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Virginia-class submarine

Underwater warfare is one of the three operational areas of naval warfare, the others being surface warfare and aerial warfare. It refers to combat conducted underwater such as:


Underwater warfare may also be referred to as undersea warfare[1] or subsurface warfare.[2]


In the 20th century underwater warfare was dominated by the submarine. In the 21st century unmanned underwater vehicles are coming to play a significant part in underwater warfare.[3]

Seabed warfare

Main article: Seabed warfare

Seabed warfare is defined as “operations to, from and across the ocean floor.”[4] In general the target of seabed warfare is infrastructure in place on the seabed such as power cables, telecom cables, or natural resource extraction systems.[5][6]

See also


  1. ^ Eckstein, Megan. "Navy Undersea Warfare Priorities: Strategic Deterrence, Lethality and Networked Systems". USNI. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  2. ^ VANDIVER, JOHN. "Ukraine plans Black Sea bases as US steps up presence in region". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  3. ^ MAKICHUK, DAVE. "Silent running: China embraces undersea warfare". Asia Times. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  4. ^ Carr, Christopher; Franco, Jahdiel; Mierzwa, Cheryl; Shattuck, Lewis B.; Suursoo, Melissa. "SEABED WARFARE AND THE XLUUV" (PDF). Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  5. ^ Glenney, Bill. "THE DEEP OCEAN: SEABED WARFARE AND THE DEFENSE OF UNDERSEA INFRASTRUCTURE, PT. 1". Center for International Maritime Security. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  6. ^ Johnson, Bridget. "Russia's 'Seabed Warfare' Could Hit Vast Networks of Underwater Communications Cables". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 4 March 2021.