Assault rifles are full-length, select fire rifles that are chambered for an intermediate-power rifle cartridge that use a detachable magazine. Assault rifles are currently the standard service rifles in most modern militaries. Some rifles listed below, such as the AR-15, also come in semi-auto models that would not belong under the term "assault rifle."


By strict definition, a firearm must have the following characteristics to be considered an assault rifle:[1][page needed][2][page needed][3][page needed]

Rifles that meet most of these criteria, but not all, are technically not assault rifles, despite frequently being called such.

For example:

Several of the rifles on the below list have non-assault rifle variants. Because they lack the selective fire capability as they only fire semi-automatic even though it fulfills the other requirements of the definition above.


Name Manufacturer Image Cartridge Manufacturing country Serial production Production
AAC Honey Badger Advanced Armament Corporation .300 AAC Blackout  United States 2011
AAI ACR AAI Corporation 5.56×45mm sub-calibre flechette  United States no 1989
AC-556 Sturm, Ruger & Co. .223 Remington  United States yes 1999-2009
ACAR[6] Lithgow Arms
Wedgetail Industries
Thales Australia[7]
5.56×45mm NATO/.300 Blackout  Australia 2023
ArmaLite AR-15
Colt AR-15
Armalite, Colt 5.56×45mm NATO, 223 Remington  United States yes 1959-1964 (Armalite)
1964–present (Colt)
ArmaLite AR-18 ArmaLite 5.56×45mm NATO  United States yes 1969-1985
ACR Remington Arms
5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 United States yes 2006
ADS KBP Instrument Design Bureau 5.45×39mm
5.45×39mm PSP
 Russia 2007
AEK-971 Degtyarev plant 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union 1990–present (designed 1978)
AG-043 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union no 1974
AO-63 assault rifle TsNIITochMash 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union no 1984
Automatkarbin 5 Förenade Fabriksverken 5.56×45mm NATO  Sweden yes 1986–present
AK-9 Kalashnikov Concern 9×39mm  Russia c. 2007-?
AK201, AK202, AK204
Kalashnikov Concern

5.45×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm  Russia yes 2010
AK-47 Kalashnikov Concern 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union yes 1948–present
AK-63 Fegyver- és Gépgyár 7.62×39mm  Hungary yes 1977
AK-74 Kalashnikov Concern 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union yes
  • 1974-1991 (AK-74)
  • 1991–present (AK-74M)
AK-100 rifle family
Kalashnikov Concern 5.45×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm  Russia yes c. 1994–present
AK-107 Kalashnikov Concern 5.45×39mm

5.56×45mm NATO

 Russia yes 1990s
AKM Izhmash
Tula Arms Plant
7.62×39mm  Soviet Union yes 1959-1977 (USSR)
AMD-65 Fegyver- és Gépgyár 7.62×39mm  Hungary yes 1965-1985
AMP-69 Fegyver- és Gépgyár 7.62×39mm  Hungary 1970–1985
AN-94 Izhmash 5.45×39mm  Russia yes 1994-2006
AM-17 Kalashnikov Concern 5.45x39mm  Russia 2015
AMB-17 Kalashnikov Concern 9x39mm  Russia 2015
AO-27 rifle 7.62 mm (3 mm flechette)  Soviet Union No 1961
AO-35 assault rifle 5.45×39mm
 Soviet Union no 1968?
AO-38 assault rifle TsNIITochMash 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union no 1965
AS-44 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union no 1944
AT-44 Fedor Tokarev 7.62×41mm  Soviet Union no 1944
APS-95 Končar-Arma d.o.o 5.56×45mm NATO  Croatia 1995
APS underwater rifle Tula Arms Plant
5.66×39mm  Soviet Union yes 1975–present
AS Val TsNIITochMash 9×39mm  Soviet Union yes 1987–present
ASM-DT amphibious rifle Tula Arms Plant 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union no 1990s
Barrett REC7
Barrett M468
Barrett Firearms Manufacturing 5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 United States 2007
Beretta AR70/223 Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta 5.56×45mm NATO  Italy Yes 1972-1990
Beretta AR70/90 Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta 5.56×45mm NATO  Italy Yes 1990-?
Beretta ARX160 Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta 5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 Italy Yes 2008–present
BSA 28P Birmingham Small Arms Company .280 British  United Kingdom 1949
BSA Machine Carbine [8][9] Birmingham Small Arms Company .30 Carbine  United Kingdom no 1945
BR18 ST Kinetics 5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 Singapore 2018–present
Burton LMR 1917[10] .345 Winchester Self-Loading  United States no 1917
Bushmaster M4 Type Carbine Bushmaster Firearms International .223 Remington
5.56x45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 United States 1990s
Chropi rifle Chropei 7.62×39mm  Greece no 1975
CEAM Modèle 1950 Atelier Mécanique de Mulhouse .30 Carbine
7.92×33mm Kurz
 France no 1949-1950 (prototypes only)
CETME Model A Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara 7.92x41mm CETME  Spain no c.1954-?
CETME Model B CETME  Spain yes 1961-?
CETME Model L CETME 5.56×45mm NATO  Spain yes 1986-1991
Close Quarters Battle Receiver Colt's Manufacturing Company 5.56×45mm NATO  United States yes 1999
Colt ACR Colt's Manufacturing Company 5.56×45mm M855 or Duplex  United States no 1982
Cristóbal Carbine Armería San Cristóbal Weapon Factory .30 Carbine  Dominican Republic yes 1950
Diemaco C7
Diemaco C8
Colt Canada, Diemaco 5.56×45mm NATO  Canada 1982–present
Colt CM901 Colt Defense 5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 United States c.2012–present
Colt MARS Colt 5.56×30mm Mars  United States 1997
CZ 805 BREN/ CZ 805 BREN 2 Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod 5.56×45mm NATO, 7,62×39mm  Czech Republic
  • 2009–present (BREN)
  • 2015–present (BREN 2)
ČZ 2000 Česká zbrojovka Uherský Brod 5.56×45mm NATO  Czechoslovakia 1990 (prototypes only)
Daewoo K1 S&T Motiv 5.56×45mm NATO  South Korea 1980–present
Daewoo K2 S&T Motiv 5.56×45mm NATO  South Korea 1982–present
Dasan Machineries K16 Dasan Machineries 5.56×45mm NATO  South Korea c.2024[citation needed]
Desert Tech MDR Desert Tech .223 Remington
5.56×45mm NATO
.223 Wylde
.308 Winchester
7.62×51mm NATO
 United States 2014
Dlugov assault rifle 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union 1953
EF88 Thales Australia 5.56×45mm NATO  Australia 2016
EM-2 rifle Royal Small Arms Factory
7 mm Mk1Z (7×43mm)  United Kingdom 1948-1951 (pre-production prototypes only)
Excalibur rifle Armament Research and Development Establishment 5.56×45mm NATO  India 2013–14
EMER K1 Myanmar Fritz Werner Industries 5.56×45mm NATO  Burma 1990s
Fateh Defense Industries Organization 5.56×45mm NATO  Iran 2014
FAMAS Nexter 5.56×45mm NATO  France yes
  • F1: 1975-2000
  • G2: 1994-2000
FARA 83 Fabrica Militar de Armas Portatiles Domingo Matheu 5.56×45mm NATO  Argentina 1984-1990
FAMAE SG 540-1 FAMAE 5.56×45mm NATO  Chile yes 1991–present
FB Beryl Łucznik Arms Factory 5.56×45mm NATO  Poland yes 1997–present
FB MSBS FB "Łucznik" Radom 5.56×45mm NATO


 Poland yes 2018–present (prototypes 2007–2017)
FB Tantal Łucznik Arms Factory 5.45×39mm  Poland yes 1989-1994
CAL Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal 5.56×45mm NATO  Belgium 1966-1975
F2000 Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal 5.56×45mm NATO  Belgium yes 2001–present
FNC Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal 5.56×45mm NATO  Belgium yes 1979-2004
SCAR FN Herstal 5.56×45mm NATO  Belgium 2004–present
FX-05 Xiuhcoatl Dirección General de Industria Militar del Ejército 5.56×45mm NATO  Mexico yes 2005–present
Galil Córdova Indumil 5.56×45mm NATO
 Colombia yes 2015
Garand carbine John Garand .30 carbine  United States no 1941
Grad AR State Factories-North Ossetia 6×49mm
 South Ossetia 2010
Grossfuss Sturmgewehr 7.92×33mm Kurz  Germany no 1944
G11 Heckler & Koch 4.73×33mm  West Germany
  • K1: 1987-1989 (prototypes only)
  • K2: 1990 (pre-production prototypes only)
G36 Heckler & Koch 5.56×45mm NATO  Germany 1996–present
G41 Heckler & Koch 5.56×45mm NATO  West Germany 1984-1996
H&R Reising light rifle Eugene Reising .30 Carbine  United States no 1941
HK33 Heckler & Koch 5.56×45mm NATO  West Germany yes
  • 1968-2000 (H&K)
  • 1999–present (MKEK)
HK36 Heckler & Koch 4.6×36 mm  West Germany no Early 1970s (prototypes only)
M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle
Heckler & Koch 5.56×45mm NATO  Germany yes 2004–present
HK433 Heckler & Koch
HK-433 Blackout
HK-433 Blackout
5.56×45mm NATO  Germany yes 2017-?
Type 20 Howa 5.56×45mm NATO  Japan 2020–present
Type 89 Howa 5.56×45mm NATO  Japan 1989–present
VHS HS Produkt 5.56×45mm NATO  Croatia yes
  • VHS: 2005-?
  • VHS-2: 2013–present
MD97 IMBEL 5.56×45mm NATO  Brazil 1997-?
IA2 IMBEL 5.56×45mm NATO  Brazil 2012–present
T4 Taurus 5.56×45mm NATO  Brazil 2017
Thompson Light Rifle Auto Ordnance .30 Carbine  United States no 1941
Thompson .351 WSL Variant Auto Ordnance .351 Winchester Self-Loading  United States no 1926
Galil Israel Military Industries 5.56×45mm NATO  Israel yes 1972-1998
Tavor TAR21 Israel Weapon Industries 5.56×45mm NATO  Israel yes c.2001/2002–present
Tipo Terni Mod. 1921[11][12] 7.35×32mm  Italy no 1921
IWI ARAD Israel Weapon Industries 5.56×45mm NATO  Israel 2019–present
IWI Tavor X95 Israel Weapon Industries 5.56×45mm NATO
.300 AAC Blackout
5.56×30mm MINSAS
 Israel yes c.2009–present
IFAR 22 PT Republik Armamen Industri 5.56×45mm NATO  Indonesia 2022
Ingram FBM Fabrica Boliviana de Municiones 5.56×45mm NATO  Bolivia 1990s
INSAS rifle[13] Ordnance Factories Board 5.56×45mm NATO  India yes 1994–present
Interdynamics MKS Interdynamics 5.56×45mm NATO  Sweden 1979
IWI ACE Israel Weapons Industries 5.56×45mm NATO
 Israel 2008–present
KH-2002 Khaybar DIO 5.56×45mm NATO  Iran 2003
Kbkg wz. 1960 7.62×39mm  Poland 1960
Komodo Armament D5 Komodo Armament[14] 5.56×45mm NATO  Indonesia 2014(?)
L64/65 RSAF Enfield 4.85×49mm  United Kingdom No 1972-1974, 1976-1978 (prototypes only)
SA80 BAE Systems 5.56×45mm NATO  United Kingdom Yes 1985-1994
Leader Dynamics Series T2 MK5 Leader Dynamics
Australian Automatic Arms
5.56×45mm NATO  Australia Late 1970s/early 1980s-1996
LF-58 .30 Carbine  Italy 1950s
LR-300 Z-M Weapons 5.56×45mm NATO  United States 2000
LSAT rifle LSAT caseless ammunition  United States 2008
LWRC M6 LWRC International 5.56×45mm NATO  United States 2006–present
LVOA-C War Sport Industries 5.56×45mm NATO  United States 2018
LMT MARS-L Lewis Machine & Tool Company

5.56×45mm NATO  United States 2015–present
M16 Colt Defense 5.56×45mm NATO  United States Yes 1963–present?
- Base model/Colt 604 (1963-1967)
- A1 (1967-?)
- A2 (circa 1983-?)
- A3 (circa 1996-present?)
- A4 (circa 1997–present?)
M2 Carbine .30 Carbine  United States Yes 1944
MPT-55 MKEK, Sarsılmaz Arms and Kalekalıp 7.62×39mm

5.56×45mm NATO

 Turkey 2017
Masaf rifle 5.56×45mm NATO  Iran 2020
M4-WAC-47 Ukroboronprom
5.56×45mm NATO
 Ukraine 2018
MK 556 C.G. Haenel 5.56×45mm NATO  Germany 2020
Maschinenkarabiner 42(H) Hugo Schmeisser 7.92×33mm Kurz  Germany no 1942
Maschinenkarabiner 42(W) Walther 7.92×33mm Kurz  Germany no 1942
Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli 5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
 India 2012
Nesterov assault rifle 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union 1961
Norinco CQ Norinco 5.56×45mm NATO  China Yes 1980s-present
OTs-12 Tiss KBP Instrument Design Bureau 9×39mm  Russia 1993-?
OTs-14 Groza TsKIB SOO 9×39mm
 Russia 1992-1999
Pindad SS1 Pindad 5.56×45mm NATO  Indonesia 1991–present
Pindad SS2 Pindad 5.56×45mm NATO  Indonesia 2005–present
Pindad AM1 Pindad 5.56×45mm NATO  Indonesia 2023–present
Pistol Mitralieră model 1963/1965 ROMARM 7.62×39mm  Romania 1963–1994
Pistolengewehr[15][16][17] Waffenfabrik Bern, Adolf Fürrer 7.65x35mm   Switzerland no 1920–1921
Pușcă Automată model 1986 ROMARM 5.45×39mm  Romania 1986–present
PVAR rifle United Defense Manufacturing Corporation 5.56×45mm NATO  Philippines 2011
QBZ-95 Norinco 5.8×42mm5.56×45mm NATO  China 1995–present
QBZ-03 Norinco 5.8×42mm
5.56×45mm NATO
 China 2003–present
QTS-11 Norinco 5.8×42mm  China 2011–present
QBZ-191 Norinco 5.8×42mm  China c.2019-?
Remington R4 Remington Arms 5.56×45mm NATO  United States 2010
Remington R5 RGP Remington Arms 5.56×45mm NATO  United States 2010
Rk 62 Valmet
7.62×39mm  Finland 1965-1994
Rk 95 TP SAKO 7.62×39mm  Finland 1995-1998
Ribeyrolles 1918 automatic carbine 8×35mm Ribeyrolles  France no 1918
Robinson Armament XCR Robinson Armament Co 5.56×45mm NATO
6.8mm Remington SPC
6.5mm Grendel
.260 Remington
 United States 2004
RS556 [18] Rheinmetall
Steyr Arms
5.56×45mm NATO  Germany
SEAL Recon Rifle NAVSEA 5.56×45mm NATO  United States Yes 1993
S&T Daewoo K11 S&T Motiv 5.56×45mm NATO  South Korea 2010–present[19]
S&T STG16 S&T Motiv 5.56×45mm  South Korea 2016
Sa vz. 58 Česká zbrojovka 7.62×39mm  Czechoslovakia Yes 1959-1984
SAR 80 Chartered Industries of Singapore (now known as ST Kinetics) 5.56×45mm NATO  Singapore c.1984-?
SAR-21 ST Kinetics 5.56×45mm NATO  Singapore yes
  • CIS: 1999–2000
  • ST Kinetics: 2000–present
Scicon IW SD Scicon Ltd[20] 4.7mm caseless  United Kingdom c.1984
SIG Sauer 5.56×45mm NATO
.300 AAC Blackout (MCX),

.277 Fury (XM5 NGSW)

  Switzerland Yes
  • 2015–present (MCX)
  • 2019–Present (XM7)
SIG Sauer SIG516 Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft 5.56×45mm NATO
.223 Remington
 United States Yes c. 2010–present
SIG SG 530 Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft 5.56×45mm NATO   Switzerland 1960s
SG540/SG543 Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft 5.56×45mm NATO   Switzerland 1977-2002
Swiss Arms AG 5.56×45mm NATO/5.6mm GP Pat 90   Switzerland 1986–present
SOCIMI AR-831 Socimi
5.56×45mm NATO  Italy 1985
Special Operations Assault Rifle Ferfrans Specialties 5.56×45mm NATO  Philippines 2004
SR-3 Vikhr Tula Arms Plant 9×39mm  Soviet Union 1995-?
SR 88 Chartered Industries of Singapore (now known as ST Kinetics) 5.56×45mm NATO  Singapore 1982-2000
Sterling SAR-87 Sterling Armaments Company 5.56×45mm NATO  United Kingdom 1980s
Steyr AUG Steyr Mannlicher 5.56×45mm NATO  Austria 1977–present
- Base (1977-1983)
- A1 (1983-1997)
- A2 (Dec 1997-2005)
- A3 (2005-present)
Steyr ACR Steyr Mannlicher 5.56×45mm annular-primed SCF  Austria 1987 (prototypes only)
STV series rifle Z111 Factory 7.62×39mm  Vietnam 2019
STL-1A Z111 Factory 7.62×39mm  Vietnam 2015
Stoner 63 Cadillac Gage 5.56×45mm NATO  United States 1963-1971
Sturmgewehr 44 C.G. Haenel 7.92×33mm Kurz  Germany 1943-1945
StG 45(M) Mauser 7.92×33mm Kurz  Germany 1945 only
T29 .30 Carbine  United States 1944
T65 assault rifle 205th Armory 5.56×45mm NATO  Republic of China 1976-?
T86 assault rifle 205th Armory 5.56×45mm NATO  Republic of China 2000-2002
T91 assault rifle 205th Armory 5.56×45mm NATO  Republic of China 2003–present
Thompson Model 1923 Auto-Ordnance Corporation .45 Remington–Thompson  United States 1923
TKB-010 5.45×39mm


 Soviet Union
TKB-011 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union no
TKB-022PM 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union no 1950s
TKB-059 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union no 1966
TKB-072 Tula Arms Plant 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union 1975
TKB-0146 5.45×39mm  Soviet Union
TKB-408 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union no 1946
TKB-517 Tula Arms Plant 7.62×39mm  Soviet Union 1952
Type 56 assault rifle Norinco 7.62×39mm  China 1956–present
Type 63 assault rifle 7.62×39mm  China 1963-?
Type 81 assault rifle 7.62×39mm  China 1983-?
Type 58 assault rifle 7.62×39mm  North Korea 1958-1968
Type 88 assault rifle 5.45×39mm  North Korea 1988-1998
Type 98 assault rifle 5.45×39mm  North Korea 1998–present
Norinco Type 86S Norinco 7.62×39mm  China 1980s
VAHAN 5.45×39mm  Armenian SSR 1952
Valmet M76 Valmet 5.56×45mm NATO
 Finland 1970s
Valmet M82 Valmet 5.56×45mm NATO
 Finland 1978-1986
VB Berapi LP06 Vita Berapi 5.56×45mm NATO  Malaysia 2006
Vektor CR-21 Denel 5.56×45mm NATO  South Africa 1997-?
Vektor R4 Denel Land Systems 5.56×45mm NATO  South Africa c.1980-?
Vepr National Space Agency 5.45×39mm  Ukraine c.2003
Vollmer M35 Heinrich Vollmer 7.75×40.5 mm
 Germany 1934
Woodhull light rifle Woodhull Corporation Millington, NJ. .30 Carbine  United States 1941
Malyuk Krasyliv Assembly Manufacturing Plant 5.45×39mm

5.56×45mm NATO 7.62×39mm

 Ukraine 2015
M1944 Hyde Carbine .30 Carbine  United States 1944
Wieger StG-940 5.56×45mm NATO
 East Germany 1980s
Wimmersperg Spz 7.92×33mm Kurz  Germany 1944
Weibel M/1932 Dansk Industri Syndikat 7×44mm  Denmark 1932
XM8 rifle Heckler & Koch 5.56×45mm NATO  Germany
 United States
2003–present[citation needed]
XT-112 Assault Rifle 205th Armory 5.56×45mm NATO  Republic of China 2024
XT-97 Assault Rifle 205th Armory 5.56×45mm NATO
 Republic of China 2008
XM29 OICW Heckler & Koch
Alliant Techsystems
5.56×45mm NATO  Germany
 United States
1996-2004 (prototypes only)
Zastava M21 Zastava Arms 5.56×45mm NATO  Serbia 2004–present
Zastava M70 Zastava Arms 7.62×39mm  Yugoslavia 1970–present
Zastava M80 Zastava Arms 5.56×45mm NATO  Yugoslavia 1984-?
Zastava M90 Zastava Arms 5.56×45mm NATO  Serbia 1990[citation needed]
ZK 412 Zbrojovka Brno 8x35mm Rapid  Czechoslovakia 1941-1943

See also


  1. ^ Taylor, C. (1983). The Fighting Rifle: A Complete Study of the Rifle in Combat. Desert Publications. ISBN 0-87947-308-8.
  2. ^ Moyer, F.A. (1970). Special Forces Foreign Weapons Handbook. Paladin Press. ISBN 0-87364-009-8.
  3. ^ Scroggie, R.J.; Moyer, Frank A. (December 1988). Special Forces Combat Firing Techniques. Paladin Press. ISBN 0-87364-010-1.
  4. ^ Assault rifle at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. ^ Jane's Gun Recognition Guide. Ian Hogg & Terry Gander. HarperCollins Publishers. 2005. page 330
  6. ^ "The Australian Combat Assault Rifle - Lithgow Arms". 2024-02-11. Archived from the original on 2024-02-11. Retrieved 2024-02-11.
  7. ^ "Thales Australia delivers Australian Combat Assault Rifle ACAR to Ukraine". 2023-08-10. Archived from the original on 2024-02-11.
  8. ^ "BSA Machine Carbine". 2023-12-01. Archived from the original on 2023-12-01. Retrieved 2024-02-15.
  9. ^ "BSA Machine Carbine [1st model] (IWM) | Imperial War Museums". 2024-02-15. Archived from the original on 2024-02-15. Retrieved 2024-02-15.
  10. ^ America's First Assault Rifle: Burton 1917 LMR, 4 July 2016, retrieved 2024-02-14
  11. ^ "ASSAULT RIFLES AND THEIR AMMUNITION". 2014-06-02. Archived from the original on 2014-06-02. Retrieved 2024-02-21.
  12. ^ "Italian intermediate power cartridge, 1921? - #17 by jonnyc - General Ammunition Discussion - International Ammunition Association Web Forum". 2024-02-21. Archived from the original on 2024-02-21. Retrieved 2024-02-21. Moschetto automatico tipo Terno Mod. 1921 calibro 7.65mm. Nell immediato dopoguerra i esercito era orientato a sosti-tuire i fueili ed i moschetti 91 con una nuora arma indivuale in grado di sparare a raffica
  13. ^ "Oman army all set to use India's INSAS rifles - Hindustan Times". Archived from the original on 2010-07-15. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
  14. ^ "Home". Komodo Armament Indonesia. Retrieved 2022-01-23.
  15. ^ "Adolf Furrer's 1921 assault rifle... - Swiss Rifles dot com". 2020-11-09. Archived from the original on 2020-11-09. Retrieved 2024-02-22.
  16. ^ "Cartridge of the Month". 2019-08-07. Archived from the original on 2019-08-07. Retrieved 2024-02-22.
  17. ^ "7.65x35 Furrer / MUNICION.ORG". 2020-02-20. Archived from the original on 2020-02-20. Retrieved 2024-02-22.
  18. ^ "Rheinmetall and Steyr Mannlicher". Archived from the original on 2023-12-03.
  19. ^ "숨은 적 공격하는 K11 소총, 국내 본격 공급". Yonhap. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  20. ^ Firefight!: The History of Personal Firepower - Peter Newark, Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1989, Infantryman of the future Page 182, ISBN 0715391763