Kashtan CIWS

A close-in weapon system (CIWS /ˈswɪz/ SEE-wiz)[1] is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted on a naval ship. Nearly all classes of larger modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device.

There are two types of CIWS systems. A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and rapid-firing multiple-barrel rotary cannons placed on a rotating turret. Missile-based CIWSs use either infra-red, passive radar/ESM, or semi-active radar terminal guidance to guide missiles to the targeted enemy aircraft or other threats. In some cases, CIWS are used on land to protect military bases. In this case, the CIWS can also protect the base from shell and rocket fire.

Gun systems

Phalanx CIWS and Aselsan STOP aboard the TCG ship Anadolu

A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers and rotary or revolver cannon placed on a rotating, automatically aimed gun mount. Examples of gun-based CIWS products in operation are:

Limitations of gun systems

Short range: the maximum effective range of gun systems is about 5,000 metres (16,000 ft); systems with lighter projectiles have even shorter range. The expected real-world kill-distance of an incoming anti-ship missile is about 500 m (1,600 ft) or less,[4] still close enough to cause damage to the ship's sensor or communication arrays, or to wound or kill exposed personnel. Thus some CIWS like Russian Kashtan and Pantsir systems are augmented by installing the close range surface-to-air missiles on the same mounting for increased tactical flexibility.

Limited kill probability: even if the missile is hit and damaged, this may not be enough to destroy it entirely or to alter its course. Even in the case of a direct hit, the missile or fragments from it may still impact the intended target, particularly if the final interception distance is short. This is especially true if the gun fires kinetic-energy-only projectiles.[5]

Comparison table

Comparison
DARDO[6] Goalkeeper Kashtan[7] Millennium[citation needed] Phalanx[8] Type 730[9] Gökdeniz[10][11]
Origin Italy Netherlands Russia Switzerland United States China Turkey
Image
Weight 5,500 kg (12,100 lb) 9,902 kg (21,830 lb) 15,500 kg (34,200 lb) 3,300 kg (7,300 lb) 6,200 kg (13,700 lb) 9,800 kg (21,600 lb) ?
Armament 40 mm (1.6 in) 2 barreled Bofors 40 mm 30 mm (1.2 in) 7 barreled GAU-8 Gatling Gun 30 mm (1.2 in) 6 barreled GSh-6-30 rotary auto cannon

8 × 9M311K + 32 missiles

35 mm (1.4 in) 1 barreled Oerlikon Millennium 35 mm Naval Revolver Gun System 20 mm (0.79 in) 6 barreled M61 Vulcan Gatling Gun 30 mm (1.2 in) 7 barreled Gatling Gun 35 mm (1.4 in) 2 barreled Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon
Rate of fire 600/900 rounds per minute 4,200 rounds per minute 10,000 rounds/min (5,000 per gun)

1–2 (salvo) missiles per 3–4 sec

200/1000 rounds per minute 4,500 rounds per minute 5,800 rounds per minute 1,100 rounds per minute
(effective/ flat-trajectory) Range 4,000 m (13,000 ft) 3,600 m (11,800 ft) Missiles: 1,500–10,000 m (4,900–32,800 ft)
Guns: 300–5,000 m (980–16,400 ft)
3,500 m (11,500 ft) 2,000 m (6,600 ft) 3,000 m (9,800 ft) ATOM 35mm:[12] 4,000 metres (13,000 ft)

HEI-T: 1,175 m/s (3,850 ft/s)

Ammunition storage 736 rounds 1,190 rounds 2 x 2,000 rounds 252 rounds 1,550 rounds 640 or 2 x 500 rounds (depending on model) ?
Muzzle velocity 1,000 m (3,300 ft) per second 1,109 m (3,638 ft) per second 960–1100 m/s (3,150-3,610 ft/s) 1,050 m (3,440 ft) per second / 1,175 m (3,855 ft) per second 1,100 m (3,600 ft) per second 1,100 m (3,600 ft) per second 1,020 m/s (3,300 ft/s)
Elevation −13 to +85 degrees −25 to +85 degrees ? −15 to +85 degrees −25 to +85 degrees −25 to +85 degrees ?
Speed in elevation 60 degrees per second 100 degrees per second 50 degrees per second 70 degrees per second 115 degrees per second 100 degrees per second ?
Traverse 360 ° 360 ° 360 ° 360 ° 360 ° 360 ° 360 °
Speed in traverse 90 degrees per second 100 degrees per second 70 degrees per second 120 degrees per second 115 degrees per second 100 degrees per second ?
In service ? 1980 1989 2003 1980 2007 2019

Missile systems

A missile-based CIWS comprises a combination of radars and computers connected to either a rotating, automatically aimed launcher mount or vertical launching system. Examples of missile-based CIWS in operational service are:

Land-based

CIWS are also used on land in the form of Pantsir and C-RAM.[13] On a smaller scale, active protection systems are used in some tanks (to destroy rocket propelled grenades (RPGs), and several are in development. The Drozd system was deployed on Soviet Naval Infantry tanks in the early 1980s, but later replaced by explosive reactive armour. Other systems that are available or under development are the Russian Arena, Israeli Trophy, American Quick Kill and South African-Swedish LEDS-150.

Laser systems

Laser-based CIWS systems are being researched. In August 2014 an operational prototype was deployed to the Persian Gulf aboard USS Ponce.[14] The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu, TÜBİTAK) is the second organisation after the US to have developed and tested a High Power Laser CIWS prototype System which is intended to be used on the TF-2000 class frigate and on Turkish airborne systems.[15][16][17]

References

  1. ^ Friedman, Norman (1991). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1991/92. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0870212885. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  2. ^ "Archived copy - Rm-general-news-2008". Archived from the original on 2008-09-23. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
  3. ^ "Millennium, 35 mm Naval Gun System (GDM-008)". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  4. ^ Wachsberger, Christian; Lucas, Michael; Krstic, Alexander (June 2004), Limitations of Guns as a Defence against Manoeuvring Air Weapons (PDF), DSTO Systems Sciences Laboratory, p. 36, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-23, retrieved 2012-07-04
  5. ^ Discovery Channel Discovery Channel Science Top 10 Weapon: Fire Power
  6. ^ Tony DiGiulian. "Italy 40 mm/70 (1.57") Breda". Navweaps.com. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2013-05-18.
  7. ^ "Kashtan Kashtan-M Kashtan Кортик экспортное наименование "Каштан" CADS-N-1 Palma Palash Пальма close in weapon system CIWS Russian Navy Technology datasheet pictures photos video specifications". www.navyrecognition.com. Retrieved 2020-07-10.
  8. ^ Dan Petty. "The US Navy - Fact File". Navy.mil. Archived from the original on 2014-11-04. Retrieved 2013-05-18.
  9. ^ 偶军航母上的蜂窝制造者是国产11管近防炮,射速可达每分钟1万发......偶早在2009年就知道鸟 - 飞扬军事 - 信息资讯 - 军事主题 - 骑鲸蹈海. 兄弟 (in Chinese). May 18, 2011. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  10. ^ "GOKDENIZ CIWS" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Presidency of Defence Industries". Archived from the original on 2019-11-22. Retrieved 2022-07-08.
  12. ^ "ATOM 35mm Airbusrt Ammunition".
  13. ^ "Home - a Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business (SDVOSB)". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
  14. ^ U.S. Navy Deploys Its First Laser Weapon in the Persian Gulf Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine - Bloomberg.com, 14 November 2014
  15. ^ Insinna, Valerie (2015-02-14). "turkey-laser-weapon-indigenous-tubitak-test". Defensenews.com. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  16. ^ "Turkey creates laser weapon". Times.am. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  17. ^ "Turkey aims to second US in using laser as military weapon | General | Worldbulletin News". Worldbulletin.net. 2015-01-19. Archived from the original on 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2016-12-03.