiling of about 750 members in all ranks, organized into three smaller company-sized commandos. The three airborne commandos took shape around the three regimental affiliations: 1 Commando with the Royal 22e Régiment, 2 Commando with Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, and 3 Commando with The Royal Canadian Regiment. The Canadian Airborne Regiment was disbanded after the torture and murder of Shidane Arone, a Somalia civilian, in 1993, and other allegations of wrongdoing within the Regiment. Later, parliamentary investigations questioned why such an elite commando unit was sent on a peacekeeping mission. The Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR) is known as a commando unit but is a special forces unit and Canadian Joint Task Force Two, or JTF2, is also sometimes referred to as a "commando" unit, but it is technically a specialist counter-terrorism unit.


Brazil created its special operations forces in the 1950s. There are commando units in the Brazilian Army and in the navy. In the Brazilian Army the main unit is the Special Operations Brigade, and their Navy counterparts are the COMANF, which is a part of the Brazilian Marine Corps.


In Chile the Army Special Forces, Navy and Air Force commando units are characterized by their black berets and for their use of a special type of knife called a Corvo. The Chilean commandos are also known for their military bearing and discipline, thorough preparation and for their rich historic traditions. The Army's motto is: "ever victorious, never defeated."


The former Belgian Congo had one Commando company at independence in 1960 and this was soon expanded to a battalion, becoming known as the 1st Para-Commando Battalion. A 2nd Para-Commando Battalion was added a few years later. From 1963, the Congolese-manned 3rd and 4th Commando Battalions were formed but were little more than normal infantry units. In 1964, the 5th and 6th Commando Battalions were formed mainly with mercenaries, and the 7th to 15th Commando Battalions mainly with Congolese but with some white NCOs and officers. Again, there was no actual commando training and the units were more akin to motorized infantry, with some armour. The 5th to the 15th were all disbanded by 1967.


The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) do not train any commando units in the traditional sense, but the FDF and the Finnish Border Guard (under the Ministry of the Interior) have units which are trained specially, like commandos, with tactics to perform in the Arctic wilderness against enemy FDF trains only some tens of paratroopers in a year in the Utti Jaeger Regiment for Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol and special forces tactics. However, FDF and Finnish Frontier Guard have their own Sissi (Finnish light infantry) training regiments (thousands in reserve) in which some hundreds of highly motivated volunteers, per year, are trained to operate behind enemy lines with asymmetric tactics and with light and some times improvised weapons. The role of the troops is reconnaissance, ambushes, to hit supply, logistics and command and control. Also, any special gear (like bridge carriers) and weapons are preferable targets for these units.


Main article: List of French Paratrooper Units

French Army (Armee de Terre):

French Navy (Marine Nationale):

French Air Force (Armee de L'Air):

National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie Nationale):

Directorate-General for External Security: Division Action:


The German Army currently operates the Fernspähkompanie (Germany's elite long range reconnaissance company), and the Kommando Spezialkräfte (KSK).

The KSK is stationed in Calw, in the Black Forest area in southern Germany. It consists of about 1,100 soldiers, but only a nucleus of these are in fighting units. Exact numbers are not available, as this information is considered secret. The KSK is a part of the Special Operations Division (Div. Spezielle Operationen or DSO).

The fighting units are divided into four commando companies of about 100 men each and the special commando company with veteran members, taking supporting tasks. Each of the four commando companies has five specialised platoons:

There are four commando squads in every platoon. Each of these groups consists of about four equally skilled soldiers. One of each group is specially trained as weapons expert, medic, combat engineer or communications expert respectively. Additionally a group can contain other specialists, e.g. heavy weapons or language experts.

Another special unit, the Kampfschwimmer (comparable to the USN SEALs) are operated by the German Navy.


Main article: Special Forces of India

The Para Commandos are a special forces unit of the Indian Army. Formed in 1952, the Para Commandos are the largest and most important part of the Special Forces of India. They are highly trained units of the Indian Army, meant to operate behind enemy lines.

The Special Frontier Force is a paramilitary special force of India created on 14 November 1962. Its main goal was to conduct covert operations behind Chinese lines in the event of another Indo-China war. SFF was raised with covert operations in mind, mainly along the Indo-China border, however SFF has been fielded by R&AW and the Indian government in various covert and overt operations.

The Garud Commando Force is the Special Forces unit of the Indian Air Force. The unit derives its name from the word for eagle in Sanskrit. Garud is tasked with acting as quick response teams during attacks on critical Air Force bases and installations; as well as conducting search and rescue of downed pilots, forward air control and carrying out strikes against enemy air defences and radar installations.[21]

MARCOS (marine commandos) is a commando unit of the Indian Navy designed to carry out operation from the air, at sea and on land.

National Security Guards is a special force in India that has primarily been utilised for counter-terrorism activities. (NSG) personnel are popularly known as Black Cat Commandos. There are 2 main units of the NSG, The Special Action Group (SAG) and The Special Ranger Groups (SRG). The Special Action Group is the strike force in anti-terrorist and hostage rescue operations. The Special Rangers Group (SRG) is tasked with providing VVIP security for high-risk VVIPs in India.

Ghatak Force is a battalion-level special unit in the Indian Army, with one in each battalion. They are used as elite infantry to spearhead attacks, carry out reconnaissance and further the objectives of battalions on the battlefields.

The SOG (Special Operations Group (India)) is a special forces unit of the Jammu and Kashmir Police involved in counter terror activities in the state.

The Force One is an elite commando force, which is a specialised counter terrorism unit to guard the Mumbai metropolitan area, one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world, formed by the Government of Maharashtra on the lines of the National Security Guards (NSG).

Kerala Thunderbolts is an elite commando force, which specialises in counter terrorism and Anti-naxel activities, formed by the Government of Kerala on the lines of the National Security Guards.[22]

Special Tactical Unit is an urban counter terrorist unit based in Odisha, India. They specialise in urban warfare scenarios including hostage situations.


Revolutionary Guards

Iranian Takavar unit S.N.S.F. in Great Prophet IX maneuvers, 25–27 February 2015.

In the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution/Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), one of its five branches, the elite Quds Force specialises in extraterritorial operations.[23] In the Ground Forces, the Saberin Battalion is the most famous special unit.[24][25] The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Navy has its own Special Units of marines.[26]


The Iranian Hostage Rescue Unit of NOHED practicing.
A Iranian marine sniper wearing a ghillie suit.

Ground Forces of Islamic Republic of Iran Army units whose members are trained at Lashkarak Takavar Training Centre:

Islamic Republic of Iran Navy green berets/marines (Persian: تکاوران دريايي) whose members are trained at Manjil Takavar Training Centre:

During the reign of the last Shah (king) of Iran, much of the naval training was created by members of the Soviet Union's Spetsnaz and the British Special Boat Service.[27] Training is at least a 12-month process. After the recruit has demonstrated the minimum physical requirements, he is sent to a collection of schools.[28]


The primary commando units of the Israel Defense Forces include Shayetet 13, Sayeret Matkal and the Shaldag Unit.

The Paratroopers Brigade also known as the 35th Brigade, is a elite unit of paratroopers within the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), and forms a major part of the Infantry Corps. It has a history of carrying out special forces-style missions dating back to the 1950s.

The Egoz Reconnaissance Unit is an Israeli Special Force commando unit, in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Egoz is a unit that specializes in guerrilla, anti-guerrilla warfare, behind enemy lines intelligence gathering, and more complicated ground activity. Egoz is part of the Commando Brigade but still completes basic training with the Golani Brigade.[29]

The Golani Brigade, also known as the 1st Brigade) is an Israeli regular service infantry brigade that is subordinated to the 36th Division and traditionally associated with the Northern Command. It is one of the five regular service infantry brigades of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Its symbol is a green olive tree against a yellow background, with its soldiers wearing a brown beret. It is one of the most highly decorated infantry units in the IDF. The brigade consists of five battalions, including two which it kept from its inception (12th and 13th), one transferred from Givati (51st), and two special forces battalions.

Maglan (Also known as Unit 212 or Sayeret Maglan) is an Israeli Special Forces unit which specializes in operating behind enemy lines and deep in enemy territory using advanced technologies and weaponry.

Shaldag Unit, also known as Unit 5101, is an elite Israeli Air Force commando unit. Shaldag's mission is to deploy undetected into combat and hostile environments to conduct special reconnaissance, establish assault zones or airfields, while simultaneously conducting air traffic control and commando actions.

Sayeret Matkal (General Staff Reconnaissance Unit) is a special forces unit of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) directly subordinate to the Directorate of Military Intelligence.

Primarily a field intelligence-gathering unit specializing in special reconnaissance behind enemy lines, Sayeret Matkal is also tasked with counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, and foreign espionage. Modeled after the British Army's Special Air Service — from which it emulated the motto, "Who Dares, Wins" — the unit is considered to be the Israeli equivalent to the famed Delta Force of the United States.[30]

As one of Israel's most elite commando units, Sayeret Matkal has reputedly been involved in almost every major counter-terrorism operation since its inception in 1957.[31]

Shayetet 13 is the elite naval commando unit of the Israeli Navy. S'13 specializes in sea-to-land incursions, counter-terrorism, sabotage, maritime intelligence gathering, maritime hostage rescue, and boarding.The unit is respected as among the best of the world's special forces.[32]

Israel's premier commando unit of the Haganah, the forerunner of the modern IDF, was the Palmach. The first special forces unit created after Israel's independence was Unit 101.

Israeli Egoz Reconnaissance soldiers blending in with the landscape.
Israeli Shayetet 13 Operatives during training


Main article: Italian special forces


"Kopassus" (a portmanteau of "Komando Pasukan Khusus" or "Special Force Command") is an Indonesian Army special forces group that conducts special operations missions for the Indonesian government, such as direct action, unconventional warfare, sabotage, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, and intelligence gathering.

Kopassus was founded on April 16, 1952.[citation needed] On April 15, 1952, Colonel Alexander Evert Kawilarang laid the foundation for Kesatuan Komando Tentara Territorium III/Siliwangi (Kesko TT), the early name of Kopassus.[citation needed]

The impetus for building this special force was provided from frustration when fighting against the troops of the RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan or Republic of the South Moluccas). The Indonesians were amazed and hampered by the RMS's sniper ability and skills—which the Indonesian armed forces of the time did not possess. They were inspired to build a similar force for Indonesia. However, at that time, there were no Indonesian commanders with the necessary experience or special operations skills. However, Lieutenant Colonel Slamet Riyadi's dream was not realized due to his death in a battle against the troops of the separatist RMS.[citation needed]

Not long after, Colonel Kawilarang with the use of military intelligence, located and met Major Rokus Bernardus Visser—a former member of the Dutch Special Forces who had remained a peaceful and law-abiding citizen in newly independent Indonesia, settled in West Java, married an Indonesian woman, and adopted an Indonesian name, Mohamad Idjon Djanbi. He was the first recruit for the Indonesian special forces, as well as its first commander.

At that time, Indonesia's special force name was Third Territorial Command: Komando Teritorium Tiga (KTT). Kopassus was the final result of five name changes: KTT, KKAD, RPKAD, and Kopasandha. The first generation of Indonesian Forces was only around a hundred soldiers or one company, headquartered in Bandung.[citation needed]

As TNI members, the Kopassus are/were legally exempt from civil law jurisdiction and a military inquiry found them innocent of all charges. The principal members of the alleged "murder" were all of Group V (Jakarta) and not based in Jayapura nor West Papua, and the "supposed ring-leader Let-Col Hatono got three and a half years jail and two other officers were not even discharged. The ruling Jakarta perspective on the "murder" was affirmed by army Chief Ryamizard Ryacudu: "accepted the men had to face sentence because Indonesia is a State based on law. However he said the men are heroes to [sic: if they did] kill a rebel leader. Defense lawyers who [sic: are] appealing the verdicts, have also described the alleged "killers" as heroes"[33]

Kopassus is alleged by external media and human rights-affiliated NGOs to have committed violations of human rights in East Timor, Aceh, Papua and the capital Jakarta. Notably in the Western press, published articles even in mainstream media may include epithets such as "the notorious Kopassus" .[34] Four members of Kopassus were convicted of the strangulation killing of Theys Eluay, the former chairman of the Papuan Presidium Council. After admitting the killing after ambushing him and his driver, two received prison sentences of 3-1/2 years and two others received three years.[35]

Kopassus also has been speculated by eyewitness accounts to have been involved in carrying out or supervising the May 1998 Jakarta riot, including the mass gang-rape of Chinese Indonesian women.[36]



A member of the Pakistan Navy's Special Service Group is silhouetted by the setting sun aboard Pakistan Navy Ship PNS Babur (D 182) while under way in the Arabian Sea, November 25, 2007. Babur is deployed to the US Central Command area of responsibility as part of Combined Task Force 150.

The Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force. Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is classified. Based at Cherat and Attock, the SSG was created in 1956 with active support from U.S. Special Operations Forces. That year the 19th Battalion of the Baloch Regiment (19 Baloch) was selected for conversion to a Special Operations Force. Now the SSG has one of the best specialised and experienced Anti Terrorist units in the world, known as Al Zarrar

The SSG also has a unit in the Pakistan Navy known as the Special Service Group Navy (SSGN). The SSGN currently maintains its headquarters in Karachi and is headed by a Pakistan Navy Commander. In 2006, the SSGN created two new groups, the Pak Seals and VBSS. The Pak Seals will operate at sea, from the air and on land.

The SSG in 2001 created a special forces unit for the Pakistan Air Force called the Special Service Wing (SSW). This new component of the Special Forces of Pakistan is still being trained and built up.


Main article: Polish Special Forces


A Portuguese Army Commandos team in Afghanistan.

The Portuguese Armed Forces, presently, include the following commando type forces: the Comandos Troops, the Parachute Troops, the Corpo de Fuzileiros.

The first modern commando type force created by the Portuguese Army was the Sapadores de Assalto (Assault Sappers), a small assault sub-unit organized inside the Army School of Engineers, by the then captain Kaulza de Arriaga, in 1947. However, the majority of the Army was opposed to the existence of special forces and the Sapadores de Assalto were soon extinct.

Later, Kaulza de Arriaga, would be appointed the first Secretary of the Air and - in this role - created the Portuguese Parachute Troops in 1956, with commando features, as part of the Portuguese Air Force and not of the Army.

In 1960, the Army created again a commando type unit, the Caçadores Especiais (Special Rifles). The Caçadores Especiais would fight in the beginning of the Portuguese Overseas War in Africa. However, the Army faction opposed to the existence of special forces prevailed again and the decision was taken to extinct the Caçadores Especiais and to extend the training given to those units to all the field units of the Army.

It was soon found impossible to train all units as Caçadores Especiais. This originated the creation of the Comandos. The first of these forces were created in Northern Angola in 1962, initially as shock sub-units of regular field battalions and later as independent units. The Comandos were designed to conduct special actions in the Portuguese territory or abroad, to fight as assault infantry / shock troops and to provide the high political and military commands with a force able to conduct irregular operations.

Beyond the above-mentioned, the Portuguese Armed and Security Forces organized and employed several other commando type forces in the Overseas Wars in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea, including the Fuzileiros Especiais (Special Marines) of the Portuguese Navy, the Flechas (Arrows) of the International and State Defense Police and the Grupos Especiais (Special Groups) of the Government of Mozambique.


During the Rhodesian Bush War of 1965–1980, the Rhodesian military increased its usage of commando type of operations in fighting against insurgents until the formation of Zimbabwe. In the Rhodesian Light Infantry a Commando was also the name given to its company sized units.


Russia has several units that can be listed under the commando distinction. The 45th Detached Reconnaissance Brigade is a special reconnaissance and special operations military unit within the Russian Airborne Troops, and based near Moscow. Other specialized Russian units include:

Russian Paratroopers from the 106th Guards Airborne Tula Division stand to attention during an exercise in Kazakhstan.
Russian Naval Infantrymen during the Zapad-2013 Strategic Exercise in Kaliningrad, 2013.
Russian FSB Spetsnaz are particularly active. Conducting 119 targeted operations in the North Caucasus in 2006 alone, during which they killed more than 100 members of terrorist groups.

South Africa

While the use of the word commando came to refer to various elite special operations forces units in other countries in the world, South Africa retained its original name as both a well regulated quick response militia as well as a special operations forces unit defined in the world-wide fashion. From the end of the 19th until the early 21st centuries, the Commando units in the form of its original structure were used in both urban and rural areas until the end of white rule in South Africa as part of a nationwide South African Commando System. Today, the old system has been completely purged by the democratic government which considered the old system as serving and protecting the interests of whites and white privilege. Many Commando veterans, however, argue that crime has risen dramatically as a result of this move. [citation needed]

When white rule was replaced with majority rule, the new democratic ANC led government demanded the disbandment of the commandos which they considered an obstacle to further democratic control as well as complaints of abuses. Thus, with the integration of white cities with black townships, the new ANC led urban governments immediately disbanded the urban militia commando units.

With the election of Thabo Mbeki, the process of de-arming white militias again commenced and it was announced in 2003, that the rural commandos would be disbanded. The last rural commandos were ordered disbanded by the central government over constitutional arguments.

The ANC government directed its attention toward the Reconnaissance Commandos which were the first mixed-race unit in the old SADF. During the period of rationalisation, reorganisation and integration, some Reconnaissance Regiments (Numbers 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) were disbanded and the members absorbed into the remaining 4 Special Forces Regiment (SFR) at Langebaan and 5 SFR at Phalaborwa[37] as part of the South African Special Forces Brigade.


According to 2008 formations there are 5 commando brigades in the Turkish Army. The most notable are the 1st Commando Brigade and the Hakkari Mountain and Commando Brigade. Turkish commandos typically wear blue berets.

The 1st Commando Brigade was involved in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and fought beside airborne commandos (Bolu) and the Naval Infantry Brigade (Izmir). In 1988, 7000 commandos received training from the United States.

The Hakkari Mountain and Commando Brigade was founded as a subunit of the 2nd Commando Brigade and is stationed in Hakkâri Province at south-easternmost Turkey. With the rise of the Kurdish insurgency, the existing formation has been enlarged from the size of a battalion to a brigade.


The Ukrainian Airmobile Forces or VDV (from "Vysokomobil'ni desantni viyska Ukrayiny", Ukrainian: Високомобільні десантні війська України, ВДВ; High-mobile Airborne Forces of Ukraine) is a highly mobile component of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. The airmobile forces consist of formations, units and elements of the Army and the Army aviation, trained for combined activities behind the enemy lines. The airmobile forces are in constant combat readiness and are the high mobility branch of forces. The 79th Airmobile Brigade recently won fame in 2014. The Brigade took part in suppressing the 2014 insurgency in Donbass during the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine.[38] The brigade fought in the Second Battle of Donetsk Airport, where it and other Ukrainian military units became known as the "Cyborgs" due to their stubborn defense of the Donetsk Airport. Other Ukrainian units that partake in commando operations:

Soldiers of the Ukrainian 79th Airmobile Brigade

United Kingdom

Main article: 3 Commando Brigade

3 Commando Brigade, Royal Marines is under the command of the Royal Navy's Commander-in-Chief Fleet. All Royal Marines (other than the Royal Marines Band Service) are commando trained on entry to the Corps, with supporting units and individuals from the other services undertaking the All Arms Commando Course as required.

The Brigade is made up of 30 (IX) Commando, 40 Commando (home base: Taunton), 42 Commando (Bickleigh, South Hams, Plymouth) and 45 Commando (Arbroath, Scotland), the Commando Logistic Regiment, 539 Assault Squadron Royal Marines, 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, 24 Commando Regiment Royal Engineers and 1 Rifles.[40] The Royal Marines are the largest force of its type in Europe and the second largest in NATO.

United States

Scouts from 1–501st Infantry Regiment (Airborne) conducting amphibious operations from FOB Iskandariyah in 2007.
Paratroopers from 1–501st Infantry Regiment (Airborne) conduct an air insertion as part of Operation Gecko north of Jurf as Sakhr, Iraq in 2007.

The United States continues to have no designated "commando" units; however, the closest equivalents remain the U.S. Army's 75th Ranger Regiment and United States Marine Corps Reconnaissance Battalions which specialize in many of the same tasks and missions.[41] The 101st Airborne Division, 82nd Airborne Division, and the 173rd Airborne Combat Brigade Team also conduct some if not most aspects of commando operations. Special Operations Forces like the Marine Corps MARSOC Raiders and the U.S. Navy SEALs also fit the commando mold. Likewise for the Air Force's Pararescue jumpers.

During the Vietnam War the U.S. Army's 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) instituted, "Special Operations Augmentation Recondo School," an acronym for Reconnaissance Commando. The school was at Nha Trang Air Base, north of the massive U.S. Navy and Air Force Base at Cam Ranh Bay. Recondo School trained small, heavily armed long-range reconnaissance teams the art of patrolling deep in enemy-held territory. All students were combat veterans and came from the ranks of the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps Force Recon Battalions, and the Army of the Republic of South Korea. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam had their own school. Currently the training mission of LRRPs type units is by the U.S. Army Ranger Training Brigade, Reconnaissance and Surveillance Leaders Course, Fort Benning, Georgia. The U.S. Navy SEALs are also well known by the general public especially for their capture of Osama Bin Laden. That particular operation was conducted by the secretive SEAL Team Six.

The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team has received 21 campaign streamers and several unit awards, including the Presidential Unit Citation for its actions during the Battle of Dak To during the Vietnam War.

Navy SEALs desert training exercise, 2004


Typical sapper formation with 4 echelons: Assault, Security, Reserve, and Fire-support

The North Vietnamese produced some of the most effective commando units of the post World War II era. Called đặc công, these units represented a force economy measure for the NVA (North Vietnamese Army) and the Viet Cong. With large scale conventional attacks increasingly untenable, small commando operations came into their own, particularly after the Tet Offensive, and at times inflicted severe damage to US and ARVN troops and bases.[42]

NVA commando or sapper at work

Sappers were originally supporting adjuncts to regular formations prior to 1967, but in time, independent formations were created throughout the Vietnam arena. Sappers could operate in support of a larger regular infantry formation, or as the main spearhead themselves, with regulars as backup. In the spearhead mode, they represented their most potent threat.[43] A typical raiding operation was divided into 4 elements: Assault, Fire-Support, Security and Reserves. Assault teams were generally broken down into three-five man cells. Fire-support was critical, as it forced defenders to keep their heads down, while infiltrating assault elements made their final penetrations. One of the most devastating attacks was against the US Firebase, FSB Mary Ann in 1971.[44] See chart for detailed breakdown of a typical sapper raiding party.

While small in terms of total men deployed throughout the Vietnam theater, sapper attacks had a significant impact for the NLF/PAVN effort. As one US Army history puts it:[45]

From the beginning of 1968 until mid-1969, sappers were essential to the North Vietnam war effort. Although they participated in only four percent of all assaults, these made up twelve percent of all significant assaults—those that inflicted serious damage. In 1969, the average raid inflicted more than $1,000,000 damage and accounted for more allied casualties.

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "The Word 'Commando'",Dobbie, Elliott V. K., American Speech,19 2 Apr. 1944,81-90,
  2. ^ Meyers, Bruce F (2004). Swift, Silent, and Deadly: Marine Amphibious Reconnaissance in the Pacific. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-484-1.
  3. ^ "KD Panglima Hitam lahirkan Paskal berwibawa" (in Malaysian). Utusan Malaysia. Retrieved 4 May 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (14th ed.), Vol. 6, p. 106
  5. ^ "Commado". Oxford English Dictionary (online ed.). ((cite book)): External link in |chapterurl= (help); Unknown parameter |chapterurl= ignored (|chapter-url= suggested) (help)
  6. ^ "On Commando", Dietlof Van Warmelo, Methuen, 1902
  7. ^ "Commandeer - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  8. ^
  9. ^ Commando Country, Stuart Allan, National Museums Scotland 2007, ISBN 978-1-905267-14-9
  10. ^ Raids in the Late War and their Lessons, R. Laycock, Journal of the Royal United Service Institution November 1947 pp 534-535
  11. ^ it:Xª Flottiglia MAS (RSI)
  12. ^ "World War II | Royal Naval Commandos in World War II". TheHistoryNet. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  13. ^ "Beach Organisation for the Invasion of Normandy, 1944". Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. The Royal Navy Beach Commandos controlled the arrival and departure of vessels that were landing their cargoes on the beaches. In each RN Beach Commando was a Principal Beachmaster (PBM), an Assistant Principal Beachmaster and two or three beach parties each consisting of a Beachmaster, two Assistant Beachmasters and about 20 seamen. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  14. ^ Neillands, Robin. The Raiders — the Army Commandos 1940-46. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79426-4.
  15. ^ Template:Wayback
  16. ^ a b Wikipedia
  17. ^ Colin R. Larsen. "Pacific Commandos: New Zealanders and Fijians in Action. A history of Southern Independent Commando and First Commando Fiji Guerrillas". NZETC.
  18. ^
  19. ^ Thomson, W.R., "Massacre at Dieppe," History of the Second World War, BPC Publishing, LTD, London, GB, 2nd ed., 1972.
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Constitution of Commando Force" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 18 December 2003. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  22. ^ "Eagles have landed". MiD DAY. 2009-11-09.
  23. ^ "Qods (Jerusalem) Force". Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Resource Program. August 21, 1998. Archived from the original on 18 February 1999.
  24. ^ "يگان ويژه "صابرين" چيست و چگونه مي توان عضو آن شد؟". Mashregh News. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  25. ^ "همکاري نوهد ارتش و صابرين سپاه". Mashregh News. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  26. ^ "همايش تفنگداران و تکاوران دريايي سپاه آغاز شد". Fars News Agency. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  27. ^ "Takavaran, Naval Commandos". Special Operations. Com. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  28. ^ "گزارشي از مرکز آموزش تکاوران کلاه سبز/نيروي دريايي ارتش چگونه کلاه سبز تربيت مي کند+عکس". Mashregh News. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  29. ^ "IDF to unite elite units in new commando brigade". ynet. Retrieved 2015-11-26.
  30. ^ "Sayeret Matkal – Israeli Special Operations". Retrieved 2008-07-27.
  31. ^ Cohen, Rich. "Stealth Warriors". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  32. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi; Jenkins, Gareth (2010-06-06). "Operation calamity". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-06-07.
  33. ^ Damien Kingsbury Power Politics and the Indonesian military, Routledge: 2003, ISBN 0-415-29729-X, 280 pages Google books reference: [1]
  34. ^ Sydney Morning Herald, November 15, 2002 [2]; Transcript from an Australian Broadcasting Corporation broadcast, 12/08/2003 [3] Template:Wayback
  35. ^ "The Age". The Age. 2003-04-22. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  36. ^ "Tim Richardson". Tim Richardson. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  37. ^ Special Forces League, SA. "1 RR/1 SFR History". Special Forces League. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  38. ^
  39. ^ "Сергій Машковський привітав військовослужбовців 199 навчального центру ВДВ ЗСУ" [199th Training Center Airmobile Forces welcomed by Sergey Mashkovsky]. (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2016-03-25.
  40. ^ "1 RIFLES - British Army Website". Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  41. ^ Plaster, John (Sep 7, 2010). SOG: The Secret War of America's Commandos in Vietnam. New York: NAL Trade.
  42. ^ United States Army Center of Military History, Vietnam Studies, "FIELD ARTILLERY, 1954-1973", by Major General David Ewing Ott, (DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY: WASHINGTON, D.C., 1975) p. 1-13
  43. ^ US Army, 'FIELD ARTILLERY" op. cit
  44. ^ Keith William Nolan, Sappers In the Wire: The Life and Death of Firebase Mary Ann, (Texas A&M University Press: 1995) pp. 23-119, 200-245
  45. ^ United States Army Center of Military History, Vietnam Studies, "FIELD ARTILLERY, 1954-1973", op. cit
  46. ^ Wear Commando
  47. ^ Commando Comics
  48. ^ Tiny Commando home page